[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the prevalent components of metabolic syndrome (MSC) and their related determinants of lipid metabolism in the Nigerian for early diagnosis, prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated diseases.
Study Design: Cohort study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan between March and August 2010.
Methodology: 534 apparently healthy Nigerian traders aged 18–105 years were participants of a cohort study. The IDF (2005) criteria was used for MS diagnosis. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure (BP) were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) was calculated. Data analysed were statistically significant at P<0.05.
Results: 60.1% of traders had 2 and 3MSC. 0.6%, 1.1% and 9.6% of traders had all 5MSC, ≥3MSC without elevated waist circumference (WC) and zero MSC respectively. Elevated WC, reduced HDLC and high BP were more frequent MSC representing 70.2%, 63.1% and 47.9% while FPG and TG were less frequent representing 11.2% and 2.2% of traders respectively. This pattern was similar in MS and non-MS groups. 25.3% of males and only 2.2% of females had no MSC. Reduced HDLC and elevated WC were the most frequent MSC in males and females respectively. All metabolic risk factors (MRF) except TC were significantly different in comparison between MS and non-MS groups as well as among traders with 0-5 MSC. WHR was the only parameter that correlated significantly with all MRF.
Conclusion: Elevated waist circumference, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure may be prevalent metabolic syndrome components and important in managing metabolic syndrome in Nigeria. Regional specific cut-offs for these components for the African population is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) amplifies hypertension (HTN) associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MS components and other CVD risk measures were investigated in different stages of hypertension. 534 apparently healthy Nigerian traders aged 18-105 years were participants of a cohort study. The International Diabetes Federation (2005) and the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee criteria were used for MS and HTN classifications, respectively. Anthropometric indices were obtained by standard methods. Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were determined by enzymatic methods, while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) was calculated. Data analysed statistically were significant at P < 0.05. 143 (26.8%), 197 (36.9%), and 194 (36.3%) of the traders had normotension, pre-HTN and HTN (stages 1 and 2), respectively. All indices tested except HDLC were significantly different among BP groups (P < 0.05). Waist to hip (WHR) and waist to height (WHT) ratios were significantly different between HTN groups (P < 0.05). HTN was associated with MS and female gender (P < 0.05). Metabolic alterations and significant HTN were observed. Treatment of the individual components of the syndrome and improvement of modifiable metabolic factors may be necessary to reduce MS and high BP.
International Journal of Hypertension 11/2013; 2013:351357. DOI:10.1155/2013/351357
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular
diseases (CVD) and it is thought to be prevalent in Nigeria. This study aims at determining the prevalence of MS and its component risk
factors among apparently healthy traders in a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: 534 apparently healthy traders from a local
market in Bodija, Ibadan, Nigeria aged (18–105) years with neither DM2 nor CVD were participants of a cohort study on risk
assessment of type 2 diabetes and dementia in Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. The International Diabetes Federation (2005) and
the World Health Organisation (1998) criteria were used for MS and BMI respectively. Anthropometric indices (weight, height, body
mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (PBF), waist and hip circumferences (WC & HC) and their ratio (WHR), waist circumference to
height ratio (WHT)) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained by standard methods. Blood samples (6 ml) were obtained for the
determination of glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by enzymatic
methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and ANOVA were
among the analyses conducted. Results: 301 (56.4%) of traders studied were overweight (176, 33.0%) or obese (125, 23.4%) while 17
(3.4%) and 125 (40.4%) were underweight and normal weight respectively. The prevalence of MS and obesity were 87 (16.3%) and
125 (23.4%) respectively. There was significant association between obesity and MS (p < 0.05). Both MS and obesity were
significantly associated with gender (p < 0.05). The prevalence of MS and obesity was higher in female (20.9%; 31.0%) than male
traders (6.5%; 7.1%) respectively. The prevalence of MS increased from normal weight (8.3%) to overweight (18.8%) to obesity
(28.8%). There were significantly higher differences in age, BP(systolic and diastolic), weight, BMI, WC, HC, WHT, WHR, and PBF
but lower difference in height when overweight/obese groups were compared with normal weight group (p < 0.05). TC and LDL-C
were significantly higher in only obese than normal weight traders. However, FPG, TG and HDL-C were similar in all groups (p >
0.05). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of MS and obesity among Nigerian traders. Female gender, hypercholesterolemia,
hypertension, increasing age, general and abdominal obesity appear to be important metabolic risk factors of CVD and not DM2 among
Nigerian traders. Health care strategies for effective modulation of diet and lifestyle are needed urgently. In addition, screening
programs for indices of MS in all Nigerians irrespective of BMI could be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gar l ic has been repor ted in some populat ions to posses s hypol ipdemic ef fect in par t icular on low densi ty l ipoprotein choles terol , thus prevent ing cardiovascular disease r isk. Sixteen male albino rats of seven weeks old were purchased for this study. These weredivided into four groups of four per group. Group A was fed on a high choles terol diet and gar l ic, group B was fed on high choles terol diet only, group C was fed on normal diet (cont rols ) and group D was fed on normal diet and gar l ic. The plasma l ipids, l ipoproteins and t issues his tological appearances were determined us ing standard procedures. Resul ts showed s igni f icant decreased in the mean wet t issue weight of the kidney (p<0.001) in the group fed on high Cholesterol+gar l ic diet . The plasma LDLC was markedly reduced in the groups fed on high choles terol diet + gar l ic as wel l as normal diet+gar l ic. The meanplasma HDLC al though not s tat ist ical ly signi f icant was higher in these groups. Histological f indings showed pronounced atheromatous changes in the coronary ar tery of rats fed on high choles terol diet . The consumption of raw garlic has beneficial effect on plasma totalcholesterol, and LDLC in rats fed on high cholesterol diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports on the role of plasma lipids in depressive illness. Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects consisting of sixty (60) depressed patients with mean age (40.3±12.3 yrs) and forty (40) apparently healthy controls (40.1±10.1 yrs) were selected for the study. All subjects were free from medication at least one month prior to the start of the experiment. The anthropometric indices were also determined. There was a significant increase in plasma triglyceride concentration in depressed subjects when compared to control values (p<0.01). However, the plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and body mass index (BMI) did not significantly differ from control values. The mean plasma triglyceride was significantly increased in female patients in comparison to corresponding female controls. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels did not demonstrate any definite pattern with increasing level of depression in patients. In conclusion, plasma lipid levels could play a significant role in depressive illness in Nigerians
African Journal Biomedical Research 02/2010; DOI:10.4314/ajbr.v10i2.50615
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemether has been shown to be a very reliable antimalarial drug particularly because of its potency against multidrug resistant strain of malaria parasite; however, there is concern about its potential toxic effects. This study was designed to evaluate the neurotoxic effect of artemether using a mouse model. The photomicrographs of brains of the mice in the different artemether treated groups showed neurodegeneration. This observation is an indication that artemether may be neurotoxic in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of artemether administration on liver and selected biochemical parameters were evaluated. Eighty albino mice were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was given water which served as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were given 1.2, 2.4, or 4.8 mg kg−1 body weight artemether intramuscularly for five consecutive days. On day 6 all mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood was collected for analysis of alanine and aspartate transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, copper, and total proteins. Liver tissues were prepared for histological studies. It was found that the serum alanine and aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were higher in groups treated with artemether compared to control. The serum concentrations of copper and total proteins were lower than control. The histological features of liver tissues after administration of artemether showed histopathological alterations. These findings showed that artemether administration may have reversible adverse effects on mouse hepatocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various antimalarial drugs have been shown to exert different adverse effects; however, scanty information is available for artemether-induced potential side effects. The present study assessed effects of artemether on lipid profile, sperm count, and histological features of testes in an animal model. The mean total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglyceride, and total proteins in mice-administered artemether were higher compared with controls. The mean sperm counts in mice treated with artemether were reduced when compared with controls. In addition, it was observed that artemether affected the histopathology of seminiferous epithelia and Leydig cells. Evidence indicates that artemether exerts adverse effects in mice testes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In animal in-vivo study, we have reported some significant changes such as reduced sperm counts, degeneration ofseminiferous epithelium and interstitial leydig cells in the testicle. Therefore human study was designed to assess theeffects of artemether on some biochemical parameters in individuals treated with artemether. Moderate and transientside effects were observed after administration. This implies that administration of artemether is still tolerated and themoderate side effects are not comparable with the debilitating effects of malaria infection it is meant to cure.Artemisinine is still a tolerable antimalaria drug with no major side effects on human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, as well as fat distributions, are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma Lp(a), tHcy, percentage body fat, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) and their relationships with each other in well-defined, hospital-based, CVD patients in a Nigerian African community. One hundred seventy patients suffering from hypertensive heart disease, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and myocardial infraction with the mean age of 45.3 +/- 1.3 years and 58 apparently healthy volunteers with the mean age of 44.8 +/-1.2 years were selected. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured. Percentage body fat, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Plasma Lp(a) and tHcy concentrations were determined. The results showed significant increases in BP, skinfold thickness (SFT) variables, and WHR in all of the CVD patients. Plasma Lp(a) was also significantly increased (p < 0.001), whereas the slight increase in the mean tHcy was not statistically significant. Positive significant correlations were found between systolic BP, triceps, SFT, and percentage body fat (p < 0.01), whereas significant correlations were found between some body composition variables, tHcy, and systolic BP (p < 0.05). Our findings provide supportive evidence for altered plasma Lp(a) concentration in addition to some other traditional CVD risk factors in Nigerians. The role of homocysteine is not well defined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the cumulative effects of the protoberberine alkaloidal fraction (AF) of the stein bark ethanolic extracts of Enantia chlorantha on some body tissues and organs as well as on certain biochemical and metabolic parameters in mice. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the alkaloidal fractions of Enantia chlorantha were carried out in 120 mice using oral and intraperitoneal administrations. Fatality was not recorded in mice injected intraperitonealy with 100 mg kg(-1) and 150 mg kg(-1) dose level but larger doses resulted in death and the mean lethal dose (LD50) toxicity studies showed neither behavioural/untoward reactions nor death in any of the animals. The histopathological examination of the test animals when compared with the control revealed that, the sub-chronic use of the alkaloidal fractions does not have any pathological effects (lesion) on the organs examined (the stomach, the kidney, the oesophagus and the liver) except the lungs which showed mild and moderate oedema. The biochemical and metabolic analysis of the mice plasma did not show any significant difference when the corresponding values for the test mice were compared with the control mice (P > 0.05) at the end of the 14 days treatment using both 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) dose levels. The results obtained in this study suggest the relative safety of short-term use of preparations containing E. chlorantha, a very popular antimalarial herbal remedy in Southern Nigeria.
African journal of medicine and medical sciences 12/2007; 36(4):317-23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these antioxidants in cataract patients. 89 subjects consisting of 55 cataract patients and 34 control subjects were recruited for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 61± 11yrs. Mean plasma ascorbic acid level was significantly lower in cataract patients (0.33± 0.27) when compared with age matched control group (0.59 ±0.37) (p< 0.05). A significant increase in mean plasma bilirubin was observed in cataract patients when compared to the corresponding controls. Plasma uric acid levels showed a positive correlation with ascorbic acid (r =0.40, p <0.05). A positive correlation between plasma albumin and bilirubin levels in cataract patients (r=0.33, p <0.05) was also observed. A positive correlation between plasma ascorbic acid and uric acid levels is in agreement with the established antioxidant interaction theory. The disease process of the cataract and the resulting oxidative stress due to the chronic nature of the disease may result in an increased consumption and subsequent demand of ascorbic acid by the body to efficiently combating the excess free radical load generated in cataract patients. These results therefore suggest that there may be a need for increased ascorbic acid intake in cataract patients especially before surgery or other forms of therapy..
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In bone disorders, attention has been overwhelmingly paid to calcium metabolism with little consideration for other minerals such as magnesium that have synergistic action on calcium metabolism. The present study measured changes in serum concentration of magnesium, calcium ion and inorganic phosphate in 20 children suffering from rickets (mean age 2.9± 1.6 years; body weight 10.2±2.3kg) and 15 apparently healthy children (mean age 2.8± 1.7 years ; body weight 11.2± 1.5 kg) who were not suffering from malnutrition, bone or any ther metabolic disorders. o The mean serum concentration of magnesium ion in patients with rickets was found to be 2.04± 0.36mg/dl. This was observed to be lower when compared with the value of 2.24± 0.74mg/dl observed for control subjects. The mean serum concentration of calcium ion (9.94± 0.06mg/dl) and inorganic phosphate (5.64±1.20mg/dl) in patients with rickets were observed to be lower than the corresponding values for calcium ion (10.45±0.52mg/dl) and inorganic phosphate (5.89±1.22mg/dl) ob- served in control subjects. The alteration of magnesium metabolism associated with rickets as compared with control subjects suggests a possibility of involvement of serum magnesium alteration in the etiology of rickets. The implication for future management strategies for the bone disorder may be important
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting reports on the mechanism of action of ascorbic acid level in male reproductive system exist and very little is known about the ascorbic acid status in Nigerian males with weak fertility.
Ascorbate that accumulates preferentially in the testis, the lipid and lipoprotein levels were determined in the plasma of Nigerian males. Twenty-seven (27) male with inadequate spermatogenesis (36+/-1.0) years, with mean value of 15.6+/-6.90 million/cm3 sperm count and fourteen (14) controls (34+/-0.6) years, with mean value of 108.0+/-25.42 million/cm3 sperm count were selected for this study. The anthropometric indices were also determined.
There were highly significant decreases in sperm cell count, percentage motility and percentage vitality (p<0.001) in each case, while percentage morphologically abnormal sperm cells was significantly elevated (p<0.001) compared with the control values. There were significant decreases in the seminal and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations (p<0.001) in the males who had inadequate spermatogenesis compared with the control values. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) and body mass index (BMI) were not significantly different from the corresponding control values, but the plasma low density lipoprotein (LDLC) (p<0.001) and triglyceride (TG)(p<0.01) concentrations were significantly increased in all the patients. While the plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)(p<0.001) was significantly decreased compared with the controls. The plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels did not demonstrate any definite pattern with the sperm characteristics.
The decreased semen ascorbate level may play a significant role in the reduced sperm characteristics in these patients.
West African journal of medicine 02/2005; 23(4):290-3. DOI:10.4314/wajm.v23i4.28143
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma and tissue lipids were determined in twenty-four rats fed on locally prepared 'Ogi' diet containing palm kernel oil (PKO), red palm oil (RPO) and mixture of both oils. Fasting blood sample was obtained from each animal by cardiac puncture under light ether anesthesia after feeding on different diets for twelve weeks. There were significant variations in the mean liver, kidney, spleen (p < 0.001, p < 0.03, p < 0.002) tissue weights in the different dietary groups compared with the corresponding control values. The plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in the dietary group showed no significant changes when compared with the corresponding control values. The liver, spleen and heart total cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different from the corresponding values in the control group, but within group analysis showed significantly elevated total cholesterol in the kidney tissue of rats consuming PKO diet (p < 0.001). The total cholesterol level in rats consuming PKO diet was significantly higher than the corresponding concentration in those consuming the diet containing a mixture of PKO + RPO [p < 0.02] and control (p < 0.02) diets. There was also a significant increased in the kidney tissue cholesterol of rats fed RPO diet when compared with the corresponding control value (p < 0.05). The histological findings revealed no abnormality except in rats fed on PKO and RPO diets where nephrocalcinosis was found.
African journal of medicine and medical sciences 03/2003; 32(1):41-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum magnesium, zinc and total cholesterol were evaluated in 40 Nigerian patients suffering from type-2 diabetes mellitus (21M, 19F) and 20 (14M, 6F) apparently normal non diabetic control subjects. The mean age of the diabetic patients was similar to that of controls (p > 0.05). The mean duration of the disease was (4.7 + 0.7 SEM) in these patients. Fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol were significantly higher in diabetics than in non diabetic control subjects (p > 0.001). The serum total cholesterol showed inter-group variation when the patients were classified into four different age groups. In contrast, the serum level of magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were significantly lower in diabetics than in controls (p > 0.001). There were no significant correlation between glucose and the minerals, Mg. and Zn. Serum total cholesterol showed a significant positive correlation with magnesium (r = 0.6: p > 0.001), while the correlation with zinc was not significant. In type-2 diabetic mellitus the concentration of both Mg and Zn levels were significantly reduced, probably suggesting lower antioxidant status in this condition. The implication is the greater susceptibility to LDL-cholesterol oxidation. The attendant risk of development of premature Coronary Heart Disease is discussed. Magnesium and zinc are nutritional minerals that play crucial roles in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Nutrition and health (Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire) 10/2002; 16(4):291-300. DOI:10.1177/026010600201600403