B Sander

Freie Universität Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (90)202.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aqueductal stenosis is a common cause of hydrocephalus during infancy. We report on an infant born with aplasia cutis congenita at the scalp vertex and hypoplastic left heart syndrome developing systemic aspergillosis after cardiac surgery. The infant died at the age of 76 days despite systemic antimycotic therapy with a combination of flucytosine and amphotericin B. Therapy started at post-operative day 17 and was also applied intrathecally. Post-mortem examination revealed meningitis, multiple brain aspergillomas and microabscesses with focal ependymitis, focal bronchopneumonia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. One of the brain aspergillomas was located close to the aqueduct causing an aqueductal stenosis and an obstructive hydrocephalus. Histologically, aspergillus hyphae could only be detected in the aspergilloma of the aqueduct. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an aqueductal stenosis caused by an aspergilloma.
    Clinical neuropathology 11/1999; 19(1):26-9. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secretory meningioma is a rare entity which may be characterised by imaging features unusual for other subtypes of meningioma, such as low attenuation on CT, high (fat-tissue equivalent) signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, marked surrounding oedema, and irregular contrast enhancement. We report a case of secretory meningioma and review the literature.
    Neuroradiology 11/1998; 40(10):656-8. DOI:10.1007/s002340050658 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    K T Hoffmann · N Hosten · A J Lemke · B Sander · C Zwicker · R Felix
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether MR imaging, with the use of a surface coil, can accurately show small intraorbital structures; in particular, the septum orbitale. Examinations of 26 patients who underwent unilateral orbital high-resolution MR imaging for different indications were evaluated to differentiate the septum orbitale from related structures, such as the aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae, the superior tarsal (Müller's) muscle, and the superior orbital (Whitnall's) ligament. A subtle differentiation of the septum orbitale was obtained in 23 patients (88%) and of the levator aponeurosis and Müller's muscle in 24 patients (92%). The orbicularis oculi muscle and the submuscular fibroadipose tissue were reliably identified in all patients. High-resolution MR imaging is suitable for differentiating small intraorbital structures. Nevertheless, an exact depiction of the septum orbitale remains very much dependent on the cooperation of the patient. The site of orbital disease can be determined precisely and in a noninvasive manner in relation to the septum orbitale.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/1998; 19(1):91-4. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Future progress in regional hyperthermia requires a practical method for non-invasive thermometry. In magnetic resonance tomography, spin density, T1 relaxation time, diffusion coefficient and proton resonance frequency are candidates to measure temperature distributions. When used clinically in the pelvic region, all these methods are compromized by artifacts arising from different tissues, tissue alterations under hyperthermia, physiological and random movements, inhomogeneities, drift phenomena, and field instabilities. In this study a paramagnetic complex was evaluated, Pr[MOE-DO3A], with praseodymium as central atom, similar to common gadolinium containing MRI contrast media. The temperature dependence of its methoxy side group approximately -24 ppm downfield from the water resonance at 25 degrees C was employed to determine 2-D temperature distributions in a cylindrical agar phantom containing 9.5 mM of Pr[MOE-DO3A]. The phantom was heated externally through a water jacket creating a stationary temperature distribution throughout the phantom. At first, the correlation between temperature and the chemical shift of the methyl group of the lanthanide complex Pr[MOE-DO3A] was determined. Calibration curves obtained exhibited a linear relationship of 0.12 +/- 0.01 ppm/degree C, nearly independent from the surrounding medium. Local temperature distributions were determined employing the spatially resolved method of spectroscopic imaging (SI). 2-D spectroscopic images for three orthogonal slices were obtained by narrow-band excitation and 16 phase encoding steps in two dimensions. The FOV was 180 mm and the slice thickness in all cases was 20 mm for maximal spatial temperature resolution (11.2 x 11.2 mm2). The results indicate a measurement time of about 5s per acquisition under the following conditions: An estimated concentration of 1 mmol/l, a reduced matrix size of 8 x 8, and a reduced repetition time of 3 x T1 (TR approximately 85 ms). Those SI measurements produced a SNR of approximately 4 per acquisition, a measurements duration of 10-20 s, equivalent to two to four acquisitions per spectrum, seem sufficient for online temperature monitoring during hyperthermia. The in vitro data suggest the spectroscopic temperature measurement utilizing a temperature-sensitive Pr[MOE-DO3A] complex with a therapeutically realistic concentration of 1 mmol/l to be suitable for clinical use. Compared to the methods tested so far (rho, T1, diffusion, proton resonance), the method presented has the unique advantage of being less susceptible to artifacts. The competing methods of non-invasive thermometry employing magnetic resonance imaging are currently being investigated using the same experimental setup.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 01/1998; 14(5):479-93. DOI:10.3109/02656739809018249 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • A J Lemke · B Sander · T Balzer · V Geens · N Hosten · R Felix
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to investigate the use and safety of Gadobutrol, a new low-osmolar, non-ionic contrast agent for MRI using a total dose of 0.3 mmol/kg b.w. on the basis of a clinical phase 3 study. 30 patients with primary brain tumours (n = 15) or cerebral metastases (n = 15) were examined via MRI before and after application of a total of 0.3 mmol/kg b.w. given in two fractions (0.1 and 0.2 mmol/kg b.w.). T2-weighted images were performed before, T1-weighted images before, between and after application of contrast material. In this study one-molar Gadobutrol showed a good tolerance. In half of the cases the contrast between lesion and brain was improved comparing single and triple dose, but this means only a slightly improvement of information for the primary brain tumours compared with single dose. The detected metastatic lesions increased in 40% of the patients after the single dose and in 53% of the patients after cumulative triple dose. There was a consecutive change in therapy in 20% of the patients. For the differentiation of primary brain tumours the single dose was sufficient, in metastatic lesions triple dose was essential for the detection or exclusion of multifocality.
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 01/1998; 167(6):591-8. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1015588 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • L Niehaus · S Röricht · B U Meyer · B Sander
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    ABSTRACT: Rare patterns of heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous system are described. In one case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the combination of a border zone infarct within the thoracal spinal cord and a bilateral lesion within the globus pallidus. In a second case, cerebral border zone infarctions were observed which were attributed to a vasospasm of the basal cerebral arteries. Drug-abuse should be considered as a potential cause of these unusual manifestations of ischemic lesions in young patients.
    Aktuelle Radiologie 12/1997; 7(6):309-11.
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    ABSTRACT: {Magnetic fluids (MF) have a potential for hyperthermia due to their good power absorption capabilities. Recent in vitro experiments with the so-called 'Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH)' have shown that human tumour cells are homogeneously inactivated after AC magnetic field excitation of extracellular MF. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of a high dose MFH on intramuscularly implanted mammary carcinoma of the mouse. The tumours originated from initial in vivo passages of a spontaneous parent tumour. Because of larger variations of tumour growth in this rather primary model, logistic regression of non-averaged volumes was performed for each treatment modality. All growing tumours were randomized 30 days after transplantation (day of treatment) with an overall size distribution between 120-400 mm(3). An intratumoural steady state temperature of 47 +/- 1.0 degrees C was maintained for 30 minutes with whole-body AC magnetic fields of 6-12.5 kA/m at 520 kHz. The magnetic fluid was #P6, which is a high biocompatible dextran magnetite. #P6 was given intratumourally (1.5 x 10(-2) mg ferrite/mm(3)) 20-30 minutes before excitation and was combined with magnetic targeting (50 mT), which yielded a 2.5-fold enhancement of the intratumoural iron concentration. Histological examinations of tumour tissue after intralesional ferrofluid administration alone indicated deep infiltration of the fluid into the carcinoma tissue, but no evidence of tissue damage as compared with untreated controls. In contrast, widespread tumour necrosis was observed after MFH. After application of either dextran or ferrofluid alone (no difference
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic fluids (MF) have a potential for hyperthermia due to their good power absorption capabilities. Recent in vitro experiments with the so-called 'Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH)' have shown that human tumours cells are homogeneously inactivated after AC magnetic field excitation of extracellular MF. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of a high dose MFH on intramuscularly implanted mammary carcinoma of the mouse. The tumours originated from initial in vivo passages of a spontaneous parent tumour. Because of larger variations of tumour growth in this rather primary model, logistic regression of non-averaged volumes was performed for each treatment modality. All growing tumours were randomized 30 days after transplantation (day of treatment) with an overall size distribution between 120-400 mm3. An intratumoural steady state temperature of 47 +/- 1.0 degrees C was maintained for 30 minutes with whole-body AC magnetic fields of 6-12.5 kA/m at 520 kHz. The magnetic fluid was #P6, which is a high biocompatible dextran magnetite. #P6 was given intratumourally (1.5 x 10(-2) mg ferrite/mm3) 20-30 minutes before excitation and was combined with magnetic targeting (50 mT), which yielded a 2.5-fold enhancement of the intratumoural iron concentration. Histological examinations of tumour tissue after intralesional ferrofluid administration alone indicated deep infiltration of the fluid into the carcinoma tissue, but no evidence of tissue damage as compared with untreated controls. In contrast, widespread tumour necrosis was observed after MFH. After application of either dextran or ferrofluid alone (no difference, p = 0.665), tumour growth was slightly delayed in comparison with untreated controls (p < 0.001). In contrast to the good fit of the controls (R = 0.92-0.87), tumour growth after MFH was much more heterogeneous; some tumours showed no evidence for regrowth at 50 days whereas others had grown quite readily. This most probably reflected the critical problem of homogeneity of the intratumoural MF distribution, which was also confirmed qualitatively by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), heterogeneous pigmentation of MFH treated tumours, and up to 1 degree C differences between temperature probes in the same tumour during AC magnetic field application. However, a quantitative comparison between intratumoural MF-heterogeneity and tumour response could not be performed in this study. Despite these current limitations, the regression analysis of the MFH data yielded a smaller tumour volume of about 1000 mm3 at 50 days growth time in contrast to all three controls. In conclusion, encouraging results have been obtained, which show, that one single high dose MFH is already able to induce local tumour control in many cases within 30 days after treatment. To overcome the uncertainties of intratumoural MF heterogeneity, advanced intralesional application methods are currently under development.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 11/1997; 13(6):587-605. DOI:10.3109/02656739709023559 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    N Hosten · N Bornfeld · A J Lemke · B Sander · R Wassmuth · R Felix
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    ABSTRACT: MR imaging with retrobulbar anesthesia was performed in eight patients with uveal melanoma. Injection of 2 mL prilocain hydrochloride in 2% epinephrin into the eye muscle cone resulted in improved image quality in seven patients, without side effects. Ocular MR imaging can be indicated to clarify indeterminate sonographic findings in cases of extrascleral growth or to exclude optic nerve invasion in patients with tumors located at the posterior pole of the globe.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 11/1997; 18(9):1788-90. · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 09/1997; 167(2):201-3. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Radiology 09/1997; 204(3):875-875. DOI:10.1148/radiology.204.3.875-a · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the long-term, non-invasive thermometry is vital for the continued clinical and technological development of regional hyperthermia. In magnetic resonance tomography. T1 relaxation time, diffusion and proton resonance frequency are used to measure temperature distributions. When used clinically in the pelvic region, all of these methods are plagued with errors and artefacts on account of the tissue relationships, tissue changes under hyperthermia, physiological and stochastic movements, inhomogeneities, drift phenomena and instabilities. We tested the relationship between the temperature and the chemical shift of a methyl group of a lanthanide complex with central atom praseodymium (Pr-MOE-DO3A. Schering AG). To do this we used cylindrical phantoms containing a 5-mmol-solution of this temperature-sensitive substance. High resolution spectra and relaxation times were determined in a Bruker AMX at 11.5 T. A calibration curve was then recorded by a Siemens Magnetom SP63 at 1.5 T. Local temperature distributions were determined using the chemical shift imaging method, with a matrix size of 16 x 8 and a narrow-band excitation pulse. The temperature distribution was created using a Nd:YAG laser applicator. At a distance of -25.7 ppm from the water line, we found a singlet line with a temperature-dependent chemical shift of 0.13 ppm/C. In the phantom experiment we found that the chemical shift had a linear relationship with a gradient independent of the surroundings, and a temperature resolution of +/-0.6 degree C. With a concentration of 1 mmol/l, a matrix size of 8 x 8 and a measurement period of 5 s per acquisition, phantom measurements using the CSI method produced a signal to noise ratio of 3.5 per acquisition, i.e a measurement period of 10 to 20 s per spectrum. Our in vitro data show that spectroscopic temperature measurement using a temperature-sensitive praseodymium complex with a therapeutically practical concentration of 1 mmol/l already appears to be suitable for clinical use Compared with the methods tested so far (T1, diffusion, proton resonance), this method has the special advantage of not being very susceptible to artefacts. The competing methods of non-invasive thermometry using magnetic resonance tomography/spectroscopy will be investigated next.
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 03/1997; 173(2):106-16. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of ultrasound (US) in the detection of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma. In 70 patients, the diagnosis of melanoma and absence or presence of extraocular growth were confirmed with histologic examination (13 patients) or with ophthalmoscopy and surgery (57 patients). Unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging was performed with surface coils at 1.5 T. A- and B-mode US scans were obtained with 8- and 10-MHz probes, respectively. Extraocular growth was confirmed in seven patients: Five patients had retrobulbar tumor, and two had optic nerve infiltration. US enabled detection in three cases, whereas six cases were diagnosed with MR imaging including both cases of optic nerve infiltration. False-positive findings were more frequent with US (n = 5) than with MR imaging (n = 1). MR imaging proved to be more sensitive and more specific than US in the detection of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma.
    Radiology 02/1997; 202(1):61-7. DOI:10.1148/radiology.202.1.8988193 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop an improved investigation protocol for MRI studies of intraocular lesions, imaging with a small surface coil (diameter 6 cm) was compared with a standard surface coil (diameter 11 cm). Both coils were assessed initially on an eye phantom and then by studying 22 patients with uveal melanoma and similar lesions of the eye. The influence of bandwidth and field or view (FOV) were systematically studied and evaluated quantitatively. A smaller bandwidth improved image quality independent of surface coil size. The subsequent secondary increase in chemical shift artefact was acceptable. Smaller FOVs (60-80 mm) necessitated the use of a smaller surface coil. A smaller bandwidth also proved to be advantageous with the use of the smaller surface coil. In conclusion, a smaller-diameter surface coil improves MR imaging of ocular lesions. Pulse sequences with a small bandwidth maintain an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio when the FOV is reduced.
    European Radiology 02/1997; 7(4):459-63. DOI:10.1007/s003300050183 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HintergrundDie nichtinvasive Thermometrie ist für die klinische und technologische Weiterentwicklung der regionalen Hyperthermie auf Dauer unverzichtbar. Bei der magnetischen Resonanztomographie werden T1-Relaxationszeit, Diffusion und Protonenresonanzfrequenz für die Messung von Temperaturverteilungen ausgenutzt. Alle diese Verfahren sind bei einer klinischen Anwendung im Beckenbereich fehler- bzw. artefaktbehaftet durch Gewebeabhängigkeiten, Gewebeveränderungen unter Hyperthermie, physiologische oder zufällige Bewegungen, Inhomogenitäten sowie Driftphänomene und Instabilitäten. Material und MethodeEs wurde die Temperaturabhängigkeit der chemischen Verschiebung einer Methylgruppe eines Lanthanidenkomplexes mit dem Zentralatom Praseodym (Pr-MOE-DO3A, Schering AG) geprüft. Dazu wurden zylindrische Phantome mit 5-mmol-Lösungen dieser temperatursensitiven Substanz hergestellt. Hochaufgelöste Spektren und Relaxationszeiten wurden in einem Bruker AMX bei 11,5 T bestimmt. Anschließend erfolge die Aufnahme einer Kalibrierungskurve in einem Siemens Magnetom SP63 bei 1,5 T. Örtliche Temperaturverteilungen wurden mit der Chemical-shift-imaging-Methode bei einer Matrixgröße von 16×8 unter Einsatz eines schmalbandigen Anregungspulses ermittelt. Die Temperaturverteilung wurde mit einem Nd:YAG-Laserapplikator erzeugt. ErgebnisseBei −25,7 ppm von der Wasserlinie entfernt liegt eine Singulettlinie mit einer temperaturabhängigen chemischen Verschiebung von 0,13 ppm/°C. Im Phantomexperiment zeigt sich eine lineare Abhängigkeit der chemischen Verschiebung mit umgebungsunabhängiger Steigerung und einer Temperaturauflösung von ±0,6°C. Phantommessungen mit der CSI-Methode ergeben bei einer Konzentration von 1 mmol/l, einer 8×8-Matrixgröße und einer Meßzeit von 5 s pro Akquisition ein Signal-Rausch-Verhältnis von 3,5 pro Akquisition, das heißt eine Meßzeit von 10 bis 20 s pro Spektrum. SchlußfolgerungenUnsere In-vitro-Daten zeigen, daß die spektroskopische Temperaturmessung mit einem temperatursensitiven Praseodymkomplex mit therapeutisch realistischen Konzentrationen von 1 mmol/l bereits klinisch einsetzbar erscheint. Dabei weist diese Meßmethode gegenüber den bisher geprüften Verfahren (T1, Diffusion, Protonenresonanz) besonders die Vorteile einer deutlich geringeren Artefaktanfälligkeit auf. Die konkurrierenden Methoden zur nichtinvasiven Thermometrie mit der magnetischen Resonanztomographie/-spektroskopie werden jetzt weiter abgeklärt. BackgroundIn the long-term, non-invasive thermometry is vital for the continued clinical and technological development of regional hyperthermia. In magnetic resonance tomography, T1 relaxation time, diffusion and proton resonance frequency are used to measure temperature distributions. When used clinically in the pelvic region, all of these methods are plagued with errors and artefacts on account of the tissue relationships, tissue changes under hyperthermia, physiological and stochastic movements, inhomogeneities, drift phenomena and instabilities. Material and MethodWe tested the relationship between the temperature and the chemical shift of a methyl group of a lanthanide complex with central atom praseodymium (Pr-MOE-DO3A, Schering AG). To do this we used cylindrical phantoms containing a 5-mmol-solution of this temperature-sensitive substance. High resolution spectra and relaxation times were determined in a Bruker AMX at 11.5 T. A calibration curve was then recorded by a Siemens Magnetom SP63 at 1.5 T. Local temperature distributions were determined using the chemical shift imaging method, with a matrix size of 16×8 and a narrow-band excitation pulse. The temperature distribution was created using a Nd:YAG laser applicator. ResultsAt a distance of −25.7 ppm from the water line, we found a singlet line with a temperature-dependent chemical shift of 0.13 ppm/°C. In the phantom experiment we found that the chemical shift had a linear relationship with a gradient independent of the surroundings, and a temperature resolution of ±0.6°C. With a concentration of 1 mmol/l, a matrix size of 8×8 and a measurement period of 5 s per acquisition, phantom measurements using the CSI method produced a signal to noise ratio of 3.5 per acquisition, i. e. a measurement period of 10 to 20 s per spectrum. ConclusionsOur in vitro data show that spectroscopic temperature measurement using a temperature-sensitive praseodymium complex with a therapeutically practical concentration of 1 mmol/l already appears to be suitable for clinical use. Compared with the methods tested so far (T1, diffusion, proton resonance), this method has the special advantage of not being very susceptible to artefacts. The competing methods of non-invasive thermometry using magnetic resonance tomography/spectroscopy will be investigated next.
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 02/1997; 173(2):106-116. DOI:10.1007/BF03038930 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • S. Röricht · B.-U. Meyer · H. Einsiedel · B. Sander
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 01/1997; 167(08):201-203. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1015517 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anticancer drugs reversibly bound to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) could be concentrated in locally advanced tumors by magnetic fields that are arranged at the tumor surface outside of the organism. If certain requirements are met, systemic toxicity might be minimized, and local tumor efficacy might be increased. We have conducted a Phase I clinical trial using this approach in patients with advanced and unsuccessfully pretreated cancers or sarcomas. Nine such patients received two treatment courses, 3 patients received one course, and 2 patients received three courses of magnetic drug targeting consisting of the infusion of epirubicin in increasing doses (from 5 to 100 mg/m2) that had been chemically bound to a magnetic fluid and the application of magnetic fields to the tumors for 60-120 min. In 2 of 14 patients, the same dose of epirubicin not bound to a magnetic fluid was administered systemically 3 weeks after drug targeting for intraindividual comparisons. Magnetic drug targeting with epirubicin was well tolerated. In one case, a planned second treatment was withdrawn, because of an episode of chills 130 min after infusion of the magnetic drug. Two patients received a third treatment because of good responses after the first two therapies. Based on magnetic resonance tomographic techniques, pharmacokinetics, and the histological detection of magnetites, it was shown that the ferrofluid could be successfully directed to the tumors in about one-half of the patients. Organ toxicity did not increase with the treatment, but epirubicin-associated toxicity appeared at doses greater than 50 mg/m2. Although treatment with magnetic drug targeting seems safe, improvements are necessary to make it more effective and independent of patient- or disease-related problems. A study design to compare conventional treatments with the new treatment form within one patient seems crucial to eliminate interindividual differences.
    Cancer Research 11/1996; 56(20):4686-93. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anticancer drugs reversibly bound to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) could be concentrated in locally advanced tumors by magnetic fields that are arranged at the tumor surface outside of the organism. If certain requirements are met, systemic toxicity might be minimized, and local tumor efficacy might be increased. We have conducted a Phase I clinical trial using this approach in patients with advanced and unsuccessfully pretreated cancers or sarcomas. Nine such patients received two treatment courses, 3 patients received one course, and 2 patients received three courses of magnetic drug targeting consisting of the infusion of epirubicin in increasing doses (from 5 to 100 mg/m) that had been chemically bound to a magnetic fluid and the application of magnetic fields to the tumors for 60–120 min. In 2 of 14 patients, the same dose of epirubicin not bound to a magnetic fluid was administered systemically 3 weeks after drug targeting for intraindividual comparisons. Magnetic drug targeting with epirubicin was well tolerated. In one case, a planned second treatment was withdrawn, because of an episode of chills 130 min after infusion of the magentic drug. Two patients received a third treatment because of good responses after the first two therapies. Based on magnetic resonance tomographic techniques, pharmacokinetics, and the histological detection of magnetites, it was shown that the ferrofluid could be successfully directed to the tumors in about one-half of the patients. Organ toxicity did not increase with the treatment, but epirubicin-associated toxicity appeared at doses greater than 50 mg/m. Although treatment with magnetic drug targeting seems safe, improvements are necessary to make it more effective and independent of patient- or disease-related problems. A study design to compare conventional treatments with the new treatment form within one patient seems crucial to eliminate interindividual differences.
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    ABSTRACT: To define characteristic MR-findings in patients with clinically typical extrapyramidal movement disorders. 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 9 with multisystem atrophy (MSA), and 6 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) underwent MRI using a 1.5 T. Magnetom unit. Two investigators analysed the images with special regard to global and/or focal atrophy and to changes in signal intensity of the CNS in the consensus mode. Normal images of 10 subjects served as controls to patient's images. In all patients with PSP and MSA characteristic pathological findings on MRI were observed including regional changes within the extrapyramidal nuclei. In contrast all patients with PD had an unremarkable MRI study of the CNS. MRI enables us to define characteristic morphological changes of the brain in patients with extrapyramidal movement disorders. Early recognition of these findings avoids misdiagnoses in patients who are difficult to diagnose.
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 08/1996; 165(1):43-51. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1015712 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in a 36-year-old man following a heart lung transplant and 3.5 years of steroid medication. A review of the pertinent literature emphasises the importance of including this diagnosis in the differential diagnosis of patients receiving steroid medication or markedly obese patients with back pain or symptoms suggesting spinal cord or cauda equina compression.
    Neuroradiology 06/1996; 38(4):343-8. DOI:10.1007/BF00596585 · 2.37 Impact Factor