J Bille

University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (274)1094.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to Candida colonization and intra-abdominal candidiasis, a blood culture-negative life-threatening infection in high-risk surgical ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Surgical ICUs from two University hospitals of the Fungal Infection Network of Switzerland. PATIENTS: Eighty-nine patients at high risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (68 with recurrent gastrointestinal perforation and 21 with acute necrotizing pancreatitis). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 16 genes previously associated with development of fungal infections were analyzed from patient's DNA by using an Illumina Veracode genotyping platform. Candida colonization was defined by recovery of Candida species from at least one nonsterile site by twice weekly monitoring of cultures from oropharynx, stools, urine, skin, and/or respiratory tract. A corrected colonization index greater than or equal to 0.4 defined "heavy" colonization. Intra-abdominal candidiasis was defined by the presence of clinical symptoms and signs of peritonitis or intra-abdominal abscess and isolation of Candida species either in pure or mixed culture from intraoperatively collected abdominal samples. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three innate immune genes were associated with development of a Candida corrected colonization index greater than or equal to 0.4 (Toll-like receptor rs4986790, hazard ratio = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.45-7.93; p = 0.005) or occurrence of intra-abdominal candidiasis (tumor necrosis factor-α rs1800629, hazard ratio = 4.31; 95% CI, 1.85-10.1; p= 0.0007; β-defensin 1 rs1800972, hazard ratio = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.36-7.59; p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: We report a strong association between the promoter rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor-α and an increased susceptibility to intra-abdominal candidiasis in a homogenous prospective cohort of high-risk surgical ICU patients. This finding highlights the relevance of the tumor necrosis factor-α functional polymorphism in immune response to fungal pathogens. Immunogenetic profiling in patients at clinical high risk followed by targeted antifungal interventions may improve the prevention or preemptive management of this life-threatening infection.
    Critical Care Medicine 04/2014; 42(4). · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the species distribution of Candida blood isolates (CBI), prospectively collected between 2004 and 2009 within FUNGINOS, and compared their antifungal susceptibility according to clinical breakpoints defined by: EUCAST in 2013, CLSI in 2008 (old CLSI breakpoints) and 2012 (new CLSI breakpoints). CBI were tested for susceptiblity to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by microtitre broth dilution (Sensititre® YeastOneTM test panel). Of 1090 CBI, 675 (61.9%) were C. albicans, 191 (17.5%) C. glabrata, 64 (5.9%) C. tropicalis, 59 (5.4%) C. parapsilosis, 33 (3%) C. dubliniensis, 22 (2%) C. krusei and 46 (4.2%) rare Candida species. Independently of the breakpoints applied, C. albicans was almost uniformely (>98%) susceptible to all 3 antifungal agents. In contrast, the proportions of fluconazole- and voriconazole- susceptible C. tropicalis and F-susceptible C. parapsilosis were lower according to EUCAST/new CLSI breakpoints than to the old CLSI breakpoints. For caspofungin, non-susceptibility occurred mainly in C. krusei (63.3%) and C. glabrata (9.4%). Nine isolates (5 C. tropicalis, 3 C. albicans, 1 C. parapsilosis) were cross-resistant to azoles according to EUCAST breakpoints compared to 3 isolates (2 C. albicans, 1 C. tropicalis) according to new and 2 (2 C. albicans) to old CLSI breakpoints. Four species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis) represented >90% of all CBI. In vitro resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was rare among C. albicans, but an increase of non-susceptibile isolates was observed among C. tropicalis/C. parapsilosis for the azoles and C. glabrata/C. krusei for caspofungin according to EUCAST and new CLSI breakpoints compared to old CLSI breakpoints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 11/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Life-threatening intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) occurs in 30-40% of high-risk surgical ICU patients. While early IAC diagnosis is crucial, blood cultures are negative and role of Candida score/colonization indexes is not established. Objectives: Aim of this prospective FUNGINOS cohort study was to assess accuracy of 1,3-beta-D-glucan antigenemia for diagnosis of IAC. Methods: Four-hundred-thirty-four consecutive adults with abdominal surgery or acute pancreatitis and ICU stay ≥72h were screened: 89 (20.5%) at high-risk for IAC were studied (68 recurrent GI tract perforation, 21 acute necrotizing pancreatitis). Diagnostic accuracy of serum beta-glucan (Fungitell®), Candida score and colonization indexes was compared. Measurements and Main Results: 58/89 (65%) patients were colonized by Candida, 29/89 (33%) presented IAC (27/29 with negative blood cultures). Nine-hundred-twenty-one sera were analyzed (9/patient): median beta-glucan was 253pg/ml (46-9557) in IAC vs. 99pg/ml (8-440) in colonization (p<0.01). Sensitivity/specificity of 2 consecutive BG ≥80pg/ml was 65%/78%. In recurrent GI tract perforation it was 75%/77% vs. 90%/38% (Candida score ≥3), 79%/34% (colonization index ≥0.5), and 54%/63% (corrected colonization index ≥0.4). Beta-glucan positivity anticipated IAC diagnosis (5 days) and antifungal therapy (6 days). Severe sepsis/septic shock and death occurred in 10/11 (91%) and 4/11 (36%) patients with beta-glucan ≥400pg/ml vs. 5/18 (28%, p=0.002) and 1/18 (6%, p=0.05) with beta-glucan <400pg/ml. Beta-glucan decreased in IAC responding to therapy and increased in non-response. Conclusions: 1,3-beta-D-glucan antigenemia is superior to Candida score and colonization indexes and anticipates diagnosis of blood culture-negative intra-abdominal candidiasis. This proof-of-concept in strictly selected high-risk surgical ICU patients deserves investigation of beta-glucan-driven pre-emptive therapy.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2013; · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recommended oral voriconazole (VRC) doses are lower than intravenous doses. Because plasma concentrations impact efficacy and safety of therapy, optimizing individual drug exposure may improve these outcomes. A population pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM) was performed on 505 plasma concentration measurements involving 55 patients with invasive mycoses who received recommended VRC doses. A 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best fitted the data. VRC clearance was 5.2 L/h, the volume of distribution was 92 L, the absorption rate constant was 1.1 hour(-1), and oral bioavailability was 0.63. Severe cholestasis decreased VRC elimination by 52%. A large interpatient variability was observed on clearance (coefficient of variation [CV], 40%) and bioavailability (CV 84%), and an interoccasion variability was observed on bioavailability (CV, 93%). Lack of response to therapy occurred in 12 of 55 patients (22%), and grade 3 neurotoxicity occurred in 5 of 55 patients (9%). A logistic multivariate regression analysis revealed an independent association between VRC trough concentrations and probability of response or neurotoxicity by identifying a therapeutic range of 1.5 mg/L (>85% probability of response) to 4.5 mg/L (<15% probability of neurotoxicity). Population-based simulations with the recommended 200 mg oral or 300 mg intravenous twice-daily regimens predicted probabilities of 49% and 87%, respectively, for achievement of 1.5 mg/L and of 8% and 37%, respectively, for achievement of 4.5 mg/L. With 300-400 mg twice-daily oral doses and 200-300 mg twice-daily intravenous doses, the predicted probabilities of achieving the lower target concentration were 68%-78% for the oral regimen and 70%-87% for the intravenous regimen, and the predicted probabilities of achieving the upper target concentration were 19%-29% for the oral regimen and 18%-37% for the intravenous regimen. Higher oral than intravenous VRC doses, followed by individualized adjustments based on measured plasma concentrations, improve achievement of the therapeutic target that maximizes the probability of therapeutic response and minimizes the probability of neurotoxicity. These findings challenge dose recommendations for VRC.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2012; 55(3):381-90. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. based on growth-related heat production. The minimal heat inhibitory concentration (MHIC) for A. fumigatus ATCC 204305 was 1 mg/L for amphotericin B, 0.25 mg/L for voriconazole, 0.06 mg/L for posaconazole, 0.125 mg/L for caspofungin and 0.03 mg/L for anidulafungin. Agreement within two 2-fold dilutions between MHIC (determined by microcalorimetry) and MIC or MEC (determined by CLSI M38A) was 90% for amphotericin B, 100% for voriconazole, 90% for posaconazole and 70% for caspofungin. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of isothermal microcalorimetry for growth evaluation of Aspergillus spp. and real-time antifungal susceptibility testing.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2012; 18(7):E241-5. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancy. Diagnosis of IFD is difficult, with the sensitivity of the gold standard tests (culture and histopathology) often reported to be low, which may at least in part be due to sub-optimal sampling or subsequent handling in the routine microbiological laboratory. Therefore, a working group of the European Conference in Infections in Leukaemia was convened in 2009 with the task of reviewing the classical diagnostic procedures and providing recommendations for their optimal use. The recommendations were presented and approved at the ECIL-3 conference in September 2009. Although new serological and molecular tests are examined in separate papers, this review focuses on sample types, microscopy and culture procedures, antifungal susceptibility testing and imaging. The performance and limitations of these procedures are discussed and recommendations are provided on when and how to use them and how to interpret the results.
    Bone marrow transplantation 01/2012; 47(8):1030-45. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare complication of trans-sphenoidal surgery. We present the case of a patient who developed pneumococcal meningitis with associated bacteraemia after elective endoscopic trans-sphenoidal resection of a pituitary macro-adenoma. After initial treatment with ceftriaxone and dexamethasone, the patient made a good recovery and dexamethasone was discontinued. Two days later the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly, presenting focal and diffuse neurological deficits. Cerebral MRI revealed widespread punctate ischaemic-type lesions affecting both anterior and posterior vascular territories bilaterally and involving features consistent with cerebral vasculitis. Antibiotic treatment was broadened to include meropenem and dexamethasone was restarted, but the patient remained in a comatose state and died 14 days later. Steroid treatment may play a dual role in this poorly characterised infectious complication of trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. This possibility is discussed and the options for prophylaxis are reviewed.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2012; 142. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report discusses the present status of antifungal therapy and treatment options for candidaemia, considered by experts in the field in Europe. A conference of 26 experts from 13 European countries was held to discuss strategies for the treatment and prevention of invasive candidiasis, with the aim of providing a review on optimal management strategies. Published and unpublished comparative trials on antifungal therapy were analysed and discussed. Commonly asked questions about the management of candidaemia were selected, and possible responses to these questions were discussed. Panellists were then asked to respond to each question by using a touchpad answering system. After the initial conference, the viewpoint document has been reviewed and edited to include new insights and developments since the initial meeting. For many situations, consensus on treatment could not be reached, and the responses indicate that treatment is likely to be modified on a patient-to-patient basis, depending on factors such as degree of illness, prior exposure to azole antifungals, and the presence of potentially antifungal drug-resistant Candida species.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 09/2011; 17 Suppl 5:1-12. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Invasive candidiasis ranges from 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 ICU admissions and represents 5% to 10% of all ICU-acquired infections, with an overall mortality comparable to that of severe sepsis/septic shock. A large majority of them are due to Candida albicans, but the proportion of strains with decreased sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole is increasingly reported. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized, but only 5% to 30% of them develop an invasive infection. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are common risk factors, but invasive candidiasis is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. Indeed, blood cultures are positive in a minority of cases and often late in the course of infection. New nonculture-based laboratory techniques may contribute to early diagnosis and management of invasive candidiasis. Both serologic (mannan, antimannan, and betaglucan) and molecular (Candida-specific PCR in blood and serum) have been applied as serial screening procedures in high-risk patients. However, although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques are largely investigational and their clinical usefulness remains to be established. Identification of patients susceptible to benefit from empirical antifungal treatment remains challenging, but it is mandatory to avoid antifungal overuse in critically ill patients. Growing evidence suggests that monitoring the dynamic of Candida colonization in surgical patients and prediction rules based on combined risk factors may be used to identify ICU patients at high risk of invasive candidiasis susceptible to benefit from prophylaxis or preemptive antifungal treatment.
    Annals of intensive care. 09/2011; 1:37.
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection. Microscopic diagnosis, including diagnosis using the Merifluor-Pneumocystis direct fluorescent antigen (MP-DFA) test, has limitations. Real-time PCR may assist in diagnosis, but no commercially validated real-time PCR assay has been available to date. MycAssay Pneumocystis is a commercial assay that targets the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (analytical detection limit, ≤ 3.5 copies/μl of sample). A multicenter trial recruited 110 subjects: 54 with transplants (40 with lung transplants), 32 with nonmalignant conditions, 13 with leukemia, and 11 with solid tumors; 9 were HIV positive. A total of 110 respiratory samples (92% of which were bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] specimens) were analyzed by PCR. Performance was characterized relative to investigator-determined clinical diagnosis of PCP (including local diagnostic tests), and PCR results were compared with MP-DFA test results for 83 subjects. Thirteen of 14 subjects with PCP and 9/96 without PCP (including 5 undergoing BAL surveillance after lung transplantation) had positive PCR results; sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) were 93%, 91%, 59%, and 99%, respectively. Fourteen of 83 subjects for whom PCR and MP-DFA test results were available had PCP; PCR sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 93%, 90%, 65%, and 98%, respectively, and MP-DFA test sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%. Of the 9 PCR-positive subjects without PCP, 1 later developed PCP. The PCR diagnostic assay compares well with clinical diagnosis using nonmolecular methods. Additional positive results compared with the MP-DFA test may reflect low-level infection or colonization.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2011; 49(5):1872-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional methods are sometimes insufficient to identify human bacterial pathogens, and alternative techniques, often molecular, are required. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified with a valid score 45.9% of 410 clinical isolates from 207 different difficult-to-identify species having required 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MALDI-TOF MS might represent an alternative to 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2011; 49(2):693-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a Mycobacterium haemophilum outbreak after permanent make-up of the eyebrows performed by the same freelance artist. Twelve patients presented an eyebrow lesion and cervical lymphadenitis. All were treated with antibiotics. Surgery was required in 10 cases. M. haemophilum DNA was identified in the make-up ink.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 52(4):488-91. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). The source of this microorganism can be either endogenous or exogenous. The proportion of cases as a result of transmission is still debated, and its elucidation is important for implementing appropriate control measures. To understand the relative importance of exogenous vs. endogenous sources of P. aeruginosa, molecular typing was performed on all available P. aeruginosa isolated from ICU clinical and environmental specimens in 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004 and 2007. Patient samples were classified according to their P. aeruginosa genotypes into three categories: (A) identical to isolate from faucet; (B) identical to at least one other patient sample and not found in faucet; and (C) unique genotype. Cases in categories A and B were considered as possibly exogenous, and cases in category C as possibly endogenous. A mean of 34 cases per 1000 admissions per year were found to be colonized or infected by P. aeruginosa. Higher levels of faucet contamination were correlated with a higher number of cases in category A. The number of cases in category B varied from 1.9 to 20 cases per 1000 admissions. This number exceeded 10/1000 admissions on three occasions and was correlated with an outbreak on one occasion. The number of cases considered as endogenous (category C) was stable and independent of the number of cases in categories A and B. The present study shows that repeated molecular typing can help identify variations in the epidemiology of P. aeruginosa in ICU patients and guide infection control measures.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2011; 17(1):57-62. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may contribute to optimizing the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy because of the large variability in drug pharmacokinetics. Rapid, sensitive, and selective laboratory methods are needed for efficient TDM. Quantification of several antifungals in a single analytical run may best fulfill these requirements. We therefore developed a multiplex ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method requiring 100 μl of plasma for simultaneous quantification within 7 min of fluconazole, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, voriconazole-N-oxide, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used in a single extraction procedure for eight analytes. After reverse-phase chromatographic separation, antifungals were quantified by electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring detection using the positive mode. Deuterated isotopic compounds of azole antifungals were used as internal standards. The method was validated based on FDA recommendations, including assessment of extraction yields, matrix effect variability (<9.2%), and analytical recovery (80.1 to 107%). The method is sensitive (lower limits of azole quantification, 0.01 to 0.1 μg/ml; those of echinocandin quantification, 0.06 to 0.1 μg/ml), accurate (intra- and interassay biases of -9.9 to +5% and -4.0 to +8.8%, respectively), and precise (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of 1.2 to 11.1% and 1.2 to 8.9%, respectively) over clinical concentration ranges (upper limits of quantification, 5 to 50 μg/ml). Thus, we developed a simple, rapid, and robust multiplex UPLC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of plasma concentrations of six antifungals and two metabolites. This offers, by optimized and cost-effective lab resource utilization, an efficient tool for daily routine TDM aimed at maximizing the real-time efficacy and safety of different recommended single-drug antifungal regimens and combination salvage therapies, as well as a tool for clinical research.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2010; 54(12):5303-15. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a live-threatening opportunistic infection that is best described in haematological patients with prolonged neutropenia or graft-versus-host disease. Data on IA in non-neutropenic patients are limited. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, disease manifestations and outcome of IA in non-neutropenic patients diagnosed in five Swiss university hospitals during a 2-year period. Case identification was based on a comprehensive screening of hospital records. All cases of proven and probable IA were retrospectively analysed. Sixty-seven patients were analysed (median age 60 years; 76% male). Sixty-three per cent of cases were invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), and 17% of these were disseminated aspergillosis. The incidence of IPA was 1.2/10 000 admissions. Six of ten cases of extrapulmonary IA affected the brain. There were six cases of invasive rhinosinusitis, six cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and cases three of subacute pulmonary aspergillosis. The most frequent underlying condition of IA was corticosteroid treatment (57%), followed by chronic lung disease (48%), and intensive-care unit stays (43%). In 38% of patients with IPA, the diagnosis was established at autopsy. Old age was the only risk factor for post-mortem diagnosis, whereas previous solid organ transplantation and chronic lung disease were associated with lower odds of post-mortem diagnosis. The mortality rate was 57%.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2010; 17(9):1366-71. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early treatment of meningococcal meningitis is mandatory but may negate the cerebrospinal fluid culture. Etiological diagnosis then mainly relies on PCR. Here, we report a case of false-negative results for real-time PCR for a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B isolate with a polymorphism in the ctrA gene.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2010; 48(12):4590-1. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    Jacques Bille
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive candidiasis is a severe infectious complication occurring mostly in onco-hematologic and surgical patients. Its conventional diagnosis is insensitive and often late, leading to a delayed treatment and a high mortality. The purpose of this article is to review recent contributions in the nonconventional diagnostic approaches of invasive candidiasis, both for the detection of the epidose and the characterization of the etiologic agent. Antigen-based tests to detect invasive candidiasis comprise a specific test, mannan, as well as a nonspecific test, beta-D-glucan. Both have a moderate sensitivity and a high specificity, and cannot be recommended alone as a negative screening tool or a positive syndrome driven diagnostic tool. Molecular-based tests still have not reached the stage of rapid, easy to use, standardized tests ideally complementing blood culture at the time of blood sampling. New tests (fluorescence in-situ hybridization or mass spectrometry) significantly reduce the delay of identification of Candida at the species level in positive blood cultures, and should have a positive impact on earlier appropriate antifungal therapy and possibly on outcome. Both antigen-based and molecular tests appear as promising new tools to complement and accelerate the conventional diagnosis of invasive candidiasis with an expected significant impact on earlier and more focused treatment and on prognosis.
    Current opinion in critical care 10/2010; 16(5):460-4. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequent lack of microbiological documentation of infection by blood cultures (BC) has a major impact on clinical management of febrile neutropenic patients, especially in cases of unexplained persistent fever. We assessed the diagnostic utility of the LightCycler SeptiFast test (SF), a multiplex blood PCR, in febrile neutropenia. Blood for BC and SF was drawn at the onset of fever and every 3 days of persistent fever. SF results were compared with those of BC, clinical documentation of infection, and standard clinical, radiological, and microbiological criteria for invasive fungal infections (IFI). A total of 141 febrile neutropenic episodes in 86 hematological patients were studied: 44 (31%) microbiologically and 49 (35%) clinically documented infections and 48 (34%) unexplained fevers. At the onset of fever, BC detected 44 microorganisms in 35/141 (25%) episodes. Together, BC and SF identified 78 microorganisms in 61/141 (43%) episodes (P = 0.002 versus BC or SF alone): 12 were detected by BC and SF, 32 by BC only, and 34 by SF only. In 19/52 (37%) episodes of persistent fever, SF detected 28 new microorganisms (7 Gram-positive bacterial species, 15 Gram-negative bacterial species, and 6 fungal species [89% with a clinically documented site of infection]) whereas BC detected only 4 pathogens (8%) (P = 0.001). While BC did not detect fungi, SF identified 5 Candida spp. and 1 Aspergillus sp. in 5/7 probable or possible cases of IFI. Using SeptiFast PCR combined with blood cultures improves microbiological documentation in febrile neutropenia, especially when fever persists and invasive fungal infection is suspected. Technical adjustments may enhance the efficiency of this new molecular tool in this specific setting.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2010; 48(10):3510-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,094.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983–2013
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • • Institut universitaire de microbiologie
      • • Département de médecine
      • • Institute of Microbiology (IMUL)
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • University of Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Lausanne
      • • Institute of Microbiology
      • • Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV)
      • • Faculté de biologie et de médecine (FBM)
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Hospices Civils de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2002
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1995–1999
    • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1998
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Clinical Biology, Microbiology and Immunology
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 1992–1997
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France