[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CSF lactate measurement is recommended when nosocomial meningitis is suspected, but its value in community-acquired bacterial meningitis is controversial. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of lactate and other CSF parameters in a prospective cohort of adult patients with acute meningitis. Diagnostic accuracy of lactate and other CSF parameters in patients with microbiologically documented episodes was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The cut-offs with the best diagnostic performance were determined. Forty-five of 61 patients (74 %) had a documented bacterial (n = 18; S. pneumoniae, 11; N. meningitidis, 5; other, 2) or viral (n = 27 enterovirus, 21; VZV, 3; other, 3) etiology. CSF parameters were significantly different in bacterial vs. viral meningitis, respectively (p < 0.001 for all comparisons): white cell count (median 1333 vs. 143/mm(3)), proteins (median 4115 vs. 829 mg/l), CSF/blood glucose ratio (median 0.1 vs. 0.52), lactate (median 13 vs. 2.3 mmol/l). ROC curve analysis showed that CSF lactate had the highest accuracy for discriminating bacterial from viral meningitis, with a cutoff set at 3.5 mmol/l providing 100 % sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and efficiency. CSF lactate had the best accuracy for discriminating bacterial from viral meningitis and should be included in the initial diagnostic workup of this condition.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2015; 34(10). DOI:10.1007/s10096-015-2450-6 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to Candida colonization and intra-abdominal candidiasis, a blood culture-negative life-threatening infection in high-risk surgical ICU patients.
Prospective observational cohort study.
Surgical ICUs from two University hospitals of the Fungal Infection Network of Switzerland.
Eighty-nine patients at high risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (68 with recurrent gastrointestinal perforation and 21 with acute necrotizing pancreatitis).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 16 genes previously associated with development of fungal infections were analyzed from patient's DNA by using an Illumina Veracode genotyping platform. Candida colonization was defined by recovery of Candida species from at least one nonsterile site by twice weekly monitoring of cultures from oropharynx, stools, urine, skin, and/or respiratory tract. A corrected colonization index greater than or equal to 0.4 defined "heavy" colonization. Intra-abdominal candidiasis was defined by the presence of clinical symptoms and signs of peritonitis or intra-abdominal abscess and isolation of Candida species either in pure or mixed culture from intraoperatively collected abdominal samples. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three innate immune genes were associated with development of a Candida corrected colonization index greater than or equal to 0.4 (Toll-like receptor rs4986790, hazard ratio = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.45-7.93; p = 0.005) or occurrence of intra-abdominal candidiasis (tumor necrosis factor-α rs1800629, hazard ratio = 4.31; 95% CI, 1.85-10.1; p= 0.0007; β-defensin 1 rs1800972, hazard ratio = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.36-7.59; p = 0.008).
We report a strong association between the promoter rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor-α and an increased susceptibility to intra-abdominal candidiasis in a homogenous prospective cohort of high-risk surgical ICU patients. This finding highlights the relevance of the tumor necrosis factor-α functional polymorphism in immune response to fungal pathogens. Immunogenetic profiling in patients at clinical high risk followed by targeted antifungal interventions may improve the prevention or preemptive management of this life-threatening infection.
Critical Care Medicine 04/2014; 42(4). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000208. · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the species distribution of Candida blood isolates (CBI), prospectively collected between 2004 and 2009 within FUNGINOS, and compared their antifungal susceptibility according to clinical breakpoints defined by: EUCAST in 2013, CLSI in 2008 (old CLSI breakpoints) and 2012 (new CLSI breakpoints). CBI were tested for susceptiblity to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by microtitre broth dilution (Sensititre(®) YeastOne(TM) test panel). Of 1090 CBI, 675 (61.9%) were C. albicans, 191 (17.5%) C. glabrata, 64 (5.9%) C. tropicalis, 59 (5.4%) C. parapsilosis, 33 (3%) C. dubliniensis, 22 (2%) C. krusei and 46 (4.2%) rare Candida species. Independently of the breakpoints applied, C. albicans was almost uniformely (>98%) susceptible to all 3 antifungal agents. In contrast, the proportions of fluconazole- and voriconazole- susceptible C. tropicalis and F-susceptible C. parapsilosis were lower according to EUCAST/new CLSI breakpoints than to the old CLSI breakpoints. For caspofungin, non-susceptibility occurred mainly in C. krusei (63.3%) and C. glabrata (9.4%). Nine isolates (5 C. tropicalis, 3 C. albicans, 1 C. parapsilosis) were cross-resistant to azoles according to EUCAST breakpoints compared to 3 isolates (2 C. albicans, 1 C. tropicalis) according to new and 2 (2 C. albicans) to old CLSI breakpoints. Four species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis) represented >90% of all CBI. In vitro resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was rare among C. albicans, but an increase of non-susceptibile isolates was observed among C. tropicalis/C. parapsilosis for the azoles and C. glabrata/C. krusei for caspofungin according to EUCAST and new CLSI breakpoints compared to old CLSI breakpoints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the species distribution of Candida blood isolates (CBI), prospectively collected between 2004 and 2009 within FUNGINOS, and compared their antifungal susceptibility according to clinical breakpoints defined by: EUCAST in 2013, CLSI in 2008 (old CLSI breakpoints) and 2012 (new CLSI breakpoints). CBI were tested for susceptiblity to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by microtitre broth dilution (Sensititre® YeastOneTM test panel). Of 1090 CBI, 675 (61.9%) were C. albicans, 191 (17.5%) C. glabrata, 64 (5.9%) C. tropicalis, 59 (5.4%) C. parapsilosis, 33 (3%) C. dubliniensis, 22 (2%) C. krusei and 46 (4.2%) rare Candida species. Independently of the breakpoints applied, C. albicans was almost uniformely (>98%) susceptible to all 3 antifungal agents. In contrast, the proportions of fluconazole- and voriconazole- susceptible C. tropicalis and F-susceptible C. parapsilosis were lower according to EUCAST/new CLSI breakpoints than to the old CLSI breakpoints. For caspofungin, non-susceptibility occurred mainly in C. krusei (63.3%) and C. glabrata (9.4%). Nine isolates (5 C. tropicalis, 3 C. albicans, 1 C. parapsilosis) were cross-resistant to azoles according to EUCAST breakpoints compared to 3 isolates (2 C. albicans, 1 C. tropicalis) according to new and 2 (2 C. albicans) to old CLSI breakpoints. Four species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis) represented >90% of all CBI. In vitro resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was rare among C. albicans, but an increase of non-susceptibile isolates was observed among C. tropicalis/C. parapsilosis for the azoles and C. glabrata/C. krusei for caspofungin according to EUCAST and new CLSI breakpoints compared to old CLSI breakpoints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 11/2013; DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12440 · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Life-threatening intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) occurs in 30-40% of high-risk surgical ICU patients. While early IAC diagnosis is crucial, blood cultures are negative and role of Candida score/colonization indexes is not established. Objectives: Aim of this prospective FUNGINOS cohort study was to assess accuracy of 1,3-beta-D-glucan antigenemia for diagnosis of IAC. Methods: Four-hundred-thirty-four consecutive adults with abdominal surgery or acute pancreatitis and ICU stay ≥72h were screened: 89 (20.5%) at high-risk for IAC were studied (68 recurrent GI tract perforation, 21 acute necrotizing pancreatitis). Diagnostic accuracy of serum beta-glucan (Fungitell®), Candida score and colonization indexes was compared. Measurements and Main Results: 58/89 (65%) patients were colonized by Candida, 29/89 (33%) presented IAC (27/29 with negative blood cultures). Nine-hundred-twenty-one sera were analyzed (9/patient): median beta-glucan was 253pg/ml (46-9557) in IAC vs. 99pg/ml (8-440) in colonization (p<0.01). Sensitivity/specificity of 2 consecutive BG ≥80pg/ml was 65%/78%. In recurrent GI tract perforation it was 75%/77% vs. 90%/38% (Candida score ≥3), 79%/34% (colonization index ≥0.5), and 54%/63% (corrected colonization index ≥0.4). Beta-glucan positivity anticipated IAC diagnosis (5 days) and antifungal therapy (6 days). Severe sepsis/septic shock and death occurred in 10/11 (91%) and 4/11 (36%) patients with beta-glucan ≥400pg/ml vs. 5/18 (28%, p=0.002) and 1/18 (6%, p=0.05) with beta-glucan <400pg/ml. Beta-glucan decreased in IAC responding to therapy and increased in non-response. Conclusions: 1,3-beta-D-glucan antigenemia is superior to Candida score and colonization indexes and anticipates diagnosis of blood culture-negative intra-abdominal candidiasis. This proof-of-concept in strictly selected high-risk surgical ICU patients deserves investigation of beta-glucan-driven pre-emptive therapy.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2013; 188(9). DOI:10.1164/rccm.201211-2069OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 68–77
Mucosal candidiasis is frequent in immunocompromised HIV-infected highly active antiretroviral (HAART) naive patients or those who have failed therapy. Mucosal candidiasis is a marker of progressive immune deficiency. Because of the frequently marked and prompt immune reconstitution induced by HAART, there is no recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis of mucosal candidiasis in the HIV setting in Europe, although it has been evidenced as effective in the pre-HAART era. Fluconazole remains the first line of therapy for both oropharyngeal candidiasis and oesophageal candidiasis and should be preferred to itraconazole oral solution (or capsules when not available) due to fewer side effects. For patients who still present with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, oral treatment with any other azole should be preferred based on precise Candida species identification and susceptibility testing results in addition to the optimization of HAART when feasible. For vaginal candidiasis, topical therapy is preferred.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 9–18
As the mortality associated with invasive Candida infections remains high, it is important to make optimal use of available diagnostic tools to initiate antifungal therapy as early as possible and to select the most appropriate antifungal drug. A panel of experts of the European Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the clinical utility and accuracy of different diagnostic tests and procedures for detection of Candida infections. Recommendations about the microbiological investigation and detection of candidaemia, invasive candidiasis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, and oropharyngeal, oesophageal, and vaginal candidiasis were included. In addition, remarks about antifungal susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring were made.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 38–52
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a relatively common syndrome in neonates and children and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These guidelines provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of IC in neonates and children. Appropriate agents for the prevention of IC in neonates at high risk include fluconazole (A-I), nystatin (B-II) or lactoferrin ± Lactobacillus (B-II). The treatment of IC in neonates is complicated by the high likelihood of disseminated disease, including the possibility of infection within the central nervous system. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (B-II), liposomal amphotericin B (B-II), amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) (C-II), fluconazole (B-II), micafungin (B-II) and caspofungin (C-II) can all be potentially used. Recommendations for the prevention of IC in children are largely extrapolated from studies performed in adults with concomitant pharmacokinetic data and models in children. For allogeneic HSCT recipients, fluconazole (A-I), voriconazole (A-I), micafungin (A-I), itraconazole (B-II) and posaconazole (B-II) can all be used. Similar recommendations are made for the prevention of IC in children in other risk groups. With several exceptions, recommendations for the treatment of IC in children are extrapolated from adult studies, with concomitant pharmacokinetic studies. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (C-I), liposomal amphotericin B (A-I), ABLC (B-II), micafungin (A-I), caspofungin (A-I), anidulafungin (B-II), fluconazole (B-I) and voriconazole (B-I) can all be used.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 19–37 AbstractThis part of the EFISG guidelines focuses on non-neutropenic adult patients. Only a few of the numerous recommendations can be summarized in the abstract. Prophylactic usage of fluconazole is supported in patients with recent abdominal surgery and recurrent gastrointestinal perforations or anastomotic leakages. Candida isolation from respiratory secretions alone should never prompt treatment. For the targeted initial treatment of candidaemia, echinocandins are strongly recommended while liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole are supported with moderate, and fluconazole with marginal strength. Treatment duration for candidaemia should be a minimum of 14 days after the end of candidaemia, which can be determined by one blood culture per day until negativity. Switching to oral treatment after 10 days of intravenous therapy has been safe in stable patients with susceptible Candida species. In candidaemia, removal of indwelling catheters is strongly recommended. If catheters cannot be removed, lipid-based amphotericin B or echinocandins should be preferred over azoles. Transoesophageal echocardiography and fundoscopy should be performed to detect organ involvement. Native valve endocarditis requires surgery within a week, while in prosthetic valve endocarditis, earlier surgery may be beneficial. The antifungal regimen of choice is liposomal amphotericin B +/− flucytosine. In ocular candidiasis, liposomal amphotericin B +/− flucytosine is recommended when the susceptibility of the isolate is unknown, and in susceptible isolates, fluconazole and voriconazole are alternatives. Amphotericin B deoxycholate is not recommended for any indication due to severe side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 1–8
The process to develop a guideline in a European setting remains a challenge. The ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG) successfully achieved this endeavour. After two face-to-face meetings, numerous telephone conferences, and email correspondence, an ESCMID task force (basically composed of members of the Society’s Fungal Infection Study Group, EFISG) finalized the ESCMID diagnostic and management/therapeutic guideline for Candida diseases. By appreciating various patient populations at risk for Candida diseases, four subgroups were predefined, mainly ICU patients, paediatric, HIV/AIDS and patients with malignancies including haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Besides treatment recommendations, the ESCMID guidelines provide guidance for diagnostic procedures. For the guidelines, questions were formulated to phrase the intention of a given recommendation, for example, outcome. The recommendation was the clinical intervention, which was graded by a score of A–D for the ‘Strength of a recommendation’. The ‘level of evidence’ received a score of I–III. The author panel was approved by ESCMID, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the European Confederation of Medical Mycology. The guidelines followed the framework of GRADE and Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation. The drafted guideline was presented at ECCMID 2011 and points of discussion occurring during that meeting were incorporated into the manuscripts. These ESCMID guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases provide guidance for clinicians in their daily decision-making process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 7): 53–67
Fungal diseases still play a major role in morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies, including those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although Aspergillus and other filamentous fungal diseases remain a major concern, Candida infections are still a major cause of mortality. This part of the ESCMID guidelines focuses on this patient population and reviews pertaining to prophylaxis, empirical/pre-emptive and targeted therapy of Candida diseases. Anti-Candida prophylaxis is only recommended for patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The authors recognize that the recommendations would have most likely been different if the purpose would have been prevention of all fungal infections (e.g. aspergillosis). In targeted treatment of candidaemia, recommendations for treatment are available for all echinocandins, that is anidulafungin (AI), caspofungin (AI) and micafungin (AI), although a warning for resistance is expressed. Liposomal amphotericin B received a BI recommendation due to higher number of reported adverse events in the trials. Amphotericin B deoxycholate should not be used (DII); and fluconazole was rated CI because of a change in epidemiology in some areas in Europe. Removal of central venous catheters is recommended during candidaemia but if catheter retention is a clinical necessity, treatment with an echinocandin is an option (CIIt). In chronic disseminated candidiasis therapy, recommendations are liposomal amphotericin B for 8 weeks (AIII), fluconazole for >3 months or other azoles (BIII). Granulocyte transfusions are only an option in desperate cases of patients with Candida disease and neutropenia (CIII).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare complication of trans-sphenoidal surgery. We present the case of a patient who developed pneumococcal meningitis with associated bacteraemia after elective endoscopic trans-sphenoidal resection of a pituitary macro-adenoma. After initial treatment with ceftriaxone and dexamethasone, the patient made a good recovery and dexamethasone was discontinued. Two days later the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly, presenting focal and diffuse neurological deficits. Cerebral MRI revealed widespread punctate ischaemic-type lesions affecting both anterior and posterior vascular territories bilaterally and involving features consistent with cerebral vasculitis. Antibiotic treatment was broadened to include meropenem and dexamethasone was restarted, but the patient remained in a comatose state and died 14 days later. Steroid treatment may play a dual role in this poorly characterised infectious complication of trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. This possibility is discussed and the options for prophylaxis are reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recommended oral voriconazole (VRC) doses are lower than intravenous doses. Because plasma concentrations impact efficacy and safety of therapy, optimizing individual drug exposure may improve these outcomes.
A population pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM) was performed on 505 plasma concentration measurements involving 55 patients with invasive mycoses who received recommended VRC doses.
A 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best fitted the data. VRC clearance was 5.2 L/h, the volume of distribution was 92 L, the absorption rate constant was 1.1 hour(-1), and oral bioavailability was 0.63. Severe cholestasis decreased VRC elimination by 52%. A large interpatient variability was observed on clearance (coefficient of variation [CV], 40%) and bioavailability (CV 84%), and an interoccasion variability was observed on bioavailability (CV, 93%). Lack of response to therapy occurred in 12 of 55 patients (22%), and grade 3 neurotoxicity occurred in 5 of 55 patients (9%). A logistic multivariate regression analysis revealed an independent association between VRC trough concentrations and probability of response or neurotoxicity by identifying a therapeutic range of 1.5 mg/L (>85% probability of response) to 4.5 mg/L (<15% probability of neurotoxicity). Population-based simulations with the recommended 200 mg oral or 300 mg intravenous twice-daily regimens predicted probabilities of 49% and 87%, respectively, for achievement of 1.5 mg/L and of 8% and 37%, respectively, for achievement of 4.5 mg/L. With 300-400 mg twice-daily oral doses and 200-300 mg twice-daily intravenous doses, the predicted probabilities of achieving the lower target concentration were 68%-78% for the oral regimen and 70%-87% for the intravenous regimen, and the predicted probabilities of achieving the upper target concentration were 19%-29% for the oral regimen and 18%-37% for the intravenous regimen.
Higher oral than intravenous VRC doses, followed by individualized adjustments based on measured plasma concentrations, improve achievement of the therapeutic target that maximizes the probability of therapeutic response and minimizes the probability of neurotoxicity. These findings challenge dose recommendations for VRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: E241–E245
We evaluated microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. based on growth-related heat production. The minimal heat inhibitory concentration (MHIC) for A. fumigatus ATCC 204305 was 1 mg/L for amphotericin B, 0.25 mg/L for voriconazole, 0.06 mg/L for posaconazole, 0.125 mg/L for caspofungin and 0.03 mg/L for anidulafungin. Agreement within two 2-fold dilutions between MHIC (determined by microcalorimetry) and MIC or MEC (determined by CLSI M38A) was 90% for amphotericin B, 100% for voriconazole, 90% for posaconazole and 70% for caspofungin. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of isothermal microcalorimetry for growth evaluation of Aspergillus spp. and real-time antifungal susceptibility testing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancy. Diagnosis of IFD is difficult, with the sensitivity of the gold standard tests (culture and histopathology) often reported to be low, which may at least in part be due to sub-optimal sampling or subsequent handling in the routine microbiological laboratory. Therefore, a working group of the European Conference in Infections in Leukaemia was convened in 2009 with the task of reviewing the classical diagnostic procedures and providing recommendations for their optimal use. The recommendations were presented and approved at the ECIL-3 conference in September 2009. Although new serological and molecular tests are examined in separate papers, this review focuses on sample types, microscopy and culture procedures, antifungal susceptibility testing and imaging. The performance and limitations of these procedures are discussed and recommendations are provided on when and how to use them and how to interpret the results.
Bone marrow transplantation 01/2012; 47(8):1030-45. DOI:10.1038/bmt.2011.246 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17 (Suppl. 5): 1–12
This report discusses the present status of antifungal therapy and treatment options for candidaemia, considered by experts in the field in Europe. A conference of 26 experts from 13 European countries was held to discuss strategies for the treatment and prevention of invasive candidiasis, with the aim of providing a review on optimal management strategies. Published and unpublished comparative trials on antifungal therapy were analysed and discussed. Commonly asked questions about the management of candidaemia were selected, and possible responses to these questions were discussed. Panellists were then asked to respond to each question by using a touchpad answering system. After the initial conference, the viewpoint document has been reviewed and edited to include new insights and developments since the initial meeting. For many situations, consensus on treatment could not be reached, and the responses indicate that treatment is likely to be modified on a patient-to-patient basis, depending on factors such as degree of illness, prior exposure to azole antifungals, and the presence of potentially antifungal drug-resistant Candida species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Invasive candidiasis ranges from 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 ICU admissions and represents 5% to 10% of all ICU-acquired infections, with an overall mortality comparable to that of severe sepsis/septic shock. A large majority of them are due to Candida albicans, but the proportion of strains with decreased sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole is increasingly reported. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized, but only 5% to 30% of them develop an invasive infection. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are common risk factors, but invasive candidiasis is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. Indeed, blood cultures are positive in a minority of cases and often late in the course of infection. New nonculture-based laboratory techniques may contribute to early diagnosis and management of invasive candidiasis. Both serologic (mannan, antimannan, and betaglucan) and molecular (Candida-specific PCR in blood and serum) have been applied as serial screening procedures in high-risk patients. However, although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques are largely investigational and their clinical usefulness remains to be established. Identification of patients susceptible to benefit from empirical antifungal treatment remains challenging, but it is mandatory to avoid antifungal overuse in critically ill patients. Growing evidence suggests that monitoring the dynamic of Candida colonization in surgical patients and prediction rules based on combined risk factors may be used to identify ICU patients at high risk of invasive candidiasis susceptible to benefit from prophylaxis or preemptive antifungal treatment.
Annals of Intensive Care 09/2011; 1(1):37. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-1-37 · 3.31 Impact Factor