Henk Schmidt

Maastricht University, Maastricht, Provincie Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (10)12.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In onderzoek is gebleken dat klinische obsessies en compulsies inhoudelijk niet verschillen van alledaagse intrusies en rituelen. De verschillen tussen beide betreffen veeleer kenmerken als frequentie, ervaren weerzin en opgeroepen weerstand. De verklaring van dergelijke verschillen in afwezigheid van een inhoudelijk onderscheid lijkt vooral te zijn gelegen in twee psychologische fenomenen. Ten eerste wordt verondersteld dat overdreven interpretaties van intrusies (samen te vatten in het concept thought-action fusion [taf]) leiden tot intensivering van obsessieve-compulsieve symptomen. Op de tweede plaats lijkt gedachtenonderdrukking (suppressie) te resulteren in meer, in plaats van minder, obsessieve-compulsieve symptomen. De potentiële interacties tussen taf en suppressie zijn nog niet in kaart gebracht. In het huidige onderzoek werd een poging ondernomen om te achterhalen of en op welke manier taf en suppressie samengaan in de ontwikkeling van obsessieve-compulsieve symptomen. Daartoe vulde een groep studenten (N = 173) verschillende vragenlijsten in. De data werden geanalyseerd met behulp van structural equation modelling. Uit de analyse volgde grosso modo dat taf aanleiding geeft tot suppressie, terwijl suppressie vervolgens leidt tot obsessieve-compulsieve symptomen.
    04/2012; 20(1):15-20.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine -defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a large sample of normal South African schoolchildren. Children completed two self-report questionnaires: the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the 41-item version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Psychometric properties of the SCAS and the SCARED were moderate (convergent validity) to sufficient (reliability). Factor analyses yielded evidence for the presence of a number of hypothesized anxiety categories (i.e., social phobia, panic disorder, fears, and generalized anxiety disorder). Furthermore, anxiety levels of South African children were higher than those of Western (i.e., Dutch) children. Differences were found with regard to the content of prevalent anxiety symptoms among South African and Western children. Although psychometric properties of the SCAS and the SCARED in South African children somewhat deviated from those obtained in Western countries, both scales seem to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2002; 41(11):1360-8. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of 109 undergraduate students completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and self-report measures on absent-mindedness, fantasy proneness, and childhood trauma. As in previous studies, dissociative tendencies were strongly related to absent-mindedness and fantasy proneness. Also, dissociative symptoms were linked to trauma self-reports. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that both the conventional trauma-dissociation model and an alternative dissociation-trauma model provided an adequate fit to our data. Thus, our results demonstrate that cross-sectional and non-clinical studies relying on self-reports of dissociation and trauma should seriously consider the possibility that dissociation, together with its correlates absent-mindedness and fantasy proneness, contribute to trauma self-reports.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/2002;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the role of various protective and vulnerability factors in the development of depressive symptoms. A sample of normal adolescents (N=373) completed the Children's Depression Inventory and measures of a negative attributional style, parental rearing behaviour, coping styles, and perceived self-efficacy. In addition to computing the correlations between depression and these protective and vulnerability factors, the present data were also subjected to structural equations modelling to examine the correlational structure of the data. Depression was accompanied by high levels of parental rejection, negative attributions, and passive coping, and by low levels of active coping and self-efficacy. Furthermore, a model in which negative parental rearing behaviour and a negative attributional style featured as the primary sources of depression, while coping styles and self-efficacy played a mediating role in the formation of depressive symptoms, provided a reasonable fit for the data.
    Behaviour Research and Therapy 06/2001; 39(5):555-65. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) is a questionnaire measuring 21 primary personality traits that are thought to constitute the three supertraits of Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism. The present study examined the reliability, factor structure and convergent validity of the Dutch translation of the EPP in a sample of introductory psychology students (N=215). Results indicate that the internal consistency of most EPP scales was satisfactory. Furthermore, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the to-be-expected three-factor structure provided a reasonable fit for EPP data. Finally, Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism were found to correlate in a meaningful way with the “big 5” supertraits as indexed by the Five-Factor Personality Inventory.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2000; 29(5):857-868. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) are recently developed self-report questionnaires for measuring DSM-IV defined anxiety disorder symptoms in children. The present study examined correlations among these measures in a large sample of Dutch school children (N=1011). Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the total anxiety scores of these instruments (r=0.89). Furthermore, most of the SCARED subscales were found to be convincingly connected to their SCAS counterparts. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that SCARED and SCAS anxiety disorder subscales loaded uniquely on separate but intercorrelated factors (i.e., the DSM-IV anxiety disorder categories). These findings can be taken as evidence for the concurrent validity of the SCARED and the SCAS. Although these measures were developed independently, they seem to measure highly similar constructs, viz anxiety symptoms which can be clustered into the anxiety disorder categories as described in the DSM-IV.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/2000;
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    ABSTRACT: The revised version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-R) is a self-report questionnaire that measures symptoms of DSM-IV linked anxiety disorders in children. The present study examined the factor structure of the SCARED-R in a sample of 674 normal Dutch school children aged 8 to 13 years. Exploratory factor analysis (principal components with oblimin rotation) clearly pointed in the direction of a 1-factor solution, suggesting that when applied to samples of normal children, the SCARED-R is a unidimensional measure. Additional exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses carried out on parts of the SCARED-R provided some support for the presence of the following factors: panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, school phobia, social phobia and three types of specific phobias. Implications of these findings for the use of the SCARED-R are briefly discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/1999;
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence to suggest that disgust sensitivity plays a role in the development of small animal fears and phobias. Recently, Phillips, Senior, Fahy, and David (1998) (Phillips, M. L., Senior, C., Fahy, T., & David, A. S. (1998). Disgust: the forgotten emotion of psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 373-375.) suggested that disgust sensitivity is also involved in various other anxiety-based symptoms (e.g. obsessive-compulsive complaints, social phobia). The present study sought to test this suggestion in a large sample of normal school children (N = 189). Children completed a measure of disgust sensitivity, the trait anxiety version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, an instrument that measures DSM- defined anxiety disorders symptoms. Disgust sensitivity was indeed found to be correlated with a broad range of anxiety disorders symptoms. However, results also indicated that these correlations were predominantly carried by trait anxiety. That is, when controlling for levels of trait anxiety, only specific phobia symptoms (including animal phobia, blood-injection-injury phobia and situational- environmental phobia) and separation anxiety disorder symptoms were significantly related to disgust sensitivity, although correlations were rather modest. Taken together, these findings cast doubts on the claim that disgust sensitivity is an unique and independent factor that contributes to a broad range of anxiety disorders. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research (Frederikson, M., Annas, P., Fisher, H. & Wik, G. (1996). Gender and age diÄerences in the prevalence of specific fears and phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 33-39.) has shown that specific phobia symptoms of adults cluster into three subtypes: animal phobia, blood- injection-injury phobia and environmental-situational phobia. The present study examined whether these specific phobia subtypes can also be found in children. 996 children aged between 7 and 19 years completed a brief questionnaire regarding the frequency with which they experienced specific phobia symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine the structure of these data. Results showed that childhood specific phobia symptoms indeed cluster into the three subtypes as described by Frederikson et al. and that these subtypes are either intercorrelated or the product of a single higher order factor. This structure appeared to be largely invariant across genders and age groups. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.