Hiroyuki Nawa

Niigata University, Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan

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Publications (188)891.21 Total impact

  • Tadasato Nagano · Makoto Mizuno · Keisuke Morita · Hiroyuki Nawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Proinflammatory cytokines perturb brain development and neurotransmission and are implicated in various psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and depression. These cytokines often induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulate not only cell survival and proliferation but also inflammatory process and neurotransmission. Under physiological conditions, ROS are moderately produced in mitochondria but are rapidly scavenged by reducing agents in cells. However, brain injury, ischemia, infection, or seizure-like neural activities induce inflammatory cytokines and trigger the production of excessive amounts of ROS, leading to abnormal brain functions and psychiatric symptoms. Protein phosphatases, which are involved in the basal silencing of cytokine receptor activation, are the major targets of ROS. Consistent with this, several ROS scavengers, such as polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids, attenuate both cytokine signaling and psychiatric abnormalities. In this review, we list the inducers, producers, targets, and scavengers of ROS in the brain and discuss the interaction between ROS and cytokine signaling implicated in schizophrenia and its animal models. In particular, we present an animal model of schizophrenia established by perinatal exposure to epidermal growth factor and illustrate the pathological role of ROS and antipsychotic actions of ROS scavengers, such as emodin and edaravone.
    Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/7854_2015_399
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    ABSTRACT: Cytogenomic mutations and chromosomal abnormality are implicated in the neuropathology of several brain diseases. Cell heterogeneity of brain tissues makes their detection and validation difficult, however. In the present study, we analyzed gene dosage alterations in brain DNA of schizophrenia patients and compared those with the copy number variations (CNVs) identified in schizophrenia patients as well as with those in Asian lymphocyte DNA and attempted to obtain hints at the pathological contribution of cytogenomic instability to schizophrenia. Brain DNA was extracted from postmortem striatum of schizophrenia patients and control subjects (n = 48 each) and subjected to the direct two color microarray analysis that limits technical data variations. Disease-associated biases of relative DNA doses were statistically analyzed with Bonferroni's compensation on the premise of brain cell mosaicism. We found that the relative gene dosage of 85 regions significantly varied among a million of probe sites. In the candidate CNV regions, 26 regions had no overlaps with the common CNVs found in Asian populations and included the genes (i.e., ANTXRL, CHST9, DNM3, NDST3, SDK1, STRC, SKY) that are associated with schizophrenia and/or other psychiatric diseases. The majority of these candidate CNVs exhibited high statistical probabilities but their signal differences in gene dosage were less than 1.5-fold. For test evaluation, we rather selected the 10 candidate CNV regions that exhibited higher aberration scores or larger global effects and were thus confirmable by PCR. Quantitative PCR verified the loss of gene dosage at two loci (1p36.21 and 1p13.3) and confirmed the global variation of the copy number distributions at two loci (11p15.4 and 13q21.1), both indicating the utility of the present strategy. These test loci, however, exhibited the same somatic CNV patterns in the other brain region. The present study lists the candidate regions potentially representing cytogenomic CNVs in the brain of schizophrenia patients, although the significant but modest alterations in their brain genome doses largely remain to be characterized further.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 07/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13039-015-0144-5 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    T Kato · Y Abe · S Hirokawa · Y Iwakura · M Mizuno · H Namba · H Nawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a well-recognized risk gene for schizophrenia and is often implicated in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of this illness. Alternative splicing and proteolytic processing of the NRG1 gene produce more than 30 structural variants; however, the neuropathological roles of individual variants remain to be characterized. On the basis of the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, we administered eNRG1 (0.1~1.0 g/g), a core epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domain common for all splicing NRG1 variants, to neonatal mice and compared their behavioral performance with mice challenged with a full mature form of type 1 NRG1 variant. During the neonatal stage, recombinant eNRG1 protein administrated from the periphery passed the blood-brain barrier and activated its receptor (ErbB4) in the brain. In adults, the mice receiving the highest dose exhibited lower locomotor activity and deficits in prepulse inhibition and tone-dependent fear learning, although the hearing reduction of the eNRG1-treated mice may explain these behavioral deficits. Neonatal eNRG1 treatment also significantly potentiated MK-801-driven locomotor activity in an eNRG1 dose-dependent manner. In parallel eNRG1 treatment enhanced MK-801-driven c-Fos induction and decreased immunoreactivity for NMDA receptor subunits in adult brain. In contrast, mice that had been treated with the same molar dose of a full mature form of type 1 NRG1 as neonates did not exhibit hypersensitivity to MK-801. However, both animal models exhibited similar hypersensitivity to methamphetamine. Collectively, our findings suggest that aberrant peripheral NRG1 signals during neurodevelopment alter later behavioral traits in the NRG1 subtype-dependent manner.
    Current Molecular Medicine 03/2015; 15(3). DOI:10.2174/1566524015666150330143300 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Food intake is intricately regulated by glucose, amino acids, hormones, neuropeptides, and trophic factors through a neural circuit in the hypothalamus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most prominent neurotrophic factor in the brain, regulates differentiation, maturation, and synaptic plasticity throughout life. Among its many roles, BDNF exerts an anorexigenic function in the brain. However, the intracellular signaling induced by BDNF to control food intake is not fully understood. One candidate for the molecule involved in transducing the anorexigenic activity of BDNF is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). mTOR senses extracellular amino acids, glucose, growth factors, and neurotransmitters, and regulates anabolic reactions response to these signals. Activated mTOR increases protein and lipid synthesis and inhibits protein degradation. In the hypothalamus, mTOR activation is thought to reduce food intake. Here we summarize recent findings regarding BDNF- and mTOR-mediated feeding control, and propose a link between these molecules in eating behavior.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2014; 5:1093. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01093 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuregulin-1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To test the developmental hypothesis for schizophrenia, we administered these factors to rodent pups, juveniles, and adults and characterized neurobiological and behavioral consequences. These factors were also provided from their transgenes or infused into the adult brain. Here we summarize previous results from these experiments and discuss those from neuropathological aspects. In the neonatal stage but not the juvenile and adult stages, subcutaneously injected factors penetrated the blood-brain barrier and acted on brain neurons, which later resulted in persistent behavioral and dopaminergic impairments associated with schizophrenia. Neonatally EGF-treated animals exhibited persistent hyperdopaminergic abnormalities in the nigro-pallido-striatal system while neuregulin-1 treatment resulted in dopaminergic deficits in the corticolimbic dopamine system. Effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were transient or limited. Even in the adult stage, intracerebral administration and transgenic expression of these factors produced similar but not identical behavioral impairments, although the effects of intracerebral administration were reversible. These findings suggest that dopaminergic development is highly vulnerable to circulating ErbB ligands in the pre- and perinatal stages. Once maldevelopment of the dopaminergic system is established during early development, dopamine-associating behavioral deficits become irreversible and manifest at postpubertal stages.
    BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:697935. DOI:10.1155/2014/697935 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    Nobuyuki Takei · Hiroyuki Nawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.
    Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 04/2014; 7(1):28. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2014.00028 · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32kDa (DARPP-32) and calcineurin (CaN) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because they function as molecular integrators of dopamine and glutamate signaling. DARPP-32 and CaN are mainly expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen; however, a few postmortem brain studies have focused on DARPP-32 expression in striatum from patients with schizophrenia. We used immunoblotting techniques and postmortem tissue samples from patients with schizophrenia and from normal control individuals to examine the expression of two major DARPP-32 isoforms, full-length (FL-DARPP) and truncated (t-DARPP), and of CaN in the striatum. We also assessed whether there was any significant correlation between the expression levels of either protein and the A1 allele of Taq1A genotype in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) / ankyrin-repeat containing kinase 1 gene (ANKK1). We found that the mean t-DARPP expression level in the caudate was higher in patients with schizophrenia than in control individuals (P<0.05) and the A1 allele of Taq1A genotype in DRD2/ANKK1 was significantly associated with elevated expression of t-DARPP in the caudate. Also, the A1 allele was significantly correlated with total score of antemortem psychiatric symptoms. These results may reflect potential molecular mechanisms important to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2014; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.03.014 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1) are mobilized in the genome of human neural progenitor cells and enhanced in Rett syndrome and ataxia telangiectasia. However, whether aberrant L1 retrotransposition occurs in mental disorders is unknown. Here, we report high L1 copy number in schizophrenia. Increased L1 was demonstrated in neurons from prefrontal cortex of patients and in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived neurons containing 22q11 deletions. Whole-genome sequencing revealed brain-specific L1 insertion in patients localized preferentially to synapse- and schizophrenia-related genes. To study the mechanism of L1 transposition, we examined perinatal environmental risk factors for schizophrenia in animal models and observed an increased L1 copy number after immune activation by poly-I:C or epidermal growth factor. These findings suggest that hyperactive retrotransposition of L1 in neurons triggered by environmental and/or genetic risk factors may contribute to the susceptibility and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
    Neuron 12/2013; 81(2). DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.053 · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies on a cytokine model for schizophrenia reveal that the hyperdopaminergic innervation and neurotransmission in the globus pallidus (GP) is involved in its behavioral impairments. Here, we further explored the physiological consequences of the GP abnormality in the indirect pathway, using the same schizophrenia model established by perinatal exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Single-unit recordings revealed that the neural activity from the lateral GP was elevated in EGF-treated rats in vivo and in vitro (i.e., slice preparations), whereas the central area of the GP exhibited no significant differences. The increase in the pallidal activity was normalized by subchronic treatment with risperidone, which is known to ameliorate their behavioral deficits. We also monitored extracellular GABA concentrations in the substantia nigra, one of the targets of pallidal efferents. There was a significant increase in basal GABA levels in EGF-treated rats, whereas high potassium-evoked GABA effluxes and glutamate levels were not affected. A neurotoxic lesion in the GP of EGF-treated rats normalized GABA concentrations to control levels. Corroborating our in vivo results, GABA release from GP slices was elevated in EGF-treated animals. These findings suggest that the hyperactivity and enhanced GABA release of GP neurons represent the key pathophysiological features of this cytokine-exposure model for schizophrenia.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2013; 126(4). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12223 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth factors and nutrients, such as amino acids and glucose, regulate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and subsequent translational control in a coordinated manner. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most prominent neurotrophic factor in the brain, activates mTORC1 and induces phosphorylation of its target, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), at Thr389 in neurons. BDNF also increases mTOR-dependent novel protein synthesis in neurons. Here we report that BDNF-induced p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) activation is dependent on glucose, but not amino acids, sufficiency in cultured cortical neurons. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the molecular background to this specific nutrient dependency. Activation of AMPK, which is induced by glucose deprivation, treatment with pharmacologic agents such as 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside or forced expression of a constitutively active AMPKα subunit, counteracts BDNF-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and enhanced protein synthesis in cortical neurons. These results indicate that AMPK inhibits the effects of BDNF on mTORC1-mediated translation in neurons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2013; 127(1). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12362 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its family member neuregulin-1 are implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Our recent pharmacological studies indicate that EGF injections to both neonatal and adult rats induce neurobehavioral deficits relevant to schizophrenia. We, however, did not evaluate the genetic impact of EGF transgene on neurobehavioral traits. Here we analyzed transgenic mice carrying the transgene of mouse EGF cDNA. As compared to control littermates, heterozygous EGF transgenic mice had an increase in EGF mRNA levels and showed significant decreases in prepulse inhibition and context-dependent fear learning, but there were no changes in locomotor behaviors and sound startle responses. In addition, these transgenic mice exhibited higher behavioral sensitivity to the repeated cocaine injections. There were neurochemical alterations in metabolic enzymes of dopamine (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase, catechol-O-methyl transferase) and monoamine contents in various brain regions of the EGF transgenic mice, but there were no apparent neuropathological signs in the brain. The present findings rule out the indirect influence of anti-EGF antibody production on the behavioral deficits of EGF-injected mice. These results support the argument that aberrant hyper-signals of EGF have significant impact on mouse behavioral traits and dopamine metabolism.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2013; 547. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2013.04.055 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    M Mizuno · H Sotoyama · H Namba · M Shibuya · T Eda · R Wang · T Okubo · K Nagata · Y Iwakura · H Nawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ligands for ErbB receptors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin-1, have a neurotrophic activity on midbrain dopaminergic neurons and are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate behavioral deficits of the schizophrenia model that was established by hippocampal lesioning of rat pups, the antipsychotic action of ErbB kinase inhibitors and its general applicability to other models are not fully characterized. Using a different animal model, here, we examined whether and how ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate the behavioral endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. The animal model for schizophrenia was prepared by exposing neonatal rats to the cytokine EGF. Intraventricular infusion of the ErbB1 inhibitors ZD1839 and PD153035 in these animals ameliorated the deficits in startle response and prepulse inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The deficits of latent inhibition of fear learning were also alleviated by ZD1839 with its limited effects on body weight gain or locomotor activity. ZD1839 infusion also decreased the busting activity of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons and reduced pallidal DA metabolism, a result that mimics the anti-dopaminergic profile of risperidone and haloperidol in this brain region. ErbB inhibitors appear to have anti-dopaminergic actions to alleviate some of the behavioral deficits common to animal models for schizophrenia.
    Translational Psychiatry 04/2013; 3(4):e252. DOI:10.1038/tp.2013.29 · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuregulin-1 binds to ErbB3 and ErbB4 and regulates cancer proliferation and differentiation. Neuregulin-1 had been suggested to also react with ErbB2, but this argument becomes controversial. Here, we re-evaluated the cellular responses and ErbB2 interaction of neuregulin-1 in ErbB2 overexpressing cell lines. In a competitive ligand-binding assay, we detected significant replacement of [S]-labeled neuregulin-1 with nano molar ranges of cold neuregulin-1 in L929 cells expressing ErbB2 alone and SKOV3 cells carrying sulf-1 cDNA but not in these parental cells. The concentration of neuregulin-1 significantly decreased thymidine incorporation and phosphorylation of ErbB2 (Tyr877, Tyr1396, and Tyr1121) in ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells as well as in L929 cells expressing ErbB2. A crosslinking assay ascertained the presence of neuregulin-1 immunoreactivity in the ErbB2 immune complexes of L929 expressing ErbB2 alone. These results suggest that the higher concentrations of neuregulin-1 exert an anti-oncogenic activity to attenuate ErbB2 auto-phosphorylation potentially through its low-affinity interaction with ErbB2.
    Scientific Reports 03/2013; 3:1402. DOI:10.1038/srep01402 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    Yuriko Iwakura · Hiroyuki Nawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ligands for ErbB1-4 receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulins, regulate brain development and function. Thus, abnormalities in their signaling are implicated in the etiology or pathology of schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Among the ErbB receptors, ErbB1, and ErbB4 are expressed in dopamine and GABA neurons, while ErbB1, 2, and/or 3 are mainly present in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and their precursors. Thus, deficits in ErbB signaling might contribute to the neurological and psychiatric diseases stemming from these cell types. By incorporating the latest cancer molecular biology as well as our recent progress, we discuss signal cross talk between the ErbB1-4 subunits and their neurobiological functions in each cell type. The potential contribution of virus-derived cytokines (virokines) that mimic EGF and neuregulin-1 in brain diseases are also discussed.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 02/2013; 7:4. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00004 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neprilysin is one of the major amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-degrading enzymes, the expression of which declines in the brain during aging. The decrease in neprilysin leads to a metabolic Aβ imbalance, which can induce the amyloidosis underlying Alzheimer disease. Pharmacological activation of neprilysin during aging therefore represents a potential strategy to prevent the development of Alzheimer disease. However, the regulatory mechanisms mediating neprilysin activity in the brain remain unclear. To address this issue, we screened for pharmacological regulators of neprilysin activity and found that the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophins 3 and 4 reduce cell surface neprilysin activity. This decrease was mediated by MEK/ERK signaling, which enhanced phosphorylation at serine 6 in the neprilysin intracellular domain (S6-NEP-ICD). Increased phosphorylation of S6-NEP-ICD in primary neurons reduced the levels of cell surface neprilysin and led to a subsequent increase in extracellular Aβ levels. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1a, tautomycetin, induced extensive phosphorylation of the S6-NEP-ICD, resulting in reduced cell surface neprilysin activity. In contrast, activation of protein phosphatase-1a increased cell surface neprilysin activity and lowered Aβ levels. Taken together, these results indicate that the phosphorylation status of S6-NEP-ICD influences the localization of neprilysin and affects extracellular Aβ levels. Therefore, maintaining S6-NEP-ICD in a dephosphorylated state, either by inhibition of protein kinases involved in its phosphorylation or by activation of phosphatases catalyzing its dephosphorylation, may represent a new approach to prevent reduction of cell surface neprilysin activity during aging and to maintain physiological levels of Aβ in the brain.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2012; 287(35):29362-72. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.340372 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Hiroyuki Nawa · Kiyofumi Yamada ·
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    ABSTRACT: Immune inflammatory processes in prenatal and perinatal stages are suggested to play crucial roles in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. Based upon this immune inflammatory hypothesis for schizophrenia, we have established animal models for this illness by subcutaneously administering cytokines or proinflammatory agents to rodent neonates. These models exhibit various schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities after puberty, most of which are sensitive to various antipsychotics. The experimental procedures are all simple and easily utilized by researchers unfamiliar with these models. The behavioral changes are reproducible and remarkable but do not accompany learning deficits. The molecular and cellular targets of these agents have also been investigated and partially characterized, such as the cortical GABAergic system, midbrain dopaminergic system and hippocampal glutamate system. In this chapter, we introduce the details of the procedure and discuss the potential application of these animal models to drug development for schizophrenia.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 829:445-51. DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-458-2_28 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate is one of the key molecules involved in signal transduction in the brain, and dysfunction of glutamate signaling could be linked to schizophrenia. The SLC1A1 gene located at 9p24 encodes the glutamate transporter EAAT3/EAAC1. To investigate the association between the SLC1A1 gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population, we genotyped 19 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in the SLC1A1 gene in 576 unrelated individuals with schizophrenia and 576 control subjects followed by replication in an independent case-control study of 1,344 individuals with schizophrenia and 1,344 control subjects. In addition, we determined the boundaries of the copy number variation (CNV) region in the first intron (Database of Genomic Variants, chr9:4516796-4520549) and directly genotyped the CNV because of significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The CNV was not associated with schizophrenia. Four SNPs showed a possible association with schizophrenia in the screening subjects and the associations were replicated in the same direction (nominal allelic P < 0.05), and, among them, an association with rs7022369 was replicated even after Bonferroni correction (allelic nominal P = 5 × 10(-5) , allelic corrected P = 2.5 × 10(-4) , allelic odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.14-1.47 in the combined subjects). Expression analysis quantified by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of 43 Japanese individuals with schizophrenia and 11 Japanese control subjects revealed increased SLC1A1 expression levels in individuals homozygous for the rs7022369 risk allele (P = 0.003). Our findings suggest the involvement of SLC1A1 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2012; 159B(1):30-7. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.31249 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Hidekazu Sotoyama · Hiroyuki Nawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin-1 (NRG) belong to the ErbB ligand family and both exert neurotrophic actions on midbrain dopamine neurons. According to the immune inflammatory hypothesis for schizophrenia, we have established rodent models for this illness by exposing their neonates to these cytokines. At post-pubertal stage, these animals develop various neurobehavioral abnormalities such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) and social interaction deficits. In this review, we introduce neurochemical features of the EGF-treated rats and NRG-treated mice, which exhibit persistent increases in tyrosine hydroxylase levels and dopamine release in the globus pallidus and prelimbic cortex (medial prefrontal cortex), respectively. Local blockade of the hyperdopaminergic state in EGF-treated rats ameliorates their behavioral deficits. These findings suggest that development of the midbrain dopamine system is vulnerable to circulating cytokines at perinatal and/or prenatal stages and potentially influences schizophrenia risk or neuropathology. The dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia is re-evaluated with the obtained results as well as with published literatures in this review.
    Nihon shinkei seishin yakurigaku zasshi = Japanese journal of psychopharmacology 11/2011; 31(5-6):209-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the ErbB receptor ligands implicated in schizophrenia neuropathology as well as in dopaminergic development. Based on the immune inflammatory hypothesis for schizophrenia, neonatal rats are exposed to this cytokine and later develop neurobehavioral abnormality such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficit. Here we found that the EGF-treated rats exhibited persistent increases in tyrosine hydroxylase levels and dopamine content in the globus pallidus. Furthermore, pallidal dopamine release was elevated in EGF-treated rats, but normalized by subchronic treatment with risperidone concomitant with amelioration of their PPI deficits. To evaluate pathophysiologic roles of the dopamine abnormality, we administered reserpine bilaterally to the globus pallidus to reduce the local dopamine pool. Reserpine infusion ameliorated PPI deficits of EGF-treated rats without apparent aversive effects on locomotor activity in these rats. We also administered dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and raclopride) and a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole) to the globus pallidus and measured PPI and bar-hang latencies. Raclopride (0.5 and 2.0 µg/site) significantly elevated PPI levels of EGF-treated rats, but SCH23390 (0.5 and 2.0 µg/site) had no effect. The higher dose of raclopride induced catalepsy-like changes in control animals but not in EGF-treated rats. Conversely, local quinpirole administration to EGF-untreated control rats induced PPI deficits and anti-cataleptic behaviors, confirming the pathophysiologic role of the pallidal hyperdopaminergic state. These findings suggest that the pallidal dopaminergic innervation is vulnerable to circulating EGF at perinatal and/or neonatal stages and has strong impact on the D2-like receptor-dependent behavioral deficits relevant to schizophrenia.
    PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e25831. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025831 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Yuriko Iwakura · Ran Wang · Kazuaki Araki · Hiroyuki Nawa ·

    Neuroscience Research 09/2011; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2011.07.593 · 1.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
891.21 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • Niigata University
      • • Division of Molecular Neurobiology
      • • Brain Research Institute
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 2001-2008
    • Stem Cell And Brain Research Institute
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2006
    • Niigata Agricultural Research Institute
      Нагаока, Niigata, Japan
    • National Institute for Basic Biology
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 1993-2006
    • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
      Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States
  • 1994
    • Regeneron
      Terryville, New York, United States
  • 1983-1993
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Morphological Brain Science
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1990-1991
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Biology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1988
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan