Hisao Nishijo

University of Toyama, Тояма, Toyama, Japan

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Publications (248)673.13 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The novel object recognition (NOR) test has been widely used to test memory function. We developed a 3D computerized video analysis system that estimates nose contact with an object in Long Evans ratsto analyze object exploration during NOR tests. The results indicate that the 3D system reproducibly and accurately scores the NOR test. Furthermore, the 3D system captures a 3D trajectory of the nose during object exploration, enabling detailed analyses of spatiotemporal patterns of object exploration. The 3D trajectory analysis revealed a specific pattern of object explorationin the sample phase of the NOR test:normal rats first explored the lower parts of objects and then graduallyexplored the upper parts. A systematic injection of MK-801 suppressed changes in these exploration patterns. The results, along with those of previous studies, suggest that the changes in the exploration patternsreflect neophobia to a novel objectand/or changesfrom spatial learning to object learning. These results demonstrate that the 3D tracking system is useful not only for detailed scoring of animal behaviors but also for investigation of characteristic spatiotemporal patterns of object exploration. The system has the potential tofacilitate future investigation ofneural mechanisms underlying object exploration that result from dynamic and complex brain activity.
    Behavioural brain research. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The human hippocampus is critical for learning and memory. In rodents, hippocampal pyramidal neurons fire in a location-specific manner and form relational representations of environmental cues. The important roles of dopaminergic D1 receptors in learning and in hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity in novel environments have been previously shown. However, the roles of D2 receptors in hippocampal neural plasticity in response to novel and familiar spatial stimuli remain unclear. In order to clarify this issue, we recorded from hippocampal neurons in dopamine D2 receptor-knockout (D2R-KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates during manipulations of distinct spatial cues in familiar and novel environments. Here, we report that D2R-KO mice showed substantial deficits in place-cell properties (number of place cells, intra-field firing rates, spatial tuning, and spatial coherence). Furthermore, although place cells in D2R-KO mice responded to manipulations of distal and proximal cues in both familiar and novel environments in a manner that was similar to place cells in WT mice, place fields were less stable in the D2R-KO mice in the familiar environment, but not in the novel environment. The present results suggested that D2 receptors in the hippocampus are important for place response stability. The place-cell properties of D2R-KO mice were similar to aged animals, suggesting that the alterations of place-cell properties in aged animals might be ascribed partly to alterations in the D2R in the HF of aged animals.
    Brain research 04/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing.
    BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014(2014):178906. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near a contaminated former airbase in Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting high perinatal dioxin exposure for their infants. The present study investigated the association of perinatal dioxin exposure with autistic traits in 153 3-year-old children living in a contaminated area in Vietnam. The children were followed up from birth using the neurodevelopmental battery Bayley-III. The high-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposed groups (3.5 pg per g fat) showed significantly higher Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) scores for both boys and girls than the mild-TCDD exposed groups, without differences in neurodevelopmental scores. In contrast, the high total dioxin-exposed group, indicated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs)-the toxic equivalents (TEQ) levels17.9 pg-TEQ per g fat, had significantly lower neurodevelopmental scores than the mild-exposed group in boys, but there was no difference in the ASRS scores. The present study demonstrates a specific impact of perinatal TCDD on autistic traits in childhood, which is different from the neurotoxicity of total dioxins (PCDDs/Fs).Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 18 March 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.18.
    Molecular psychiatry 03/2014; · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The superficial layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) appear to function as a subcortical visual pathway that bypasses the striate cortex for the rapid processing of coarse facial information. We investigated the responses of neurons in the monkey sSC during a delayed non-matching-to-sample (DNMS) task in which monkeys were required to discriminate among five categories of visual stimuli [photos of faces with different gaze directions, line drawings of faces, face-like patterns (three dark blobs on a bright oval), eye-like patterns, and simple geometric patterns]. Of the 605 sSC neurons recorded, 216 neurons responded to the visual stimuli. Among the stimuli, face-like patterns elicited responses with the shortest latencies. Low-pass filtering of the images did not influence the responses. However, scrambling of the images increased the responses in the late phase, and this was consistent with a feedback influence from upstream areas. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of the population data indicated that the sSC neurons could separately encode face-like patterns during the first 25-ms period after stimulus onset, and stimulus categorization developed in the next three 25-ms periods. The amount of stimulus information conveyed by the sSC neurons and the number of stimulus-differentiating neurons were consistently higher during the 2nd to 4th 25-ms periods than during the first 25-ms period. These results suggested that population activity of the sSC neurons preferentially filtered face-like patterns with short latencies to allow for the rapid processing of coarse facial information and developed categorization of the stimuli in later phases through feedback from upstream areas.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between the frontal and sensorimotor cortices and motor learning, hemodynamic responses were recorded from the frontal and sensorimotor cortices using functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while healthy subjects performed motor learning tasks used in rehabilitation medicine. Whole-head NIRS recordings indicated that response latencies in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) were shorter than in other frontal and parietal areas. Furthermore, the increment rate of the hemodynamic responses in the aDMPFC across the eight repeated trials significantly correlated with those in the other areas, as well as with the improvement rate of task performance across the 8 repeated trials. In the second experiment, to dissociate scalp- and brain-derived hemodynamic responses, hemodynamic responses were recorded from the head over the aDMPFC using a multi-distance probe arrangement. Six probes (a single source probe and 5 detectors) were linearly placed 6 mm apart from each of the neighboring probes. Using independent component analyses of hemodynamic signals from the 5 source-detector pairs, we dissociated scalp- and brain-derived components of the hemodynamic responses. Hemodynamic responses corrected for scalp-derived responses over the aDMPFC significantly increased across the 8 trials and correlated with task performance. In the third experiment, subjects were required to perform the same task with and without transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the aDMPFC before the task. The tDCS significantly improved task performance. These results indicate that the aDMPFC is crucial for improved performance in repetitive motor learning.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:292. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The superficial layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) appear to function as a subcortical visual pathway that bypasses the striate cortex for the rapid processing of coarse facial information. We investigated the responses of neurons in the monkey sSC during a delayed non-matching-to-sample (DNMS) task in which monkeys were required to discriminate among five categories of visual stimuli [photos of faces with different gaze directions, line drawings of faces, face-like patterns (three dark blobs on a bright oval), eye-like patterns, and simple geometric patterns]. Of the 605 sSC neurons recorded, 216 neurons responded to the visual stimuli. Among the stimuli, face-like patterns elicited responses with the shortest latencies. Low-pass filtering of the images did not influence the responses. However, scrambling of the images increased the responses in the late phase, and this was consistent with a feedback influence from upstream areas. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of the population data indicated that the sSC neurons could separately encode face-like patterns during the first 25-ms period after stimulus onset, and stimulus categorization developed in the next three 25-ms periods. The amount of stimulus information conveyed by the sSC neurons and the number of stimulus-differentiating neurons were consistently higher during the 2nd to 4th 25-ms periods than during the first 25-ms period. These results suggested that population activity of the sSC neurons preferentially filtered face-like patterns with short latencies to allow for the rapid processing of coarse facial information and developed categorization of the stimuli in later phases through feedback from upstream areas.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:85. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capuchin monkeys present a wide variety of manipulatory skills and make routine use of tools both in captivity and in the wild. Efficient handling of objects in this genus has led several investigators to assume near-human thumb movements despite the lack of anatomical studies. Here we perform an anatomical analysis of muscles and bones in the capuchin hand. Trapezo-metacarpal joint surfaces observed in capuchins indicate that medial rotation of metacarpal I is either absent or very limited. Overall, bone structural arrangement and thumb position relative to the other digits and the hand's palm suggest that capuchins are unable to perform any kind of thumb opponency, but rather a 'lateral pinch' movement. Although the capuchin hand apparatus bears other features necessary for complex tool use, the lack thumb opposition movements suggests that a developed cognitive and motor nervous system may be even more important for high manipulatory skills than traditionally held.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87288. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
    Cortex 01/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown how thalamic head direction neurons extract meaningful information from multiple conflicting sensory information sources when animals run under conditions of sensory mismatch. In the present study, rats were placed on a treadmill on a stage that moved in a figure-8-shaped pathway. The anterodorsal and laterodorsal neurons were recorded under two conditions: (1) control sessions, in which both the stage and the treadmill moved forward, or (2) backward (mismatch) sessions, in which the stage was moved backward while the rats ran forward on the treadmill. Of the 222 thalamic neurons recorded, 55 showed differential responses to the directions to window (south) and door (north) sides, along which the animals were translocated in the long axis of the trajectory. Of these 55 direction-related neurons, 15 showed heading direction-dependent responses regardless of movement direction (forward or backward movements). Thirteen neurons displayed heading and movement direction-dependent responses, and, of these 13, activity of 6 neurons increased during forward movement to the window or door side, while activity of the remaining 7 neurons increased during backward movement to the window or door side. Eighteen neurons showed movement direction-related responses regardless of heading direction. Furthermore, activity of some direction-related neurons increased only in a specific trajectory. These results suggested that the activity of these neurons reflects complex combinations of facing direction (landmarks), movement direction (optic flow/vestibular information), motor/proprioceptive information, and the trajectory of the movement.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:242. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that multiple brain regions are activated during spatial navigation. However, it is unclear whether these activated brain regions are specifically associated with spatial updating or whether some regions are recruited for parallel cognitive processes. The present study aimed to localize current sources of event related potentials (ERPs) associated with spatial updating specifically. In the control phase of the experiment, electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded while subjects sequentially traced 10 blue checkpoints on the streets of a virtual town, which were sequentially connected by a green line, by manipulating a joystick. In the test phase of the experiment, the checkpoints and green line were not indicated. Instead, a tone was presented when the subjects entered the reference points where they were then required to trace the 10 invisible spatial reference points corresponding to the checkpoints. The vertex-positive ERPs with latencies of approximately 340 ms from the moment when the subjects entered the unmarked reference points were significantly larger in the test than in the control phases. Current source density analysis of the ERPs by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) indicated activation of brain regions in the test phase that are associated with place and landmark recognition (entorhinal cortex/hippocampus, parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortices, fusiform, and lingual gyri), detecting self-motion (posterior cingulate and posterior insular cortices), motor planning (superior frontal gyrus, including the medial frontal cortex), and regions that process spatial attention (inferior parietal lobule). The present results provide the first identification of the current sources of ERPs associated with spatial updating, and suggest that multiple systems are active in parallel during spatial updating.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:66. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the decrease of startle reflex amplitude when a slight stimulus is previously generated. This paradigm may provide valuable information about sensorimotor gating functionality. Here we aimed at determining the inhibited and uninhibited startle response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.), and to evaluate the role of the superior colliculus in PPI. Capuchin monkeys were tested in a whole-body protocol, to determine the best startle amplitude and interstimuli interval. Additionally we tested two subjects with bilateral superior colliculus damage in this protocol. Results show that 115 dB auditory pulse has induced the best startle response. In contrast to reports in other species, no habituation to the auditory stimuli was observed here in capuchins. Also, startle reflex inhibition was optimal after 120 msec interstimuli interval. Finally, there was a downward tendency of percentage inhibition in superior colliculus-lesioned monkeys. Our data provides the possibility of further studies with whole-body protocol in capuchin monkeys and reinforces the importance of the superior colliculus in PPI.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105551. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Snakes and their relationships with humans and other primates have attracted broad attention from multiple fields of study, but not, surprisingly, from neuroscience, despite the involvement of the visual system and strong behavioral and physiological evidence that humans and other primates can detect snakes faster than innocuous objects. Here, we report the existence of neurons in the primate medial and dorsolateral pulvinar that respond selectively to visual images of snakes. Compared with three other categories of stimuli (monkey faces, monkey hands, and geometrical shapes), snakes elicited the strongest, fastest responses, and the responses were not reduced by low spatial filtering. These findings integrate neuroscience with evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, herpetology, and primatology by identifying a neurobiological basis for primates’ heightened visual sensitivity to snakes, and adding a crucial component to the growing evolutionary perspective that snakes have long shaped our primate lineage.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Snakes and their relationships with humans and other primates have attracted broad attention from multiple fields of study, but not, surprisingly, from neuroscience, despite the involvement of the visual system and strong behavioral and physiological evidence that humans and other primates can detect snakes faster than innocuous objects. Here, we report the existence of neurons in the primate medial and dorsolateral pulvinar that respond selectively to visual images of snakes. Compared with three other categories of stimuli (monkey faces, monkey hands, and geometrical shapes), snakes elicited the strongest, fastest responses, and the responses were not reduced by low spatial filtering. These findings integrate neuroscience with evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, herpetology, and primatology by identifying a neurobiological basis for primates' heightened visual sensitivity to snakes, and adding a crucial component to the growing evolutionary perspective that snakes have long shaped our primate lineage.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 23 October 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.73.
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 10/2013; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of oligomeric amyloid-β (oAβ) is 1 of the most likely causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that in the early phase of AD, cognitive impairments observed before marked neuronal loss and brain atrophy might be associated with oAβ-induced synaptic dysfunction. T-817MA [1-{3-[2-(1-benzothiophen-5-yl)ethoxy]propyl}azetidin-3-ol maleate] has both neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and is used to treat AD. Although T-817MA has been shown to ameliorate amyloid-induced learning deficits in experimental AD models, it remains unclear whether this drug would be able to prevent oAβ-induced synaptotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of T-817MA on the disturbances in synaptic plasticity induced by oAβ42 and oligomeric photo-cross-linked Aβ42 (oXLAβ42) in a slice preparation of the CA1 subfield of mouse hippocampus. Both oAβ42 and oXLAβ42 treatments significantly reduced the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). In addition, oAβ42 treatment significantly facilitated long-term depression (LTD). Treatment with T-817MA ameliorated the LTP reduction; however, T-817MA treatment did not inhibit the facilitation of LTD induction by oAβ42. These results suggest that T-817MA reverses oAβ-induced LTP reduction as it may occur in the early phase of AD.
    Neurobiology of aging 10/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychological data in primates demonstrated a pivotal role of the hippocampal formation (HF) and parahippocampal gyrus (PH) in navigation and episodic memory. To investigate the role of HF and PH neurons in environmental scaling in primates, we recorded neuronal activities in the monkey HF and PH during virtual navigation (VN) and pointer translocation (PT) tasks. The monkeys had to navigate within three differently sized virtual spaces with the same spatial cues (VN task) or move a pointer on a screen (PT task) by manipulating a joystick to receive a reward. Of the 234 recorded neurons, 170 and 61 neurons displayed place-related activities in the VN and PT tasks, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the HF and PH neurons. The spatial similarity of place fields between the two different virtual spaces was lower in PH than in HF, while specificities of the neuronal responses to distal spatial cues were higher in PH than in HF. Spatial view information was predominately processed in posterior PH. The spatial scales (place field sizes) of the HF and PH neurons were reduced in the reduced virtual space, as shown in rodent place cells. These results suggest the complementary roles of HF (allocentric representation of landmarks) and PH (representation of the spatial layout of landmarks) in the recognition of a location during navigation.
    Hippocampus 10/2013; · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces socioemotional and cognitive disturbances in rat offspring. In the present study, the effects of maternal TCDD exposure on putative inhibitory interneurons were investigated in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampus (HP), and superior colliculus (SC) in rat offspring. Dams were given TCDD (1.0μg/kg) on gestational day 15. When offspring rats reached adulthood (14 weeks old), parvalbumin (PV)- and calbindin (Calb)-immunoreactive neurons were immunohistochemically investigated. The histological investigations indicated that the mean area of the mPFC had increased, whereas the mean area of the SC decreased in the exposed male rats. In the exposed female rats, the mean SC area increased. Furthermore, the number and area of PV-immunoreactive neurons increased in the mPFC of the female exposed rats. In contrast, the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the BLA, HP, and SC decreased in the male and female exposed rats. The number of Calb-immunoreactive neurons decreased in the HP of the male and female exposed rats and the SC of the female exposed rats. Because PV- and Calb-immunoreactive neurons, which are putatively GABAergic, have been implicated in various higher brain functions, the effects of TCDD on socioemotional and cognitive functions might be mediated partly through these alterations in PV- and Calb-immunoreactive neurons in these areas.
    Toxicology 09/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various molecules are involved in drug addiction induced by drugs of abuse. Therefore, the mechanism of drug addiction is still not clear, and it has been a difficulty in the development of preventive and curative drugs for drug dependence. We tried to identify the molecules associated with drug dependence, and found three molecules including shati/nat81. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the substrate for shati/nat81 is aspaltate and shati/nat8l biosynthesizes N-acetylaspartate, which exists abundantly in the mammalian brain. In this study, we investigated the physiological function of shati/nat81 and the role of shati/nat81 in drug dependence. The overexpression of shati/nat81 in the dorsal striatum of mice led to social abnormality and depression-like behavior, and worsened a part of the motor dysfunction induced by Ca2+ channel agonist BAY-K 8644. The overexpression of shati/nat81 in the nucleus accumbens of mice inhibited methamphetamine-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities. These findings suggest that the shati/nat81-associated system could play a role in the regulation of mental activity and motor action, and be a new target in the development of therapeutic drugs for drug dependence.
    08/2013; 33(4):167-73.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
673.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of Toyama
      • • Department of System Emotional Science (Physiology 1)
      • • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2013
    • Fudan University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2013
    • Kanazawa Medical University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken, Japan
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2011–2012
    • Universidade Federal de Goiás
      Goianá, Goiás, Brazil
    • University of Brasília
      • Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas (CFS)
      Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Toyama University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 1984–2005
    • Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 1999
    • Kagoshima University
      • Department of Neuropsychiatry
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 1997
    • Kanazawa University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1990–1991
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences
      University Park, MD, United States