[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have revealed that many low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are located in non-protein coding genomic regions; however, few have been characterized. In a comparative genetics approach to model such loci in a rat breast cancer model, we previously identified the mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs1a. We now localize Mcs1a to a critical interval (277 Kb) within a gene desert. Mcs1a reduces mammary carcinoma multiplicity by 50% and acts in a mammary cell-autonomous manner. We developed a megadeletion mouse model, which lacks 535 Kb of sequence containing the Mcs1a ortholog. Global gene expression analysis by RNA-seq revealed that in the mouse mammary gland, the orphan nuclear receptor gene Nr2f1/Coup-tf1 is regulated by Mcs1a. In resistant Mcs1a congenic rats, as compared with susceptible congenic control rats, we found Nr2f1 transcript levels to be elevated in mammary gland, epithelial cells, and carcinoma samples. Chromatin looping over ∼820 Kb of sequence from the Nr2f1 promoter to a strongly conserved element within the Mcs1a critical interval was identified. This element contains a 14 bp indel polymorphism that affects a human-rat-mouse conserved COUP-TF binding motif and is a functional Mcs1a candidate. In both the rat and mouse models, higher Nr2f1 transcript levels are associated with higher abundance of luminal mammary epithelial cells. In both the mouse mammary gland and a human breast cancer global gene expression data set, we found Nr2f1 transcript levels to be strongly anti-correlated to a gene cluster enriched in cell cycle-related genes. We queried 12 large publicly available human breast cancer gene expression studies and found that the median NR2F1 transcript level is consistently lower in 'triple-negative' (ER-PR-HER2-) breast cancers as compared with 'receptor-positive' breast cancers. Our data suggest that the non-protein coding locus Mcs1a regulates Nr2f1, which is a candidate modifier of differentiation, proliferation, and mammary cancer risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we introduce a modified antibody staining method that uses up to 80% less antibody for flow cytometry. We demonstrate this method for the detection of antigens expressed at high, moderate, or low levels in mouse and rat lymphocytes as well as mouse mammary epithelial cells. We obtained reproducibly accurate results for the detection of up to seven parameters for activation induced-proliferation, cell cycle analysis, and phenotyping of cell-surface and intracellular antigens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are found to be located in non-protein-coding regions, suggesting their involvement in gene expression regulation. We identified the human/rat-conserved breast cancer susceptibility locus MCS5A/Mcs5a. This locus has been shown to act in a non-mammary cell-autonomous fashion through the immune system. The resistant Mcs5a allele from the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat strain consists of two non-protein-coding genetic elements that must be located on the same chromosome to elicit the phenotype. In this study, we show the presence of a conserved higher order chromatin structure in MCS5A/Mcs5a located in between the synthetically interacting genetic elements. The looped elements are shown to be bound by CTCF and cohesin. We identify the downregulation of Fbxo10 expression in T cells as a strong candidate mechanism through which the interacting genetic elements of the resistant Mcs5a allele modulate mammary carcinoma susceptibility. Finally, we show that the human MCS5A polymorphisms associated with breast cancer risk are located at both sides of the looped structure and functionally interact to downregulate transcriptional activity, similar to rat Mcs5a. We propose a mechanistic model for MCS5a/Mcs5a in which a CTCF-mediated insulator loop encompassing the TOMM5/Tomm5 gene, resides in between and brings into closer physical proximity the synthetically and functionally interacting resistant genetic variants.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2011; 40(1):132-47. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms underlying low-penetrance, common, non-protein coding variants in breast cancer risk loci are largely undefined. We showed previously that the non-protein coding mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs5a/MCS5A modulates breast cancer risk in rats and women. The Mcs5a allele from the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat strain consists of two genetically interacting elements that have to be present on the same chromosome to confer mammary carcinoma resistance. We also found that the two interacting elements of the resistant allele are required for the downregulation of transcript levels of the Fbxo10 gene specifically in T-cells. Here we describe mechanisms through which Mcs5a may reduce mammary carcinoma susceptibility.
We performed mammary carcinoma multiplicity studies with three mammary carcinoma-inducing treatments, namely 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) carcinogenesis, and mammary ductal infusion of retrovirus expressing the activated HER2/neu oncogene. We used mammary gland and bone marrow transplantation assays to assess the target tissue of Mcs5a activity. We used immunophenotyping assays on well-defined congenic rat lines carrying susceptible and resistant Mcs5a alleles to identify changes in T-cell homeostasis and function associated with resistance.
We show that Mcs5a acts beyond the initial step of mammary epithelial cell transformation, during early cancer progression. We show that Mcs5a controls susceptibility in a non-mammary cell-autonomous manner through the immune system. The resistant Mcs5a allele was found to be associated with an overabundance of gd T-cell receptor (TCR)+ T-cells as well as a CD62L (L-selectin)-high population of all T-cell classes. In contrast to in mammary carcinoma, gdTCR+ T-cells are the predominant T-cell type in the mammary gland and were found to be overabundant in the mammary epithelium of Mcs5a resistant congenic rats. Most of them simultaneously expressed the CD4, CD8, and CD161α markers. In cultured T-cells of Mcs5a resistant congenic rats we found increased mitogen-induced proliferation and production of Th1 cytokines IFNg, IL-2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), but not Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-6, or Th17 cytokine IL-17 when compared with susceptible control rats.
These data support a hypothesis that Mcs5a displays a non-mammary cell-autonomous mechanism of action to modulate breast cancer risk through the immune system. The resistant Mcs5a allele is associated with alterations in T-cell homeostasis and functions, and overabundance of γδTCR+ T-cells in carcinogen-exposed mammary epithelium.
Breast cancer research: BCR 08/2011; 13(4):R81. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat mammary carcinogenesis models have been used extensively to study breast cancer initiation, progression, prevention, and intervention. Nevertheless, quantitative molecular data on epithelial cell differentiation in mammary glands of untreated and carcinogen-exposed rats is limited. Here, we describe the characterization of rat mammary epithelial cells (RMECs) by multicolor flow cytometry using antibodies against cell surface proteins CD24, CD29, CD31, CD45, CD49f, CD61, Peanut Lectin, and Thy-1, intracellular proteins CK14, CK19, and FAK, along with phalloidin and Hoechst staining. We identified the luminal and basal/myoepithelial populations and actively dividing RMECs. In inbred rats susceptible to mammary carcinoma development, we quantified the changes in differentiation of the RMEC populations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after exposure to mammary carcinogens DMBA and MNU. DMBA exposure did not alter the percentage of basal or luminal cells, but upregulated CD49f (Integrin α6) expression and increased cell cycle activity. MNU exposure resulted in a temporary disruption of the luminal/basal ratio and no CD49f upregulation. When comparing DMBA- or MNU-induced mammary carcinomas, the RMEC differentiation profiles are indistinguishable. The carcinomas compared with mammary glands from untreated rats, showed upregulation of CD29 (Integrin β1) and CD49f expression, increased FAK (focal adhesion kinase) activation especially in the CD29hi population, and decreased CD61 (Integrin β3) expression. This study provides quantitative insight into the protein expression phenotypes underlying RMEC differentiation. The results highlight distinct RMEC differentiation etiologies of DMBA and MNU exposure, while the resulting carcinomas have similar RMEC differentiation profiles. The methodology and data will enhance rat mammary carcinogenesis models in the study of the role of epithelial cell differentiation in breast cancer.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e26145. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only a portion of the estimated heritability of breast cancer susceptibility has been explained by individual loci. Comparative genetic approaches that first use an experimental organism to map susceptibility QTLs are unbiased methods to identify human orthologs to target in human population-based genetic association studies. Here, overlapping rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) predicted QTLs, Mcs6 and Mcs2, were physically confirmed and mapped to identify the human orthologous region. To physically confirm Mcs6 and Mcs2, congenic lines were established using the Wistar-Furth (WF) rat strain, which is susceptible to developing mammary carcinomas, as the recipient (genetic background) and either Wistar-Kyoto (WKy, Mcs6) or Copenhagen (COP, Mcs2), which are resistant, as donor strains. By comparing Mcs phenotypes of WF.WKy congenic lines with distinct segments of WKy chromosome 7 we physically confirmed and mapped Mcs6 to ~33 Mb between markers D7Rat171 and gUwm64-3. The predicted Mcs2 QTL was also physically confirmed using segments of COP chromosome 7 introgressed into a susceptible WF background. The Mcs6 and Mcs2 overlapping genomic regions contain multiple annotated genes, but none have a clear or well established link to breast cancer susceptibility. Igf1 and Socs2 are two of multiple potential candidate genes in Mcs6. The human genomic region orthologous to rat Mcs6 is on chromosome 12 from base positions 71,270,266 to 105,502,699. This region has not shown a genome-wide significant association to breast cancer risk in pun studies of breast cancer susceptibility.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19891. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic factors have been estimated to account for at least 30% of a woman's risk to develop breast cancer. We have developed a rat model using Wistar Furth (WF) and Wistar Kyoto (WKy) strains to genetically identify mammary cancer susceptibility loci. The WKy allele of the mammary carcinogenesis susceptibility locus Mcs5c, was previously shown to reduce carcinoma multiplicity after 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene (DMBA) exposure. In this study, Mcs5c was fine-mapped using WF.WKy congenic lines. Mcs5c was located to a region of approximately 176 kb on rat chromosome 5. One of the Mcs5c congenic lines containing a narrow Mcs5c WKy interval displayed a 40% decrease in average carcinoma number compared with WF-homozygous congenic controls after mammary carcinogenesis induction using two different models. As genetically mapped, the Mcs5c locus is located in a gene desert and thus is devoid of genes and annotated RNAs; thus, a genetic element in Mcs5c was hypothesized to regulate the expression of genes outside the locus. Tenascin c (Tnc) was identified as a candidate gene due to its reduced expression in thymus and ovarian tissues of Mcs5c WKy-homozygous congenic females compared with WF-homozygous congenic controls. This allele-specific differential expression is environmentally controlled.
Cancer Prevention Research 01/2011; 4(1):97-106. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical models that accurately reproduce specific aspects of human disease etiology are invaluable for the initial development and evaluation of chemopreventive agents. We developed a novel, short-term prevention model, which is particularly useful for assessing the efficacy of a compound to prevent hormonally responsive and nonresponsive in situ carcinomas. In this model, carcinogenesis is induced by a high titer of neu-containing, replication-defective retrovirus. The multiplicity and size of the resulting in situ carcinomas are scored in whole-mounted, aluminum carmine-stained mammary glands at 15 days postinfusion. These in situ carcinomas represent a distinct biological time point in the development of neu-induced mammary cancer in the rat. They are characterized by high rates of proliferation (40.0%; P < 0.0001) and apoptosis (2.8%; P < 0.005) compared with mammary carcinomas. The majority of in situ carcinomas regress spontaneously after 20 days postinfusion. The in situ carcinomas at 15 days postinfusion exhibit hormonal responsiveness. The effects of the chemoprevention agents tamoxifen, celecoxib, and targretin on hormonally responsive and nonresponsive in situ carcinomas recapitulate those observed on mammary carcinomas at 12 and 18 weeks postinfusion for intact and ovariectomized rats, respectively. Neu-induced in situ carcinomas in the rat represent etiologically relevant intermediate time points of mammary carcinogenesis. Our prevention model represents a cost-efficient in vivo system to determine whether the preventive effects of a compound extend to hormonally nonresponsive mammary lesions, for which new chemoprevention approaches are needed.
Cancer Prevention Research 02/2009; 2(2):153-60. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While current breast cancer chemoprevention strategies using selective estrogen response modulators and aromatase inhibitors are quite successful, their effects are limited to hormonally responsive breast cancer. Hormonally nonresponsive breast cancer (including estrogen receptor-negative cancer) is associated with poor prognosis for patients, and few chemoprevention agents exist for this type of cancer. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and as such is a potential candidate for the prevention of hormonally nonresponsive breast cancer.
The chemopreventive effects of celecoxib were evaluated in the neu-induced retroviral rat mammary carcinogenesis model, to assess the efficacy of celecoxib on hormonally responsive and hormonally nonresponsive mammary carcinomas.
Dietary celecoxib at 1,200 mg/kg diet was highly efficacious in the prevention of hormonally responsive mammary carcinomas in intact rats, decreasing tumor multiplicity by 56% (P < 0.0001) and by 74% (P = 0.0002) in two independent experiments. No significant effect was found, however, on hormonally nonresponsive mammary carcinomas of ovariectomized rats. Treatment with a combination diet, consisting of tamoxifen at 2 mg/kg diet and celecoxib at 1,200 mg/kg diet, reduced tumor multiplicity by 72% (P = 0.0002) in intact rats. This reduction was not statistically different from that observed with celecoxib alone. Furthermore, long-term treatment with celecoxib was not associated with reductions in tumor volume in either intact rats or ovariectomized rats. In contrast, tamoxifen treatment and the combination regimen caused significant reductions in tumor volumes in intact rats (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). Consistent with these data, decreases in proliferation and increases in apoptosis were detected in tamoxifen-treated and combination diet-treated tumors. No such modulations were observed in celecoxib-treated tumors.
The chemopreventive effects of celecoxib appear to be limited to modulations in multiplicity of hormonally responsive mammary carcinomas. The fact that no synergistic or additive effects were observed in combination diet-treated rats raises the question of whether celecoxib is suitable for the prevention of hormonally nonresponsive breast cancer or for use in combination therapy with selective estrogen response modulators or aromatase inhibitors.
Breast cancer research: BCR 02/2008; 10(1):R18. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of rat genetic models has rapidly progressed over the past decades and has become an important strategy to
connect gene function to various aspects of health and disease. Reverse genetics or gene-driven genetics is a broadly accepted
approach to study gene function. An indispensable reverse genetic tool is the generation and characterization of knockout
and mutant animals for the genes of interest. Recently, the laboratories of Dr. Michael Gould (Madison, WI) and Dr. Edwin
Cuppen (Utrecht, The Netherlands) have independently developed methods using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to make rat knockouts and mutants in any gene of interest. This chapter describes experienced-based
considerations from both laboratories that could serve as a guideline for initiating ENU mutagenesis-based screens in the
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer risk is a polygenic trait. To identify breast cancer modifier alleles that have a high population frequency and low penetrance we used a comparative genomics approach. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were initially identified by linkage analysis in a rat mammary carcinogenesis model followed by verification in congenic rats carrying the specific QTL allele under study. The Mcs5a locus was identified by fine-mapping Mcs5 in a congenic model. Here we characterize the Mcs5a locus, which when homozygous for the Wky allele, reduces mammary cancer risk by 50%. The Mcs5a locus is a compound QTL with at least two noncoding interacting elements: Mcs5a1 and Mcs5a2. The resistance phenotype is only observed in rats carrying at least one copy of the Wky allele of each element on the same chromosome. Mcs5a1 is located within the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo10, whereas Mcs5a2 includes the 5' portion of Frmpd1. Resistant congenic rats show a down-regulation of Fbxo10 in the thymus and an up-regulation of Frmpd1 in the spleen. The association of the Mcs5a1 and Mcs5a2 human orthologs with breast cancer was tested in two population-based breast cancer case-control studies (approximately 12,000 women). The minor alleles of rs6476643 (MCS5A1) and rs2182317 (MCS5A2) were independently associated with breast cancer risk. The minor allele of rs6476643 increases risk, whereas the rs2182317 minor allele decreases risk. Both alleles have a high population frequency and a low penetrance toward breast cancer risk.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(15):6299-304. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress toward the understanding and management of human colon cancer can be significantly advanced if appropriate experimental platforms become available. We have investigated whether a rat model carrying a knockout allele in the gatekeeper gene Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) recapitulates familial colon cancer of the human more closely than existing murine models. We have established a mutagen-induced nonsense allele of the rat Apc gene on an inbred F344/NTac (F344) genetic background. Carriers of this mutant allele develop multiple neoplasms with a distribution between the colon and small intestine that closely simulates that found in human familial adenomatous polyposis patients. To distinguish this phenotype from the predominantly small intestinal phenotype found in most Apc-mutant mouse strains, this strain has been designated the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) kindred. The Pirc rat kindred provides several unique and favorable features for the study of colon cancer. Tumor-bearing Pirc rats can live at least 17 months, carrying a significant colonic tumor burden. These tumors can be imaged both by micro computed tomography scanning and by classical endoscopy, enabling longitudinal studies of tumor genotype and phenotype as a function of response to chemopreventive and therapeutic regimes. The metacentric character of the rat karyotype, like that of the human and unlike the acrocentric mouse, has enabled us to demonstrate that the loss of the wild-type Apc allele in tumors does not involve chromosome loss. We believe that the Pirc rat kindred can address many of the current gaps in the modeling of human colon cancer.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(10):4036-41. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat mammary cancers generally resemble many features of human breast cancer. With the recent developments in rat genetic engineering, the rat has become an excellent model system to study aspects of the molecular etiology of breast cancer. In this review, we describe the efforts to generate genetically engineered rat models for breast cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinically relevant animal models of mammary carcinogenesis are crucial for the development and evaluation of new breast cancer chemopreventive agents. The neu-induced retroviral rat mammary carcinogenesis model is based on the direct in situ transfer of the activated neu oncogene into the mammary epithelium using a replication-defective retroviral vector. The resulting mammary carcinomas in intact Wistar-Furth rats exhibit a mixed hormonal response in the same proportion as has been observed in women. In intact rats, approximately 50% of mammary carcinomas can be prevented by tamoxifen treatment. In ovariectomized animals, the mammary carcinomas are hormonally nonresponsive and cannot be prevented by tamoxifen. We evaluated the efficacy of retinoic X receptor-selective retinoids (rexinoids) in this novel model of mammary carcinogenesis. The rexinoids LG100268 and bexarotene (LG1069, Targretin) were highly efficacious in the prevention of neu-induced mammary carcinomas. Dietary LG100268 at 100 mg/kg diet decreased tumor multiplicity by 32% (P = 0.0114) in intact rats and 50% (P < 0.0001) in ovariectomized rats. Bexarotene treatment at a dose of 250 mg/kg diet was associated with reductions in tumor multiplicity of 84% (P < 0.0001) and 86% (P < 0.0001) in intact and ovariectomized animals, respectively. In addition to tumor multiplicity, proliferation and apoptosis were modulated by bexarotene treatment independently of estrogen signaling. The neu-induced retroviral rat mammary carcinogenesis model represents a valuable addition to existing rodent chemoprevention models. The model is useful for assessing the efficacy of chemopreventive agents, specifically those compounds that target hormonally nonresponsive tumors.
Cancer Research 07/2006; 66(13):6884-91. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prepubertal breast is more susceptible than the mature breast to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and potentially to cigarette smoke and alkylating chemotherapeutics. Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) from sexually immature (3-week (wk)-old) Fischer 344 rats were more sensitive than mature (8-wk-old) rats to the carcinogenic, lethal, and mutagenic effects of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). The work reported here was undertaken to better define this age-specific susceptibility of the mammary gland to NMU. Using the alkaline comet assay, it was found that MECs from immature but not mature rats displayed an increase in single-strand DNA breaks or alkali-labile lesions 2 h following NMU treatment. Hoechst staining indicated apoptosis was not responsible for the increase. Inhibition of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) did not affect immature MECs but caused mature MECs to recapitulate the immature response to NMU. Direct measurement of MGMT activity revealed that immature MECs are significantly deficient in MGMT activity relative to mature MECs. MECs had the lowest MGMT activity of all organs tested. Immature kidneys, which preferentially developed nephroblastomas after NMU treatment, also displayed significantly lower MGMT activity than mature kidneys. These results suggest that age-related differences in MGMT activity may play a significant role in age-differential susceptibility to rat mammary gland and kidney carcinogenesis, and argue the importance of extending these studies to humans. They also provide a mechanistic basis for studying, as potentially initiating events in breast cancer, exposures of prepubertal girls to alkylating agents, to which humans are exposed in cigarette smoke, the diet, and as chemotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify high-frequency, low-penetrance breast cancer modifier genes, we have developed a rat genetic model that uses the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) inbred strain, resistant to developing 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis, as a congenic donor and the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) strain as the recipient. Here, data from congenic rat lines containing smaller WKy genomic intervals of the Mcs5 quantitative trait locus region are presented to fine map three independently acting Mcs5 subloci. WKy-homozygous females from congenic lines defining Mcs5a, Mcs5b, and Mcs5c averaged, respectively, 4.0 +/- 0.4, 11.6 +/- 0.6, and 3.5 +/- 0.4 mammary carcinomas per rat. These phenotypic values are statistically different from the WF-homozygous phenotype value of 8.0 +/- 0.4, which is the baseline phenotype used for these experiments. We identified a likely Mcs5a x Mcs5b epistatic interaction that results in masking the increased susceptibility effect of the Mcs5b WKy allele by the Mcs5a WKy allele. We also provide evidence for a Mcs5a x Mcs5c interaction that is synergistic to decrease mammary carcinoma susceptibility below the additive effects of WKy alleles at each locus independently. The Mcs5 subloci are currently localized to 1.0, 7.5, and 4.5 Mb of rat chromosome 5, and the orthologous regions are on human chromosome 9 and mouse chromosome 4. These loci will provide unbiased candidate gene loci for evaluation in human case-control association studies.
Cancer Research 12/2005; 65(21):9637-42. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowing that the prepubertal period is a time of enhanced susceptibility for radiation-induced human breast cancer, we used the Fischer 344 rat model to explore the age-differential susceptibility of the mammary gland to the carcinogenic, lethal, and mutagenic effects of two structurally diverse chemical carcinogens, N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU), and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Mammary carcinoma incidences and multiplicities were significantly greater in immature than mature NMU-treated rats while mammary carcinoma incidences and multiplicities were significantly lower in immature than mature DMBA-treated rats. The survival of mammary clonogens of mature NMU-treated rats in limiting dilution transplantation assays was greater than that of the survival of mammary clonogens of immature NMU-treated rats. No differences were found in the survival of mammary cells from immature and mature rats exposed to DMBA. Although there were no mutation spectra differences, mammary epithelial cells of immature NMU-treated rats had greater mutation frequencies than those of mature NMU-treated rats. Together these results support the hypothesis that the mammary gland of immature rats is more susceptible to the carcinogenic, lethal, and mutagenic effects of alkylating agents represented by NMU in a carcinogen-class-specific manner. Further, the results suggest the importance of mechanistic and epidemiological studies of the susceptibility of the prepubertal breast to specific carcinogens such as alkylating agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is influenced by high- and low-penetrance genes. The low-penetrance genes contributing to increased and decreased risk likely exist at appreciable frequencies in the human population. To identify high-frequency, low-penetrance modifier genes, we are using a rat genetic model. Eight quantitative trait loci, named mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) loci, have been genetically identified in two rat strains, Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) and Copenhagen. These strains are resistant to developing mammary cancer compared with susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) female rats. Here we provide physical evidence of the existence of Mcs5 in the resistant WKy rat and further narrow the candidate region defining the QTL. Two congenic rat lines (C and D) containing large segments of the WKy Mcs5 QTL on chromosome 5 were generated on a WF background. The minimal WKy interval from markers D5Wox7 and D5Uwm37 (line C) conferred resistance to developing 7,12-dimethylbenz- [a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinomas. Line C females that were homozygous for the WKy allele at this interval averaged 1.1+/-0.3 carcinomas/rat compared with 6.9+/-0.4 average carcinomas/rat for WF control females (P<0.01). Line D females containing the minimal WKy interval from D5Rat26 to D5Uwm42, were as susceptible to developing mammary carcinomas as WF controls (5.7+/-0.6 versus 6.9+/-0.4, respectively). The WKy region in common to these lines from D5Rat26 to D5Uwm37 is thus not expected to contain Mcs5-associated genes. Based on results presented here, the Mcs5 locus has been physically located within a congenic interval on rat chromosome 5 between markers D5Uwm8 and D5Rat26.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has previously been shown that the Copenhagen (COP) rat contains several genetic loci that contribute to its mammary tumor-resistant phenotype after 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) administration. One of these loci, mammary carcinoma susceptibility 1 (Mcs1), is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and appears to act in a semidominant fashion. To confirm the existence and independent action of this locus and also aid in the identification of the physical location of the Mcs1 gene, congenic lines were generated by transferring the Mcs1 COP allele onto a Wistar Furth (WF) genetic background. Male carriers were genotyped using microsatellite markers spanning 20-30 cM of the Mcs1 locus. One of the congenic lines minimally retained the COP allele at D2Mit29 on the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and extended distally to D2Rat201. Heterozygous Mcs1 carrier rats were interbred, and the female offspring were treated with DMBA. The female rats from the Mcs1 congenic line that carried one or two COP alleles of the Mcs1 region had a significantly reduced (65 and 85%, respectively) tumor development (P < 0.001) compared with rats carrying zero COP alleles at this locus. A WF.COP-D2Mit29/D2Rat201 homozygous congenic strain derived at the N10 generation was treated with DMBA, and the COP homozygous rats developed 1.5 +/- 0.3 carcinomas/rat versus 6.3 +/- 0.5 in WF control rats (P < 0.0001). Fine mapping of this congenic interval using several recombinant lines identified three genetic loci within the Mcs1 congenic region that independently supported a tumor resistance phenotype. These genetic loci have been termed Mcs1a, Mcs1b, and Mcs1c. In rats for which each locus was homozygous for the COP allele, tumor development was reduced by approximately 60% compared with littermate controls. The identification of these independent loci within the Mcs1 COP allele provide a model of the genetic complexity of cancer.
Cancer Research 09/2003; 63(18):5808-12. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rat is a widely used model in biomedical research and is often the preferred rodent model in many areas of physiological and pathobiological research. Although many genetic tools are available for the rat, methods to produce gene-disrupted knockout rats are greatly needed. In this study, we developed protocols for creating N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced germline mutations in several rat strains. F1 preweanling pups from mutagenized Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were then screened for functional mutations in Brca1 and Brca2 using a yeast gap-repair, ADE2-reporter truncation assay. We produced knockout rats for each of these two breast cancer suppressor genes.