[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Infection by one serotype elicits long-lasting immunity to that serotype but not the other three. Subsequent infection by a different serotype is a risk factor for severe dengue. Domain III (ED3) of the viral envelope protein interacts with cell receptors and contains epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. We determined the serotype specificity and cross-reactivity of human IgMs directed against ED3 by using a well-characterized collection of 90 DENV-infected and 89 DENV-uninfected human serums.
The recognitions between the four serotypes of ED3 and the serums were assayed with an IgM antibody-capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA) and artificial homodimeric antigens. The results were analyzed with Receiving Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves.
The DENV-infected serums contained IgMs that reacted with one or several ED3 serotypes. The discrimination by ED3 between serums infected by the homotypic DENV and uninfected serums varied with the serotype in the decreasing order DENV1 > DENV2 > DENV3 > DENV4. The ED3 domain of DENV1 gave the highest discrimination between DENV-infected and DENV-uninfected serums, whatever the infecting serotype, and thus behaved like a universal ED3 domain for the detection of IgMs against DENV. Some ED3 serotypes discriminated between IgMs directed against the homotypic and heterotypic DENVs. The patterns of cross-reactivities and discriminations varied with the serotype.
The results should help better understand the IgM immune response and protection against DENV since ED3 is widely used as an antigen in diagnostic assays and an immunogen in vaccine candidates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Flavivirus genus includes widespread and severe human pathogens like the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1 to DENV4), yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Domain III (ED3) of the viral envelope protein interacts with cell receptors and contains epitopes recognized by virus neutralizing antibodies. Its structural, antigenic and immunogenic properties have been thoroughly studied contrary to its physico-chemical properties. Here, the ED3 domains of the above pathogenic flaviviruses were produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Their thermodynamic stabilities were measured and compared in experiments of unfolding equilibriums, induced with chemicals or heat and monitored through protein fluorescence. A designed ED3 domain, with the consensus sequence of DENV strains from all serotypes, was highly stable. The low stability of the ED3 domain from DENV3 was increased by three changes of residues in the protein core without affecting its reactivity towards DENV-infected human serums. Additional changes showed that the stability of ED3 varied with the DENV3 genotype. The Tm of ED3 was higher than 69°C for all the tested viruses and reached 86°C for the consensus ED3. The latter, deprived of its disulfide bond by mutations, was predominantly unfolded at 20°C. These results will help better understand and design the properties of ED3 for its use as diagnostic, vaccine or therapeutic tools.
Protein Engineering Design and Selection 03/2013; 26(6). DOI:10.1093/protein/gzt010 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica are three closely related pathogens. They all possess the gene coding for the Bordetella type three secretion system effector A (bteA) toxin that became a focus of interest since it was demonstrated that B. pertussis Japanese non-vaccine type isolates produce BteA unlike vaccine-type isolates. We thus explored the in vitro production of BteA in B. pertussis isolates collected in France during periods of different vaccine policy as well as in B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica isolates. We also analyzed the in vivo induction of anti-BteA antibodies after infection with different isolates of the three species. We produced a recombinant His6-tagged BteA (rBteA) protein. Specific rBteA polyclonal serum was prepared which enabled us to screen Bordetella isolates for in vitro BteA production: 99.0% (293/296) of tested B. pertussis isolates, including French vaccine strains, and 97.5% (79/81) of B. bronchiseptica isolates produced BteA in vitro but only the latter was capable of inducing an in-vivo immune response. No in vitro or in vivo production of BteA was detected by any of the B. parapertussis isolates tested.
Microbes and Infection 03/2013; 15(5). DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2013.02.006 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human Ribosomal Protein SA (RPSA or LamR1) belongs to the ribosome but is also a membrane receptor for laminin, growth factors, prion, pathogens and the anticarcinogen epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG). It contributes to the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by neurotropic viruses and bacteria, and is a biomarker of metastasis. RPSA includes an N-terminal domain, which is folded and homologous to the prokaryotic Ribosomal Proteins S2, and a C-terminal extension, which is intrinsically disordered and conserved in vertebrates. We used recombinant derivatives of RPSA and its N- and C-domains to quantify its interactions with ligands by in-vitro immunochemical and spectrofluorimetric methods. Both N- and C-domains bound laminin with dissociation constants (Kd) of 300 nM. Heparin bound only to the N-domain and competed for binding to laminin with the negatively-charged C-domain, which therefore mimicked heparin. EGCG bound only to the N-domain with a Kd of 100 nM. Domain 3 of the envelope protein from yellow fever virus and serotypes-1 and -2 of dengue virus bound preferentially to the C-domain whereas that from West Nile virus only to the N-domain. Our quantitative in-vitro approach should help clarify the mechanisms of action of RPSA, and ultimately fight against cancer and infectious agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ribosomal protein SA (RPSA) is a multilocus protein, present in most cellular compartments. It is a multifunctional protein, which belongs to the ribosome but is also a membrane receptor for laminin, growth factors, prion, pathogenic microorganisms, toxins, and the anticarcinogen epigallocatechin gallate. It contributes to the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by neurotropic viruses and bacteria and is used as a biomarker of metastasis. RPSA includes an N-terminal domain, which is homologous to the prokaryotic ribosomal proteins S2, and a C-terminal extension, which is conserved in vertebrates. The structure of its N-domain has been determined from crystals grown at 17 °C. The structure of its C-domain remains unknown. We produced in Escherichia coli and purified the full-length RPSA and its N- and C-domains. We characterized the folding states of these recombinant proteins mainly by methods of fluorescence and circular dichroism spectrometry, in association with quantitative analyses of their unfolding equilibria, induced with heat or urea. The necessary equations were derived from first principles. The results showed that the N-domain unfolded according to a three-state equilibrium. The monomeric intermediate was predominant at the body temperature of 37 °C. It also existed in the full-length RPSA and bound ANS, a small fluorescent molecule. The C-domain was in an intrinsically disordered state. The recombinant N- and C-domains weakly interacted together. These results indicated a high plasticity of RPSA, which could be important for its multiple cellular localizations and functional interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies and artificial families of antigen binding proteins (AgBP) are constituted by a connected set of hypervariable (or randomized) residue positions, supported by a constant polypeptide backbone. The residues that form the binding site for a given antigen, are selected among the hypervariable residues. We showed that it is possible to transform any AgBP of these families into a reagentless fluorescent biosensor, specific of the target antigen, simply by coupling a solvatochromic fluorophore to one of the hypervariable residues that have little or no importance for the interaction with the antigen, after changing this residue into cysteine by mutagenesis. We validated this approach with a DARPin (Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein) and a Nanofitin (also known as Affitin) with high success rates. Reagentless fluorescent biosensors recognize their antigen in an immediate, quantitative, selective and specific way, without any manipulation of the sample to analyze or addition of reagent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legionella pneumophila and L. longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. L. pneumophila is mainly found in natural and artificial water circuits while L. longbeachae is mainly present in soil. Under the appropriate conditions both species are human pathogens, capable of causing a severe form of pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of four L. longbeachae genomes, one complete genome sequence of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 serogroup (Sg) 1, and three draft genome sequences another belonging to Sg1 and two to Sg2. The genome organization and gene content of the four L. longbeachae genomes are highly conserved, indicating strong pressure for niche adaptation. Analysis and comparison of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 with L. pneumophila revealed common but also unexpected features specific to this pathogen. The interaction with host cells shows distinct features from L. pneumophila, as L. longbeachae possesses a unique repertoire of putative Dot/Icm type IV secretion system substrates, eukaryotic-like and eukaryotic domain proteins, and encodes additional secretion systems. However, analysis of the ability of a dotA mutant of L. longbeachae NSW150 to replicate in the Acanthamoeba castellanii and in a mouse lung infection model showed that the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is also essential for the virulence of L. longbeachae. In contrast to L. pneumophila, L. longbeachae does not encode flagella, thereby providing a possible explanation for differences in mouse susceptibility to infection between the two pathogens. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that L. longbeachae has a less pronounced biphasic life cycle as compared to L. pneumophila, and genome analysis and electron microscopy suggested that L. longbeachae is encapsulated. These species-specific differences may account for the different environmental niches and disease epidemiology of these two Legionella species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus gallolyticus (formerly known as Streptococcus bovis biotype I) is an increasing cause of endocarditis among streptococci and frequently associated with colon cancer. S. gallolyticus is part of the rumen flora but also a cause of disease in ruminants as well as in birds. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of strain UCN34, responsible for endocarditis in a patient also suffering from colon cancer. Analysis of the 2,239 proteins encoded by its 2,350-kb-long genome revealed unique features among streptococci, probably related to its adaptation to the rumen environment and its capacity to cause endocarditis. S. gallolyticus has the capacity to use a broad range of carbohydrates of plant origin, in particular to degrade polysaccharides derived from the plant cell wall. Its genome encodes a large repertoire of transporters and catalytic activities, like tannase, phenolic compounds decarboxylase, and bile salt hydrolase, that should contribute to the detoxification of the gut environment. Furthermore, S. gallolyticus synthesizes all 20 amino acids and more vitamins than any other sequenced Streptococcus species. Many of the genes encoding these specific functions were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from other bacterial species present in the rumen. The surface properties of strain UCN34 may also contribute to its virulence. A polysaccharide capsule might be implicated in resistance to innate immunity defenses, and glucan mucopolysaccharides, three types of pili, and collagen binding proteins may play a role in adhesion to tissues in the course of endocarditis.
Journal of bacteriology 02/2010; 192(8):2266-76. DOI:10.1128/JB.01659-09 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reductive evolution and massive pseudogene formation have shaped the 3.31-Mb genome of Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable obligate pathogen that causes leprosy in humans. The complete genome sequence of M. leprae strain Br4923 from Brazil was obtained by conventional methods (6x coverage), and Illumina resequencing technology was used to obtain the sequences of strains Thai53 (38x coverage) and NHDP63 (46x coverage) from Thailand and the United States, respectively. Whole-genome comparisons with the previously sequenced TN strain from India revealed that the four strains share 99.995% sequence identity and differ only in 215 polymorphic sites, mainly SNPs, and by 5 pseudogenes. Sixteen interrelated SNP subtypes were defined by genotyping both extant and extinct strains of M. leprae from around the world. The 16 SNP subtypes showed a strong geographical association that reflects the migration patterns of early humans and trade routes, with the Silk Road linking Europe to China having contributed to the spread of leprosy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio splendidus is a dominant Vibrio species in seawater presenting a remarkable genetic diversity; several strains have been linked to invertebrate's mortality. We report the complete genome sequence of V. splendidus LGP32, an oyster pathogen, and its comparison with partial genome sequences from related strains. As is typical for the genus, V. splendidus LGP32 contains two chromosomes (3.29 and 1.67 Mb) and most essential cellular processes are encoded by chromosome 1. Comparison with two other V. splendidus partial genome sequences (strains 12B01 and Med222) confirms the previously suggested high genotypic diversity within this species and led to the identification of numerous strain-specific regions that could frequently not be assigned to a specific mechanisms of recombination. Surprisingly, the chromosomal integron, the most variable genetic element in all other Vibrio species analysed to date, is absent from 12B01 and inactivated by a mobile element in Med222, while in LGP32 it only contains a limited number of cassettes. Finally, we found that the LGP32 integron contains a new dfrA cassette, related to those found in resistance integrons of Gram-negative clinical isolates. Those results suggest that marine Vibrio can be a source of antibiotic resistance genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene repression, and their role in diverse physiological processes is increasingly recognized. Yet, few efforts have been devoted to evolutionary studies of human miRNAs. Knowledge about the way in which natural selection has targeted miRNAs should provide insight into their functional relevance as well as their mechanisms of action. Here we used miRNAs as a model system for investigating the influence of natural selection on gene regulation by characterizing the full spectrum of naturally occurring sequence variation of 117 human miRNAs from different populations worldwide. We found that purifying selection has globally constrained the diversity of miRNA-containing regions and has strongly targeted the mature miRNA. This observation emphasizes that mutations in these molecules are likely to be deleterious, and therefore they can have severe phenotypic consequences on human health. More importantly, we obtained evidence of population-specific events of positive selection acting on a number of miRNA-containing regions. Notably, our analysis revealed that positive selection has targeted a "small-RNA-rich island" on chromosome 14, harboring both miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs, in Europeans and East Asians. These observations support the notion that the tuning of gene expression contributes to the processes by which populations adapt to specific environments. These findings will fuel future investigations exploring how genetic and functional variation of miRNAs under selection affects the repression of their mRNA targets, increasing our understanding of the role of gene regulation in population adaptation and human disease.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2009; 84(3):316-27. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.01.022 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leprosy is a chronic dermatological and neurological disease that results from infection with the unculturable pathogen M. leprae 1 and causes nerve damage that can lead to severe disabilities. There is no known reservoir for M. leprae other than human beings. New opportunities for understanding the transmission of the leprosy bacillus and its phylogeny have arisen following the determination of the complete 3.3-Mb genome sequence of the TN strain, from Tamil Nadu, India 2 . A notable feature of the M. leprae genome is the exceptionally large number of pseudogenes, which occupy almost half of the TN chro-mosome 2 . The resulting loss of function most likely accounts for the exceptionally slow growth rate of the bacillus and for researchers' failure to culture it in vitro. Given this extensive genome decay, one might expect to find more genetic variability between different iso-lates of M. leprae, but initial analysis of SNPs demonstrated that these were very rare, occurring roughly once every 28 kb. Furthermore, all extant isolates of M. leprae were nearly indistinguishable, belonging to one of only four SNP types, and are derived from a single clone 3 . Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) have also been investigated in M. leprae 3–8 and, in some cases, have proved useful for countrywide epidemiological surveys 9 . However, owing to variability of VNTR pro-files in samples taken from different sites on the same patient, their utility may be limited 7,10,11 . The emerging discipline of microbial phylogeography is a power-ful means of monitoring not only the spread of microbes but also the movement of their hosts. For instance, compelling associations were found between the genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains and their places of origin, and the migration and ethnicity of their human hosts 12–14 . M. leprae is also proving useful in this respect, with its spread reflecting the migrations of early humans 3 , and similar studies with tuberculosis patients suggest that Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages have also adapted to particular human populations 15 . Comparative genomic and phylogeographic analysis of Mycobacterium leprae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptospira biflexa is a free-living saprophytic spirochete present in aquatic environments. We determined the genome sequence of L. biflexa, making it the first saprophytic Leptospira to be sequenced. The L. biflexa genome has 3,590 protein-coding genes distributed across three circular replicons: the major 3,604 chromosome, a smaller 278-kb replicon that also carries essential genes, and a third 74-kb replicon. Comparative sequence analysis provides evidence that L. biflexa is an excellent model for the study of Leptospira evolution; we conclude that 2052 genes (61%) represent a progenitor genome that existed before divergence of pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species. Comparisons of the L. biflexa genome with two pathogenic Leptospira species reveal several major findings. Nearly one-third of the L. biflexa genes are absent in pathogenic Leptospira. We suggest that once incorporated into the L. biflexa genome, laterally transferred DNA undergoes minimal rearrangement due to physical restrictions imposed by high gene density and limited presence of transposable elements. In contrast, the genomes of pathogenic Leptospira species undergo frequent rearrangements, often involving recombination between insertion sequences. Identification of genes common to the two pathogenic species, L. borgpetersenii and L. interrogans, but absent in L. biflexa, is consistent with a role for these genes in pathogenesis. Differences in environmental sensing capacities of L. biflexa, L. borgpetersenii, and L. interrogans suggest a model which postulates that loss of signal transduction functions in L. borgpetersenii has impaired its survival outside a mammalian host, whereas L. interrogans has retained environmental sensory functions that facilitate disease transmission through water.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(2):e1607. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0001607 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spirochetes of the Leptospira genus contain saprophytic and pathogenic members, the latter being responsible for leptospirosis. Despite the recent sequencing of the genome of the pathogen L. interrogans, the slow growth of these bacteria, their virulence in humans, and a lack of genetic tools make it difficult to work with these pathogens. In contrast, the development of numerous genetic tools for the saprophyte L. biflexa enables its use as a model bacterium. Leptospira spp. require iron for growth. In this work, we show that Leptospira spp. can acquire iron from different sources, including siderophores. A comparative genome analysis of iron uptake systems and their regulation in the saprophyte L. biflexa and the pathogen L. interrogans is presented in this study. Our data indicated that, for instance, L. biflexa and L. interrogans contain 8 and 12 genes, respectively, whose products share homology with proteins that have been shown to be TonB-dependent receptors. We show that some genes involved in iron uptake were differentially expressed in response to iron. In addition, we were able to disrupt several putative genes involved in iron acquisition systems or iron regulation in L. biflexa. Comparative genomics, in combination with gene inactivation, gives us significant functional information on iron homeostasis in Leptospira spp.
Journal of Bacteriology 12/2006; 188(22):7893-904. DOI:10.1128/JB.00711-06 · 2.81 Impact Factor