[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents with a large spectrum of antitumor activity when used as monotherapy or in combination regimens. Paclitaxel and docetaxel have poor solubility and require a complex solvent system for their commercial formulation, Cremophor EL(R) (CrEL) and Tween 80(R) respectively. Both these biological surfactants have recently been implicated as contributing not only to the hypersensitivity reactions, but also to the degree of peripheral neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, and may antagonize the cytotoxicity. Nab-paclitaxel, or nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (ABI-007; Abraxane(R)), is a novel formulation of paclitaxel that does not employ the CrEL solvent system. Nab-paclitaxel demonstrates greater efficacy and a favorable safety profile compared with standard paclitaxel in patients with advanced disease (breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer). Clinical studies in breast cancer have shown that nab-paclitaxel is significantly more effective than standard paclitaxel in terms of overall objective response rate (ORR) and time to progression. Nab-paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine, capecitabine or bevacizumab has been shown to be very active in patients with advanced breast cancer. An economic analysis showed that nab-paclitaxel would be an economically reasonable alternative to docetaxel or standard paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. Favorable tumor ORR and manageable toxicities have been reported for nab-paclitaxel as monotherapy or in combination treatment in advanced breast cancer.
OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2009; 2:179-88. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete surgical resection of gastric cancer is potentially curative, but long-term survival is poor.
Patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach of stages IB, II, IIIA and B, or IV (T4N2M0) and treated with potentially curative surgery were randomly assigned to follow-up alone or to intravenous treatment with four cycles (repeated every 21 days) of PELF (cisplatin [40 mg/m(2), on days 1 and 5], epirubicin [30 mg/m(2), days 1 and 5], L-leucovorin [100 mg/m(2), days 1-4], and 5-fluorouracil [300 mg/m(2), days 1-4] in a hospital setting. Frequencies and severity of adverse events were determined. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between the treatment arms using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox proportional hazards regression model. All statistical tests were two-sided.
From January 1995 through September 2000, 258 patients were randomly assigned to chemotherapy (n = 130) or surgery alone (n = 128). Patient characteristics were well balanced between the two arms. Among those who received chemotherapy, grade 3 or 4 toxic effects including vomiting, mucositis, and diarrhea were experienced by 21.1%, 8.4%, and 11.8% of patients, respectively. Leucopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia of grade 3 or 4 were experienced by 20.3%, 3.3%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 72.8 months, 128 patients (49.6%) experienced recurrence and 139 (53.9%) deaths were observed, one toxicity-related. Relative to treatment with surgery alone, adjuvant chemotherapy did not increase disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] of recurrence = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 1.27) or overall survival (HR of death = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.64 to 1.26).
Our results failed to provide proof of an effect of adjuvant chemotherapy with PELF on overall survival or disease-free survival. The estimated effect of chemotherapy (10% reduction in the hazard of death or relapse) is modest and consistent with the results of meta-analyses of adjuvant chemotherapy without platinum agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in Western countries. The median survival time for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor and chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for most patients with metastatic NSCLC. Platinum-based chemotherapy has long been the standard of care for advanced NSCLC. The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is needed for the growth and invasiveness of primary tumours, and plays an important role in metastatic growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a key potential target for the pharmacological inhibition of tumour angiogenesis. This review discusses current data and the future potential of bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds VEGF, in the treatment of NSCLC. Results from a phase II study showed that the addition of bevacizumab to the first-line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin (CP) may increase the overall survival (OS) and the time to progression in advanced NSCLC. Based on these promising results, a randomized phase III trial compared the combination of bevacizumab with CP versus CP alone in the treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC. The combination of CP plus bevacizumab led to a statistically significant increase in median OS and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with CP alone, with a response rate (RR) in the CP arm of 15% compared with 35% in the bevacizumab plus CP arm (p < 0.001). More recently, the randomized AVAIL (Avastin in Lung Cancer) study, which evaluated cisplatin with gemcitabine plus bevacizumab in two different dosages versus chemotherapy alone in 1043 patients with recurrent or advanced non-squamous NSCLC, reported a significant increase of PFS, RR and duration of response for both of the bevacizumab-containing arms. Bevacizumab has also been investigated in combination with erlitonib as second-line treatment in two small early phase trials, with interesting results. Bevacizumab was generally well tolerated in clinical trials; the main treatment-associated adverse events were neutropenia and haemorrhage, especially in the lung, but also at other sites. Several trials that incorporate bevacizumab in combination with new active drugs in NSCLC are ongoing and should further help to define the place of bevacizumab in the therapy of NSCLC.