[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population-based estimations of perinatal and neonatal outcomes are sparse in Vietnam. There are no previously published data on small for gestational age (SGA) infants. A rural population in northern Vietnam was investigated from 1999 to 2005 (n=5521). Based on the birthweight distributions within the population under study, reference curves for intrauterine growth for Vietnamese infants were constructed and the prevalence and distribution of SGA was calculated for each sex. Neonatal mortality was estimated as 11.6 per 1000 live births and the perinatal mortality as 25.0 per 1000 births during the study period. The mean birthweight was 3112 g and the prevalence of low birthweight was 5.0%. The overall prevalence of SGA was 6.4%. SGA increased with gestational age and was 2.2%, 4.5% and 27.1% for preterm, term and post-term infants, respectively. Risk factors for SGA were post-term birth: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 7.75 [95% CI 6.02, 9.98], mothers in farming occupations AOR 1.72 [95% CI 1.21, 2.45] and female infant AOR 1.61 [95% CI 1.27, 2.03]. There was a pronounced decrease in neonatal mortality after 33 weeks of gestation. Suggested interventions are improved prenatal identification of SGA infants by ultrasound investigation for fetal growth among infants who do not follow their expected clinical growth curve at the antenatal clinic. Other suggestions include allocating a higher proportion of preterm deliveries to health facilities with surgical capacity and neonatal care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the viability and value of comparing cause-specific mortality across four socioeconomically and culturally diverse settings using a completely standardised approach to VA interpretation.
Deaths occurring between 1999 and 2004 in Butajira (Ethiopia), Agincourt (South Africa), FilaBavi (Vietnam) and Purworejo (Indonesia) health and socio-demographic surveillance sites were identified. VA interviews were successfully conducted with the caregivers of the deceased to elicit information on signs and symptoms preceding death. The information gathered was interpreted using the InterVA method to derive population cause-specific mortality fractions for each of the four settings.
The mortality profiles derived from 4784 deaths using InterVA illustrate the potential of the method to characterise sub-national profiles well. The derived mortality patterns illustrate four populations with plausible, markedly different disease profiles, apparently at different stages of health transition.
Given the standardised method of VA interpretation, the observed differences in mortality cannot be because of local differences in assigning cause of death. Standardised, fit-for-purpose methods are needed to measure population health and changes in mortality patterns so that appropriate health policy and programmes can be designed, implemented and evaluated over time and place. The InterVA approach overcomes several longstanding limitations of existing methods and represents a valuable tool for health planners and researchers in resource-poor settings.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2010; 15(10):1256-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02601.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There remains a lack of information on economic aspects of chronic diseases. This paper, by gathering available and relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss current evidence on economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam.
DATA USED IN THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM VARIOUS INFORMATION SOURCES: international and national journal articles and studies, government documents and publications, web-based statistics and fact sheets.
In Vietnam, chronic diseases were shown to be leading causes of deaths, accounting for 66% of all deaths in 2002. The burdens caused by chronic disease morbidity and risk factors are also substantial. Poorer people in Vietnam are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and their risk factors, other than being overweight. The estimated economic loss caused by chronic diseases for Vietnam in 2005 was about US$20 million (0.033% of annual national GDP). Chronic diseases were also shown to cause economic losses for families and individuals in Vietnam. Both population-wide and high-risk individual interventions against chronic disease were shown to be cost-effective in Vietnam.
Given the evidence from this study, actions to prevent chronic diseases in Vietnam are clearly urgent. Further research findings are required to give greater insights into economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam.
Global Health Action 12/2009; 2. DOI:10.3402/gha.v2i0.1965 · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate and analyse the "actual" unit cost of providing key clinical services in selected rural district hospitals in the North of Vietnam. It also examined the relationship between actual costs and the levels of cost covered by the corresponding user fees paid by patients.Methods: This was a facility-based costing study which estimates the costs of health care services from the perspective of the service providers. Three rural district hospitals from three provinces in the North of Vietnam were purposively selected for this study. The "step-down" approach was applied.Results: There was little difference in the costs of an outpatient visit across the hospitals, but the costs of an operation and an inpatient day varied considerably. In terms of cost structure, personnel costs accounted for the highest share of total cost of the clinical services. The shares of operating cost were considerable while depreciation of buildings/equipments made up a small "proportion". The study results revealed that the user fee levels were much lower than the actual costs of providing the corresponding services. The present study highlights the importance of costing data for hospital planning and management.
International Journal of Health Planning and Management 01/2009; 25(1):63-73. DOI:10.1002/hpm.970 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fact that chronic diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in hospitals in Vietnam was certified by yearly statistical information. However, population-based knowledge of chronic diseases is still largely lacking. This article examines the prevalence of major chronic diseases and their relationships with sociodemographic status and selected lifestyle risk factors among the adult population in a rural community in the north of Vietnam.
A representative sample comprising 2500 adults aged 25-74 years was surveyed in 2005 using a structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were applied.
Thirty-nine per cent of the respondents had at least one of the studied chronic diseases. The prevalence of current smoking was 59% among men and 0.7% among women. The prevalence of at-risk alcohol drinking was 67% among men and 3% among women. Increasing age, low education and doing other jobs (small traders, temporary workers, housekeepers, handicraft makers and jobless), as well as tobacco use and at-risk alcohol drinking, were found to be associated with a higher probability of having at least one chronic disease of interest. Economic status was found to be inversely correlated with the probability of having at least one chronic disease among women only.
The findings from this study indicated that chronic conditions and lifestyle risk factors were very common among the adult population in rural Vietnam. There is an association between chronic diseases and lower socioeconomic status and unhealthy lifestyle risk factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 09/2008; 36(6):629-34. DOI:10.1177/1403494807086977 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyse the associations between cause-specific mortality in adults (aged 20 years and above) and socio-economic status (SES) in a rural setting of Vietnam during a time of economic transition.
The study was carried out as part of the FilaBavi demographic surveillance system, with a dynamic cohort of 50,000 inhabitants from January 1999 to December 2003.
Causes of death in the adult population were derived using verbal autopsy. A Cox regression model was employed to check the association of SES with three major causes of death: communicable diseases; non-communicable diseases; and injuries.
The crude mortality rates were 9.2 and 6.6 per 1000 person-years in adult males and females, respectively. Men had higher mortality rates than women for all mortality categories and for all levels of education and household economic situation (HES). Mortality rates increased substantially with age, and showed similar age effects for all mortality categories with the strongest association for non-communicable diseases. Education was an important factor for survival in general, and high HES seemed to benefit men more than women.
Interventions and policies to reduce exposure to risk factors for non-communicable diseases are needed in low-education groups. However, further study is needed to analyse the mortality inequity across all age groups.
Public Health 07/2006; 120(6):497-504. DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2006.03.003 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessing the burden of disease contributes towards evidence-based allocation of limited health resources. However, such measures are not yet commonly available in Vietnam. Taking advantage of the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site (FilaBavi DSS) in Vietnam, this study aimed to establish the feasibility of applying the Years of Life Lost (YLL) technique in the context of a defined DSS, and to estimate the importance of the principal causes of premature mortality in a rural area of Vietnam between 1999 and 2003.
Global Burden of Disease methods were applied. Causes of death were ascertained by verbal autopsy.
In five years, 1,240 deaths occurred and for 1,220 cases cause of death information from verbal autopsy was available. Life expectancy at birth was 71.0 (95% confidence interval 69.9-72.1) in males and 80.9 (79.9-81.9) in females. The discounted, but not age weighted YLL per 1,000 population was 85 and 55 for males and females, respectively. The leading causes of YLL and death counts were cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, unintentional injuries, and neonatal causes. Males contributed 54% of total deaths and 59% of YLL. Males experienced higher YLL than women across all causes. Filabavi mortality estimates are considerably lower than 2002 WHO country estimates for Vietnam. Also the FilaBavi cause distribution varies considerably from the WHO result.
The combination of localised demographic surveillance, verbal autopsy and the application of YLL methods enable new insights into the magnitude and importance of significant public health issues in settings where evidence for planning is otherwise scarce. Local mortality data vary considerably from the WHO model-based estimates.
Population Health Metrics 02/2006; 4(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1478-7954-4-9 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Verbal autopsy (VA) is an attractive method for ascertaining causes of death in settings where the proportion of people who die under medical care is low. VA has been widely used to determine causes of childhood and maternal deaths, but has had limited use in assessing causes in adults and across all age groups. The objective was to test the feasibility of using VA to determine causes of death for all ages in Bavi District, Vietnam, in 1999, leading to an initial analysis of the mortality pattern in this area.
Trained lay field workers interviewed a close caretaker of the deceased using a combination closed/open-ended questionnaire.
A total of 189 deaths were studied. Diagnoses were made by two physicians separately, with good agreement (kappa = 0.84) and then combined to reach one single underlying cause of death for each case. The leading causes of death were cardiovascular and infectious diseases (accounting for 20.6% and 17.9% of the total respectively). Drowning was very prevalent in children under 15 (seven out of nine cases of drowning were in this age group).
One month seemed an acceptable minimum recall period to ensure mourning procedures were over. A combination VA questionnaire was an appropriate instrument provided it was supported by adequate training of interviewers. Two physicians were appropriate for making the diagnoses but predefined diagnostic methods for common causes should be developed to ensure more replicable results and comparisons, as well as to observe trends of mortality over time. The causes of death in this study area reflect a typical pattern for developing countries that are in epidemiological transition. No maternal deaths and a low infant mortality rate may be the result of improvements in maternal and child health in this study area. Using the VA gave more precise causes of death than those reported at death registration. Although the validity of the VA method used has not been fully assessed, it appeared to be an appropriate method for ascertaining causes of death in the study area.
Scandinavian journal of public health. Supplement 02/2003; 62:19-25. DOI:10.1177/140349480303100604 · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Verbal autopsy (VA) has become an important tool in the past 20 years for determining cause of death in communities where there is no routine registration. In many cases, expert physicians have been used to interpret the VA findings and so assign individual causes of death. However, this is time consuming and not always repeatable. Other approaches such as algorithms and neural networks have been developed in some settings. This paper aims to develop a method that is simple, reliable and consistent, which could represent an advance in VA interpretation.
This paper describes the development of a Bayesian probability model for VA interpretation as an attempt to find a better approach. This methodology and a preliminary implementation are described, with an evaluation based on VA material from rural Vietnam.
The new model was tested against a series of 189 VA interviews from a rural community in Vietnam. Using this very basic model, over 70% of individual causes of death corresponded with those determined by two physicians increasing to over 80% if those cases ascribed to old age or as being indeterminate by the physicians were excluded.
Although there is a clear need to improve the preliminary model and to test more extensively with larger and more varied datasets, these preliminary results suggest that there may be good potential in this probabilistic approach.
Scandinavian journal of public health. Supplement 02/2003; 62:32-7. DOI:10.1177/140349480303100606 · 1.44 Impact Factor