P Hofman

University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (194)384.89 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Frozen section (FS) analysis used to be the principal examination guiding surgical strategy. The development and recent standardization of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) challenges it as a systematic attitude. The present study assessed the current contribution of FS, comparing it with FNAC as a diagnostic tool guiding surgery.
    European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas expressing ALK rearrangements are highly responsive to crizotinib, a dual ALK/c-MET inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an easy clinically and routinely applicable cost-effective assay for ALK, c-MET and ROS1 protein expression for potential treatment with crizotinib. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage and the pattern of ALK-rearranged cells, the variation in the native ALK copy number, as well as ALK, c-MET and ROS1 protein expression, and their significance on outcome of crizotinib treated lung adenocarcinoma patients.
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) recently emerged as a pro-metastatic factor highly associated with poor prognosis in a number of cancers. This correlation seemed paradox as TIMP-1 is best described as an inhibitor of pro-tumourigenic matrix metalloproteinases. Only recently, TIMP-1 has been revealed as a signalling molecule that can regulate cancer progression independent of its inhibitory properties. In the present study, we demonstrate that an increase of both exogenous and endogenous TIMP-1 led to the upregulation of miR-210 in a CD63/PI3K/AKT/HIF-1-dependent pathway in lung adenocarcinoma cells. TIMP-1 induced P110/P85 PI3K-signalling and AKT phosphorylation. It also led to increase of HIF-1α protein levels positively correlating with HIF-1-regulated mRNA expression and upregulation of the microRNA miR-210. Downstream targets of miR-210, namely FGFRL1, E2F3, VMP-1, RAD52 and SDHD, were decreased in the presence of TIMP-1. Upon the overexpression of TIMP-1 in tumour cells, miR-210 was accumulated in exosomes in vitro and in vivo. These exosomes promoted tube formation activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), which was reflected in increased angiogenesis in A549L-derived tumour xenografts. Activation and elevation of PI3K, AKT, HIF-1A and miR-210 in tumours additionally confirmed our in vitro data. This new pro-tumourigenic signalling function of TIMP-1 may explain why elevated TIMP-1 levels in lung cancer patients are highly correlated with poor prognosis.Oncogene advance online publication, 29 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.300.
    Oncogene 09/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in biomarkers in the field of thoracic oncology is focused on the search for new robust tests for diagnosis (in particular for screening), prognosis and theragnosis. These biomarkers can be detected in tissues and/or cells, but also in biological fluids, mainly the blood. In this context, there is growing interest in the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of lung cancer patients since CTC identification, enumeration and characterization may have a direct impact on diagnosis, prognosis and theragnosis in the daily clinical practice. Many direct and indirect methods have been developed to detect and characterize CTCs in lung cancer patients. However, these different approaches still hold limitations and many of them have demonstrated unequal sensitivity and specificity. Indeed, these methods hold advantages but also certain disadvantages. Therefore, despite the promises, it is currently difficult and premature to apply this methodology to the routine care of lung cancer patients. This situation is the consequence of the analysis of the methodological approaches for the detection and characterization of CTCs and of the results published to date. Finally, the advent of targeted cancer therapies in thoracic oncology has stimulated considerable interest in non-invasive detection of genomic alterations in tumors over time through the analysis of CTCs, an approach that may help clinicians to optimize therapeutic strategies for lung cancer patients. We describe here the main methods for CTC detection, the advantages and limitations of these different approaches and the potential usefulness and value of CTC characterization in the field of thoracic oncology.
    Current Molecular Medicine 04/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Previous studies indicate that endothelial injury, as demonstrated by the presence of circulating endothelial cells (CECs), may predict clinical outcome in cancer patients. In addition, soluble CD146 (sCD146) may reflect activation of angiogenesis. However, no study has investigated their combined clinical value in patients undergoing resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods:Data were collected from preoperative blood samples from 74 patients who underwent resection for NSCLC. Circulating endothelial cells were defined, using the CellSearch Assay, as CD146+CD105+CD45-DAPI+. In parallel, sCD146 was quantified using an ELISA immunoassay. These experiments were also performed on a group of 20 patients with small-cell lung cancer, 60 healthy individuals and 23 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Results:The CEC count and the plasma level of sCD146 were significantly higher in NSCLC patients than in the sub-groups of controls (P<0.001). Moreover, an increased CEC count was associated with higher levels of sCD146 (P=0.010). Both high CEC count and high sCD146 plasma level at baseline significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (P=0.005; P=0.009) of NSCLC patients.Conclusions:The present study provides supportive evidence to show that both a high CEC count and a high sCD146 level at baseline correlate with poor prognosis and may be useful for the prediction of clinical outcome in patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 28 January 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.11 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We read with interest two recent studies which established that High Definition Optical Coherent Tomography (HD-OCT), a newly released skin imaging technique, facilitates the in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers (1, 2). However, to the best of our knowledge there is no data available regarding HD-OCT and melanoma. A 61-year-old man, skin type II, with a previous history of melanoma 10 years before consulted for a follow-up visit. Clinical and dermoscopic examination pointed to two suspicious pigmented lesions in the right pectoral region and on the left scapula. RCM examination using a commercially available VivaScope (®) 1500 (Lucid-Tech Inc., Henrietta, NY, USA) disclosed the same RCM features for both lesions: architectural disarray and presence of pagetoid cells in the epidermis, non-edged papilla and atypical nests of melanocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction (Figure 1 a, b). A commercially available full-field HD-OCT system (Skintell; Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    British Journal of Dermatology 05/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a specific subset of cancer cells that sustain tumor growth and dissemination. They might represent a significant treatment target to reduce malignant progression and prevent tumor recurrence. In solid tumors, several hierarchically organized CSC clones coexist, even within a single tumor. Among them, CSCs displaying an embryonic stem cell 'stemness' signature, based on the expression of Oct-4, Nanog and Sox2, are present in distinct high-grade tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We previously designed a model to isolate pure populations of these CSCs from distinct solid tumors and used it to screen for molecules showing selective toxicity for this type of CSC. Here we show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs) specifically target CSCs expressing an embryonic signature derived from tumors with distinct origins. They reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with a higher specificity as compared with the total population of cancer cells and/or healthy stem cells, and they were efficient in inducing cell death. Lopinavir was the most effective HIV-PI among those tested. It reduced self-renewal and induced apoptosis of CSCs, subsequently impairing in vivo CSC-induced allograft formation. Two key pharmacophores in the LPV structure were also identified. They are responsible for the specificity of CSC targeting and also for the overall antitumoral activity. These results contribute to the identification of molecules presenting selective toxicity for CSCs expressing an embryonic stemness signature. This paves the way to promising therapeutic opportunities for patients suffering from solid cancer tumors of poor prognosis.
    Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e706. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with a BRAF(V600E) mutation benefit from targeted therapy. The usefulness of immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an alternative approach for the detection of BRAF(V600E) in NSCLC patients has not been evaluated until now. This study compared the specificity and sensitivity of IHC with other methods for the detection of BRAF(V600E) in primary lung adenocarcinoma.Patients and methodsBRAF mutations were analysed by DNA sequencing of a Caucasian subpopulation of selected 450 of 1509 (30%) EGFR, KRAS, PI3KA, Her2 and EML4-ALK wild-type (wt) primary lung adenocarcinomas. Detection of the BRAF(V600E) mutation was carried out by IHC using the VE1 clone antibody and compared with the results of other molecular methodologies.ResultsOf 450 (9%) of tumours, 40 harboured a BRAF mutation, which corresponded to either a BRAF(V600E) or a non-BRAF(V600E) mutation in 21 of 450 (5%) and 19 of 450 (4%) cases, respectively. The IHC VE1 assay was positive in 19 of 21 (90%) BRAF(V600E)-mutated tumours and negative in all BRAF(nonV600E)-mutated tumours.ConclusionIHC using the VE1 clone is a specific and sensitive method for the detection of BRAF(V600E) and may be an alternative to molecular biology for the detection of mutations in NSCLC.
    Annals of Oncology 11/2012; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background A subgroup of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged lung tumours can respond to ALK inhibitors. Until now, the ALK status in circulating tumour cells (CTCs) isolated from patients with lung cancer has not been characterised. We assessed the ALK status in CTCs detected in patients with lung cancer and correlated the results to the ALK status defined in the corresponding tumour tissue. Patients and methods A total of 87 patients with lung adenocarcinoma showing CTCs isolated using the isolation by size of epithelial tumour cell method were screened for their ALK status both in tumour samples and in CTCs. ALK break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunoreactivity analyses using an anti-ALK antibody (5A4 clone) were carried out on CTCs and compared with the results obtained in the corresponding tissue specimens. Results A total of five patients showed ALK-gene rearrangement and strong ALK protein expression in CTCs and in the corresponding tumour samples. Both ALK-FISH and ALK immunoreactivity analyses show negative results in CTCs and corresponding tumour samples for 82 patients. Conclusions We demonstrated that the ALK status can be determined in CTCs isolated from patients with lung cancer by immunocytochemistry and FISH analyses. These results favour non-invasive, ALK-gene status pre-screening on a routine basis on CTCs isolated from patients with lung cancer and open new avenues for real-time monitoring for adapted targeted therapy.
    Annals of Oncology 06/2012; 23(11):2907-13. · 7.38 Impact Factor
  • M Ilie, P Hofman
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    ABSTRACT: New treatment options in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) targeting activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and other genetic alterations demonstrated the clinical significance of the molecular features of specific subsets of tumors. Therefore, the development of personalized medicine has stimulated the routine integration into pathology departments of somatic mutation testing. However, clinical mutation testing must be optimized and standardized with regard to histological profile, type of samples, pre-analytical steps, methodology and result reporting. Routine molecular testing in NSCLC is currently moving beyond EGFR mutational analysis. Recent progress of targeted therapies will require molecular testing for a wide panel of mutations for a personalized molecular diagnosis. As a consequence, efficient testing of multiple molecular abnormalities is an urgent requirement in thoracic oncology. Moreover, increasingly limited tumor sample becomes a major challenge for molecular pathology. Continuous efforts should be made for safe, effective and specific molecular analyses. This must be based on close collaboration between the departments involved in the management of lung cancer. In this review we explored the practical issues and pitfalls surrounding the routine implementation of molecular testing in NSCLC in a pathology laboratory.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 04/2012; 19(16):2638-51. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry has been proposed as a specific and sensitive method to identify EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements in lung tumours. We assessed EGFR and KRAS by direct sequencing in 154 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. ALK rearrangements were assayed by FISH and RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was carried out and evaluated closely following published methods using recommended monoclonal rabbit or mouse antibodies. Thirteen of 36 exon 19 EGFR-mutated tumours (36%)-including 12 of 22 with p.Glu746_Ala750del (55%)-were positive with the 6B6 antibody that was raised against p.Glu746_Ala750del. One hundred eleven of 114 EGFR exon 19 wild-type tumours (97%) were negative with 6B6. Four of 21 exon 21 EGFR-mutated tumours (19%)-including 4 of 17 with p.Leu858Arg (24%)-were positive with the 43B2 antibody that was raised against p.Leu858Arg. One hundred twenty-two of 124 (98%) EGFR exon 21 wild-type tumours were negative with 43B2. Two of four ALK rearrangements-including two of three with ELM4-ALK fusion transcripts-were identified with the 5A4 antibody. Eleven of 13 tumours without ALK rearrangement (85%) were negative with 5A4. Immunohistochemistry is a specific means for identification of EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements. It suffers, however, from poor sensitivity.
    Annals of Oncology 11/2011; 23(7):1738-43. · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanomas are very aggressive neoplasms with notorious resistance to therapeutics. It was recently proposed that the remarkable phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells allows for the rapid development of both resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and invasive properties. Indeed, the capacity of melanoma cells to form distant metastases is the main cause of mortality in melanoma patients. Therefore, the identification of the mechanism controlling melanoma phenotype is of paramount importance. In the present report, we show that deletion of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), the master gene in melanocyte differentiation, is sufficient to increase the metastatic potential of mouse and human melanoma cells. MITF silencing also increases fibronectin and Snail, two mesenchymal markers that might explain the increased invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ablation of this population by Forskolin-induced differentiation or MITF-forced expression significantly decreases tumour and metastasis formation, suggesting that eradication of low-MITF cells might improve melanoma treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that a hypoxic microenvironment decreases MITF expression through an indirect, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)α-dependant transcriptional mechanism, and increases the tumourigenic and metastatic properties of melanoma cells. We identified Bhlhb2, a new factor in melanoma biology, as the mediator of hypoxia/HIF1α inhibitory effect on MITF expression. Our results reveal a hypoxia-HIF1α-BHLHB2-MITF cascade controlling the phenotypic plasticity in melanoma cells and favouring metastasis development. Targeting this pathway might be helpful in the design of new anti-melanoma therapies.
    Oncogene 09/2011; 31(19):2461-70. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) are rare cancer cells isolated from tumours of different origins including high-grade tumours that sustain neoplasic progression and development of metastatic disease. They harbour deregulated stem cells pathways and exhibit an unchecked ability to self-renew, a property essential for tumour progression. Among the essential factors maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cells properties, OCT-4 (also known as POU5F1) has been detected in tumours of different origins. Although ectopic expression results in dysplasic growth restricted to epithelial tissues, overexpression expands the proportion of immature cells in teratomas. However, OCT-4-expressing cells have not been purified from spontaneously occurring tumours, thus information concerning their properties is rather scant. Here, using p53-/- mice expressing green fluorescent protein and the puromycin resistance gene under the control of the Oct-4 promoter, we show that OCT-4 is expressed in 5% onwards of the undifferentiated tumour cell populations derived from different organs. OCT-4 expression was low as compared with ES cells, but was associated with a 'stemness' signature and expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These cells displayed cancer stem cell features, including increased self-renewal and differentiation ability in vitro and in vivo. They not only formed allografts containing immature bone regions but also disseminated into different organs, including lung, liver and bone. Experiments based on RNA interference revealed that Oct-4 expression drives both their engraftment and metastasis formation. This work points out the crucial contribution of Oct-4-expressing TICs in the hierarchical organization of the malignant potential, leading to metastasis formation. Consequently, it provides an appropriate model to develop novel therapies aiming to strike down TICs by targeting self-renewal genes, therefore efficient to reduce tumour growth and metastatic disease.
    Oncogene 09/2011; 31(19):2438-49. · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • P. Hofman
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    ABSTRACT: The increase number of methods to be perform from various biospecimens in thoracic oncology field raises the following question: How to set up a new strategy for the best handling of tissular and cellular samples. The diagnosis, but also the prognosis and the theragnosis of lung cancer have to be made by the pathologist from biological samples of smaller and smaller size. In this regard, the management of those specimens have to be think in a new way in the pathology laboratory, according to different expertises. Even though the morphological evaluation must be in all cases the key for the diagnosis, the number of immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies to be performed has to be evaluated in the same time, since the material could be rare. Moreover, it is necessary to think in parallel about the search of an increased number of mutations, in particular from DNA of quality. Finally, the integration of new biopathology approaches, such as the detection of peripheral biomarkers obtained from blood samples, as the detection of circulating tumour cells, should be also evaluated soon.
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualites 09/2011; 3(4):419–422.
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    ABSTRACT: In melanoma, as well as in other solid tumors, the cells within a given tumor exhibit strong morphological, functional and molecular heterogeneity that might reflect the existence of different cancer cell populations, among which are melanoma-initiating cells (MICs) with ‘stemness’ properties and their differentiated, fast-growing progeny. The existence of a slow-growing population might explain the resistance of melanoma to classical chemotherapies that target fast growing cells. Therefore, elucidating the biologic properties of MICs and, more importantly, the molecular mechanisms that drive the transition between MICs and their proliferating progeny needs to be addressed to develop an efficient melanoma therapy. Using B16 mouse melanoma cells and syngeneic mice, we show that the inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), the master regulator of melanocyte differentiation, increases the tumorigenic potential of melanoma cells and upregulates the stem cell markers Oct4 and Nanog. Notably, p27, the CDK inhibitor, is increased in Mitf-depleted cells and is required for exacerbation of the tumorigenic properties of melanoma cells. Further, a slow-growing population with low-Mitf level and high tumorigenic potential exists spontaneously in melanoma. Ablation of this population dramatically decreases tumor formation. Importantly, these data were confirmed using human melanoma cell lines and freshly isolated human melanoma cell from lymph node and skin melanoma metastasis. Taken together our data, identified Mitf and p27 as the key molecular switches that control the transition between MICs and their differentiated progeny. Eradication of low-Mitf cells might be an appealing strategy to cure melanoma.
    Oncogene 05/2011; 30(20):2390. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In melanoma, as well as in other solid tumors, the cells within a given tumor exhibit strong morphological, functional and molecular heterogeneity that might reflect the existence of different cancer cell populations, among which are melanoma-initiating cells (MICs) with 'stemness' properties and their differentiated, fast-growing progeny. The existence of a slow-growing population might explain the resistance of melanoma to classical chemotherapies that target fast growing cells. Therefore, elucidating the biologic properties of MICs and, more importantly, the molecular mechanisms that drive the transition between MICs and their proliferating progeny needs to be addressed to develop an efficient melanoma therapy. Using B16 mouse melanoma cells and syngeneic mice, we show that the inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), the master regulator of melanocyte differentiation, increases the tumorigenic potential of melanoma cells and upregulates the stem cell markers Oct4 and Nanog. Notably, p27, the CDK inhibitor, is increased in Mitf-depleted cells and is required for exacerbation of the tumorigenic properties of melanoma cells. Further, a slow-growing population with low-Mitf level and high tumorigenic potential exists spontaneously in melanoma. Ablation of this population dramatically decreases tumor formation. Importantly, these data were confirmed using human melanoma cell lines and freshly isolated human melanoma cell from lymph node and skin melanoma metastasis. Taken together our data, identified Mitf and p27 as the key molecular switches that control the transition between MICs and their differentiated progeny. Eradication of low-Mitf cells might be an appealing strategy to cure melanoma.
    Oncogene 01/2011; 30(20):2307-18. · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Annales De Pathologie - ANN PATHOL. 01/2011; 31(5).
  • Annales De Pathologie - ANN PATHOL. 01/2011; 31(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrence rates after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) range from 25 to 50% and 5-year survival is only 60-70%. Because no biomarkers are predictive of recurrence or the onset of metastasis, pathological TNM (pTNM) staging is currently the best prognostic factor. Consequently, the preoperative detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) might be useful in tailoring therapy. The aim of this study was to characterize morphologically any circulating non-haematological cells (CNHCs) in patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC using the isolation by size of epithelial tumour cell (ISET) method. Of 299 blood samples tested, 250 were from patients with resectable NSCLC and 59 from healthy controls. The presence of CNHCs was assessed blindly and independently by 10 cytopathologists on May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained filters and the cells classified into three groups: (i) malignant cells, (ii) uncertain malignant cells, and (iii) benign cells. We assessed interobserver agreement using Kappa (κ) analysis as the measure of agreement. A total of 123 out of 250 (49%) patients showed CNHCs corresponding to malignant, uncertain malignant and benign cells, in 102/250 (41%), 15/250 (6%) and 6/250 (2%) cases, respectively. No CNHCs were detected in the blood of healthy subjects. Interobserver diagnostic variability was absent for CNHCs, low for malignant cells and limited for uncertain malignant and benign cells. Identification of CTCs in resectable NSCLC patients, using ISET technology and according to cytopathological criteria of malignancy, appears to be a new and promising field of cytopathology with potential relevance to lung oncology.
    Cytopathology 01/2011; 23(1):30-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the incidence of oral opportunistic infections has increased, partly due to the widespread implementation of organ and bone marrow transplantation and the increase in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Cytology can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and simple routine procedure in diagnosing infectious diseases of the mouth. Moreover, ancillary methods can be applied to cytological samples, increasing the specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This review describes the cytopathological features of the main viral, fungal, bacterial and parasitic infections of the mouth. Cytological techniques of specimen collection, identification of infectious agents by cytomorphological approaches and ancillary methods, and diagnostic pitfalls will be discussed.
    Cytopathology 10/2010; 21(5):285-99. · 1.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
384.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis
      • Faculty of medicine
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2012
    • Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging, Nice
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1997–2011
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2006–2010
    • Centre Antoine-Lacassagne
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1998–2003
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001
    • Boston University
      • College of General Studies
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IPMC)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
    • Hôtel-Dieu de Paris – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1992–1997
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice
      • • Laboratoire de Virologie
      • • Département de Cardiologie
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France