Shobhona Sharma

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, State of Maharashtra, India

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Publications (51)148.58 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The birefringence of a red blood cell (RBC) is quantitatively monitored as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. Large changes occur in the cell's refractive index at different stages of malarial infection. The observed rotation of an optically trapped, malaria-infected RBC is not a simple function of shape distortion: the malarial parasite is found to itself exercise a profound influence on the rotational dynamics by inducing stage-specific birefringence. Our measurements shed new light on the competition between shape- and form-birefringence in RBCs. We demonstrate the possibility of using birefringence to establish very early stages of infected parasites and of assessing various factors that contribute to birefringence in normal and infected cells. Our results have implications for the development and use of noninvasive techniques of quantifying changes in cell properties induced by malaria disease pathology.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 12/2013; 18(12):125001. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The objective of the present study was to develop an atovaquone (ATQ) nanosuspension and evaluate its ability to improve the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic efficacy on oral administration. Materials & methods: The ATQ nanosuspension was prepared by a combination of microprecipitation and high-pressure homogenization. It was freeze dried and characterized for various physiochemical properties. In vivo pharmacokinetics was performed in rats whereas antimalarial efficacy was assessed in mice using a 4-day suppressive test. Results: The ATQ nanosuspension stabilized with Solutol(®) HS 15 (BASF India Ltd, Mumbai, India) and Capryol™ 90 (Gattefosse, Mumbai, India) exhibited a z-average diameter of 371.50 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.19. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated no substantial changes in the crystalline state of ATQ nanocrystals. The aqueous solubility and in vitro dissolution rate were significantly increased by reducing the particle size. An in vivo pharmacokinetics study of the nanosuspension compared with a drug suspension and Malarone(®) (GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK) exhibited an approximately 4.6-3.2-fold improvement in area under plasma concentration. A significant increase in Cmax and decrease in time to reach peak plasma concentration after administration was also observed. ATQ in nanosized form, even at one-quarter lower doses, exhibited greater reduction in parasitemia and prolonged survival compared with its reference formulations. Conclusion: Results of this pilot study highlight the potential of nanosuspension as an efficient and commercially viable strategy for improving delivery of ATQ for malaria treatment. Original submitted 1 August 2011; Revised submitted 2 February 2013.
    Nanomedicine 08/2013; · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation aims at formulating lipid based drug delivery system of β- Artemether and Lumefantrine and comparative pharmacological evaluation with innovator formulation. Commercial modified oil and indigenous natural fatty acids comprised the oily phase in developing lipidic formulation of β- Artemether and Lumefantrine. The developed system was characterized for mean globule size, stability by freeze thaw cycles, and birefringence. Developed formulation and innovator formulation were compared for their in vivo anti-malarial activity at different dose levels in male Swiss mice, infected with lethal ANKA strain of Plasmodium berghei. The percent parasitemia, activity against time and animal survival period were examined. On fourth day of antimalarial studies, at normal and ½ dose levels, formulations revealed zero percent parasitemia while control showed 33.92±6.00% parasitemia. At 1/10 dose level, developed and innovator formulations revealed zero percent parasitemia upto 11(th) day, however, three mice from innovator formulation demonstrated recrudescence after 12(th) day. Both the formulations at normal dose and ½ dose levels showed 100 percent activity and survival whereas at 1/10 dose level, innovator formulation showed, 62.5 percent survival. The developed lipidic system of β -Artemether and Lumefantrine exhibited excellent antimalarial activity with hundred percent survival.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 07/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    Pushpa Mishra, Shobhona Sharma, Ramakrishna, V Hosur
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    ABSTRACT: This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum P2 (PfP2) is a ribosomal stalk protein. It also performs extra ribosomal novel functions that seem to be associated with homo oligomerization . Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the protein has a high tendency to self-associate predominantly into an 8-mer. In vitro Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) of the pure recombinant protein (rPfP2) and its in-cell (Escherichia coli) HSQC spectrum has very similar features, indicating that the protein intrinsically, both inside the cell and under in vitro conditions, has similar aggregation tendencies. In view of this, we have characterized here the folding and concomitant self-association of rPfP2, using an in vitro dissociation-association strategy. We observed that the residue stretch, (Met31-Leu44) of the rPfP2, mapping to Met1-Leu14 of PfP2 protein acts as a nucleation site for helix formation and subsequent self-association. Further association appears to be driven by hydrophobic and complimentary electrostatic charge interactions on the surfaces formed. One stretch of rPfP2, (Ile97-Ala116), always remains floppy, and this may serve as "hinge" for protein segmental motions. Based on these, we have proposed a possible model for rPfP2 self-association into an 8-mer.
    Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics 04/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    Pushpa Mishra, Shobhona Sharma, Ramakrishna, V Hosur
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    ABSTRACT: This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
    Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics 04/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have probed how the birefringence of a healthy red blood cell (RBC) changes as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. By analyzing the polarization properties of light transmitted through a single, optically-trapped cell we demarcate two types of birefringence: form birefringence which depends on the shape of the cell and intrinsic birefringence which is brought about by the presence of the parasite. We quantitatively measure changes in the refractive index as normal RBS become infected by a malarial parasite. Malarial infections are found to induce changes in the cell's refractive index whose magnitude depends on the stage of malarial infection; such changes were quantitatively explored and found to be large, in the range 1.2 to 3$\times10^{-2}$. Our results have implications for the development and use of non-invasive techniques that seek to quantify changes in cell properties induced by pathological states accompanying diseases like malaria. From a broader prespective, information forthcoming from our trap-based experiments may stimulate physicists to initiate theoretical and computational efforts that have a bearing on cell biology issues related to diagnosis of diseases and therapeutics.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A significant fraction of global population is under the threat of malaria. Majority of annual death is due to the more complicated form of the infection i.e. the cerebral form, also known as Cerebral Malaria (CM). Host parasite interaction is known to cause a cascade of events in various tissues like brain, liver, kidney, and spleen. We have employed (1)H NMR based metabolomics to understand the specific perturbations of various tissues in CM. In our previous paper we have delineated the differences between CM vis-a-vis non-cerebral malaria (NCM) mice in serum, liver and brain. In this paper we focus on their differences of metabolic profile in kidney and spleen as kidney dysfunction and splenomegaly are known to be associated to neurological outcome of the disease. Moreover we have also looked into how the biological compartments (kidney, spleen and serum) interact with each other. The various metabolites involved in such interactions and their correlational aspects across the compartments have been studied in CM, NCM and control mice. The idea was to find out the specific pathways that are altered in CM mice. Our results demonstrate that both the kidney as well as spleen metabolism are differentially perturbed in CM with respect to NCM. The results point out that glutamate levels are decreased in CM mice with respect to NCM mice both in case of spleen and kidney while creatine, myo-inositol and betaine levels are increased in kidney of CM mice with respect to NCM mice. From the analysis of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA) we see that lipid metabolism and TCA cycle is altered in kidney and spleen.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73113. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. is considered to be a global threat, specifically for the developing countries. In human subjects considerable information exists regarding post-malarial physiology. However, most murine malarial models are lethal, and most studies deal with acute phases occurring as disease progresses. Much less is known regarding physiological status post-parasite clearance. We have assessed the physiological changes at the organ levels using (1)H NMR based metabonomics in a non lethal self-clearing murine malarial model of P. chabaudi parasites and Balb/C, far beyond the parasite clearance point. The results showed distinct metabolic states between uninfected and infected mice at the peak parasitemia, as well as three weeks post-parasite clearance. Our data also suggests that the response at the peak infection as well as recovery exhibited distinct sexual dimorphism. Specifically, we observed accumulation of acetylcholine in the brain metabolic profile of both the sexes. This might have important implication in understanding the pathophysiology of the post malarial neurological syndromes. In addition, the female liver showed high levels of glucose, dimethylglycine, methylacetoacetate and histidine after three weeks post-parasite clearance, while the males showed accumulation of branched chain amino acids, lysine, glutamine and bile acids.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66954. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic 60S-ribosomal stalk consists of P0, P1 and P2 proteins which associate in a pentameric structure (P12-P0-P22).The Plasmodium falciparum protein P2 (PfP2) appears to play non-ribosomal roles. It gets exported to the infected erythrocyte (IE) surface at 30 hrs post merozoite invasion (PMI), concomitant with extensive oligomerization. Here we present certain biophysical properties of PfP2. Recombinant P2 (rPfP2) protein showed SDS-resistant oligomerization, which could be significantly abolished under reducing conditions. However, the protein continued to oligomerize even when both the cysteine residues were mutated, and with up to 40 amino-acids (aa) deleted from the 'C' terminal end. CD analysis of P2 showed largely α-helical and random coil domains. The SDS- and DTT- resistant oligomerization was studied further as it occurred in a development specific manner in Plasmodium. In a synchronized erythrocytic culture of P. falciparum, the PfP2 protein was detected as part of the ribosomal complex (~96 kDa) at 18 and 30hrs PMI, and was SDS-sensitive. However, at 30 hrs, large amount of SDS-sensitive aggregates of >600 kDa were also seen. At 30 hrs PMI, each of the parasite, IE-cytosol and IE-ghost contained 60-80 kDa PfP2 complexes, which resolved to a single 65 kDa species on SDS-PAGE. Tetramethyl-rhodamine labeled rPfP2 protein exhibited DTT- and SDS-resistant oligomerization when treated with P. falciparum parasite extracts only from 24-36 hrs PMI, and multiple proteins appeared to be required for this oligomerization. Understanding the regulation of oligomerization of PfP2 may help in the elucidation of the novel structure-function relationship in the export of PfP2 to the red cell surface.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the in vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy of intravenously administered artemether nanostructured lipid carrier (ARM NLC) with commercial artesunate (C-AST) at different dose levels. The study compared the in vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy of ARM NLC with C-AST in a murine model. For this study, the Peters 4 day suppressive test was adopted. Plasmodium berghei was the causative organism for inducing malaria in mice. The efficacies of the formulations were evaluated on the basis of percentage parasitaemia in, and survival of, mice. In comparison with the C-AST formulation, ARM NLC demonstrated superior activity in terms of reduction in parasitaemia and increased survival. Although both formulations were found to be effective in reducing parasitaemia in the murine model, ARM NLC was found to be superior. The study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of this novel alternative to existing artesunate dosage forms.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2012; 67(11):2713-6. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria parasites reside inside erythrocytes and the disease manifestations are linked to the growth inside infected erythrocytes (IE). The growth of the parasite is mostly confined to the trophozoite stage during which nuclear division occurs followed by the formation of cell bodies (schizogony). The mechanism and regulation of schizogony are poorly understood. Here we show a novel role for a Plasmodium falciparum 60S stalk ribosomal acidic protein P2 (PfP2) (PFC0400w), which gets exported to the IE surface for 6-8 hrs during early schizogony, starting around 26-28 hrs post-merozoite invasion. The surface exposure is demonstrated using multiple PfP2-specific monoclonal antibodies, and is confirmed through transfection using PfP2-GFP. The IE surface-exposed PfP2-protein occurs mainly as SDS-resistant P2-homo-tetramers. Treatment with anti-PfP2 monoclonals causes arrest of IEs at the first nuclear division. Upon removal of the antibodies, about 80-85% of synchronized parasites can be released even after 24 hrs of antibody treatment. It has been reported that a tubovesicular network (TVN) is set up in early trophozoites which is used for nutrient import. Anti-P2 monoclonal antibodies cause a complete fragmentation of TVN by 36 hrs, and impairs lipid import in IEs. These may be downstream causes for the cell-cycle arrest. Upon antibody removal, the TVN is reconstituted, and the cell division progresses. Each of the above properties is observed in the rodent malaria parasite species P. yoelii and P. berghei. The translocation of the P2 protein to the IE surface is therefore likely to be of fundamental importance in Plasmodium cell division.
    PLoS Pathogens 08/2012; 8(8):e1002858. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening disease in humans caused by Plasmodium falciparum, leading to high mortality. Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in C57Bl/6 mice induces pathologic symptoms similar to that in human CM. However, experimental CM incidence in mice is variable, and there are no known metabolic correlates/fingerprints for the animals that develop CM. Here, we have used (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to investigate the metabolic changes in the mice with CM with respect to the mice that have noncerebral malaria (NCM) of the same batchmates with identical genetic backgrounds and infected simultaneously. The metabolic profile of the infected mice (both CM and NCM) was separately compared with the metabolite profile of uninfected control mice of same genetic background. The objective of this study was to search for metabolic changes/fingerprints of CM and identify the pathways that might be differentially altered in mice that succumbed to CM. The results show that brain, liver, and sera exhibit unique metabolic fingerprints for CM over NCM mice. Some of the major fingerprints are increased level of triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol in sera of CM mice, and decreased levels of glutamine in the sera concomitant with increased levels of glutamine in the brain of the mice with CM. Moreover, glycerophosphocholine is decreased in both the brain and the liver of animals with CM, and myo-inositol and histamine are increased in the liver of CM mice. The metabolic fingerprints in brain, sera, and liver of mice with CM point toward perturbation in the ammonia detoxification pathway and perturbation in lipid and choline metabolism in CM specifically. The study helps us to understand the severity of CM over NCM and in unrevealing the specific metabolic pathways that are compromised in CM.
    Journal of Proteome Research 07/2012; 11(10):4992-5004. · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Haripalsingh M Sonawat, Shobhona Sharma
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is a widespread disease caused by several species of Plasmodium. The parameters that render the hosts susceptible to severe disease complications are not completely understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–based studies offer a convenient platform to investigate the disease process in a noninvasive, nondestructive, and unbiased manner.NMR-based metabonomics allows a systems biological view of the global changes in host metabolism due to the parasite infection. Parasite-infected host red blood cells influence the neighboring uninfected host red blood cells metabolically. In the murine model of malaria, a sexually dimorphic host response is observed upon parasitic infection. Also the animals that are prone to cerebral malaria have different metabolic status vis-a-vis the ones that do not. Early prediction of susceptibility to cerebral malaria may be explored using such metabonomic methods.
    Clinics in laboratory medicine 06/2012; 32(2):129-42. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of clotrimazole as antimalarial drug. Due to poor aqueous solubility and high lipophilicity, it was previously formulated in a nanoemulsion based system. The intrinsic effects of nanoemulsion on improvement of antimalarial activity of clotrimazole were assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and compared to its suspension formulation. In four-day suppressive test, mice treated with 10mg/kg clotrimazole nanoemulsion showed the highest suppression of parasitemia and; parasitemia was significantly lower than that of 10mg/kg clotrimazole suspension. In onset of activity and recrudescence test, percent reduction of parasitemia was significantly higher in 10 and 15 mg/kg clotrimazole nanoemulsion groups compared to 15 mg/kg suspension group. In both murine models, survival of mice treated with nanoemulsion was significantly prolonged compared to suspension at equivalent doses. The inhibition of parasite growth by clotrimazole in the nanoemulsion was dose dependent as determined by test for linear trend. In repeated dose oral toxicity, levels of serum liver enzymes and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity did not vary significantly from control. Six-month stability testing of the clotrimazole nanoemulsion exhibited no changes in various physiochemical attributes of drug product compared to initial analysis.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 01/2012; 431(1-2):149-60. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic 60S-ribosomal stalk is composed of acidic ribosomal proteins (P1 and P2) and neutral protein P0, which are thought to be associated as a pentameric structure, [2P1, 2P2, P0]. Plasmodium falciparum P2 (PfP2) appears to play additional non-ribosomal functions associated with its tendency for homo-oligomerization. Recombinant bacterially expressed PfP2 protein also undergoes self-association, as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis and light scattering studies. Secondary structure prediction algorithms predict the native PfP2 protein to be largely helical and this is corroborated by circular dichroism investigation. The (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum of native P2 showed only 43 cross peaks compared to the expected 138. The observed peaks were found to belong to the C-terminal region, suggesting that this segment is flexible and solvent exposed. In 9 M urea denaturing conditions the chain exhibited mostly non-native β structural propensity. (15)N Relaxation data for the denatured state indicated substantial variation in ms-µs time scale motion along the chain. Average area buried upon folding (AABUF) calculations on the monomer enabled identification of hydrophobic patches along the sequence. Interestingly, the segments of slower motion in the denatured state coincided with these hydrophobic patches, suggesting that in the denatured state the monomeric chain undergoes transient hydrophobic collapse. The implications of these results for the folding mechanism and self-association of PfP2 are discussed.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36279. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental models show a male bias in murine malaria; however, extant literature on biases in human clinical malaria is inconclusive. Studies in hyperendemic areas document an absence of sexual dimorphism in clinical malaria. Data on sex bias in clinical malaria in hypoendemic areas is ambiguous--some reports note a male bias but do not investigate the role of differential mosquito exposure in that bias. Moreover, these studies do not examine whether the bias is age related. This study investigates whether clinical malaria in hypoendemic regions exhibits a sex bias and whether this bias is age-dependent. We also consider the role of vector exposure in this bias. Retrospective passive clinical malaria datasets (2002-2007) and active surveillance datasets (2000-2009) were captured for the hypoendemic Mumbai region in Western India. To validate findings, passive retrospective data was captured from a primary malaria clinic (2006-2007) in hypoendemic Rourkela (Eastern India). Data was normalized by determining percent slide-positivity rates (SPRs) for males and females, and parasite-positivity distributions were established across age groups. The Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Chi-square analysis were used to determine statistical significances. In both the Mumbai and Rourkela regions, clinical malaria exhibited an adult male bias (p<0.01). A sex bias was not observed in children aged ≤10. Post-puberty, male SPRs were significantly greater than females SPRs (p<0.01). This adult male bias was observed for both vivax and falciparum clinical disease. Analysis of active surveillance data did not reveal an age or sex bias in the frequency of parasite positivity. This study demonstrates an age-dependent sex bias in clinical malaria in hypoendemic regions and enhanced incidence of clinical malaria in males following puberty. Possible roles of sex hormones, vector exposure, co-infections, and other factors in this enhanced susceptibility are discussed.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35592. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Passive immunization with antibodies to recombinant Plasmodium falciparum P0 riboprotein (rPfP0, 61-316 amino acids) provides protection against malaria. Carboxy-terminal 16 amino acids of the protein (PfP0C0) are conserved and show 69% identity to human and mouse P0. Antibodies to this domain are found in 10-15% of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We probed the nature of humoral response to PfP0C0 by repeatedly immunizing mice with rPfP0. We failed to raise stable anti-PfP0C0 hybridomas from any of the 21 mice. The average serum anti-PfP0C0 titer remained low (5.1 ± 1.3 × 10⁴). Pathological changes were observed in the mice after seven boosts. Adsorption with dinitrophenyl hapten revealed that the anti-PfP0C0 response was largely polyreactive. This polyreactivity was distributed across all isotypes. Similar polyreactive responses to PfP0 and PfP0C0 were observed in sera from malaria patients. Our data suggests that PfP0 induces a deviant humoral response, and this may contribute to immune evasion mechanisms of the parasite.
    BioMed Research International 01/2012; 2012:695843. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clotrimazole was formulated in nanoemulsion based system with the aim of improving its solubility and dissolution, which can further used for its preclinical evaluation. Clotrimazole nanoemulsion was prepared using spontaneous nanoemulsification method. Preformulation studies were preformed to evaluate drug-excipient compatibility, solution state pH stability and pH solubility profile. Solubility of clotrimazole in oils, surfactants and cosurfactants was determined to identify nanoemulsion components. Surfactants and cosurfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify selected oily phases. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify area of nanoemulsification. Influence of clotrimazole and pH of dilution medium on phase behavior were assessed. Drug-excipient chemical compatibility study facilitated to anticipate acid catalyzed degradation of clotrimazole. The pH of nanoemulsion was adjusted to 7.5, which could stabilize clotrimazole. Nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Solutol HS 15 and Gelucire 44/14 enhanced solubility of clotrimazole up to 25mg/ml. The optimized clotrimazole nanoemulsion could withstand the extensive dilution and did not show any phase separation or drug precipitation. The nanoemulsion exhibited mean globule size <25 nm, which was not affected by pH of dilution medium. Dissolution profile of clotrimazole nanoemulsion in various media showed 100% drug release within 15 min irrespective of pH of medium.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 12/2011; 431(1-2):138-48. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malarial infection in the Indian subcontinent. This species of the parasite is generally believed to cause a relatively benign form of the disease. However, recent reports from different parts of the world indicate that vivax malaria can also have severe manifestation. Host response to the parasite invasion is thought to be an important factor in determining the severity of manifestation. In this paper, attempt was made to determine the host metabolic response associated with P. vivax infection by means of NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomic techniques in an attempt to better understand the disease pathology. NMR spectroscopy of urine samples from P. vivax-infected patients, healthy individuals and non-malarial fever patients were carried out followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Two data analysis techniques were employed, namely, Principal Component Analysis [PCA] and Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis [OPLS-DA]. Several NMR signals from the urinary metabolites were further selected for univariate comparison among the classes. The urine metabolic profiles of P. vivax-infected patients were distinct from those of healthy individuals as well as of non-malarial fever patients. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of malarial and non-malarial fever patients. Several metabolites were found to be varying significantly across these cohorts. Urinary ornithine seems to have the potential to be used as biomarkers of vivax malaria. An increasing trend in pipecolic acid was also observed. The results suggest impairment in the functioning of liver as well as impairment in urea cycle. The results open up a possibility of non-invasive analysis and diagnosis of P. vivax using urine metabolic profile. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded, and amongst these, ornithine may have the potential of being used as biomarker of malaria. Pipecolic acid also showed increasing trend in the malaria patient compared to the other groups.
    Malaria Journal 12/2011; 10:384. · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

416 Citations
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148.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2012
    • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Department of Chemical Sciences
      • • Molecular Biology Unit
      Mumbai, State of Maharashtra, India
  • 2000
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
      Baltimore, MD, United States