[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoreactive CD8 T cells play a central role in the destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells that leads to type 1 diabetes, yet the key features of this immune-mediated process remain poorly defined. In this study, we combined high definition polychromatic flow cytometry with ultrasensitive peptide-human leukocyte antigen class I (pHLAI) tetramer staining to quantify and characterize β-cell-specific CD8 T cell populations in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. Remarkably, we found that β-cell-specific CD8 T cell frequencies in peripheral blood were similar between subject groups. In contrast to healthy controls, however, patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes displayed hallmarks of antigen-driven expansion uniquely within the β-cell-specific CD8 T cell compartment. Molecular analysis of selected β-cell-specific CD8 T cell populations further revealed highly skewed oligoclonal T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires comprising exclusively private clonotypes. Collectively, these data identify novel and distinctive features of disease-relevant CD8 T cells that inform the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies in type 1 diabetes indicate potential disease heterogeneity, notably in the rate of β-cell loss, responsiveness to immunotherapies and, in limited studies, islet pathology. We sought evidence for different immunological phenotypes using two approaches. First, we defined blood autoimmune response phenotypes by combinatorial, multi-parameter analysis of autoantibodies and autoreactive T-cell responses in 33 children/adolescents with newly-diagnosed disease. Multi-dimensional cluster analysis showed two equal-sized patient agglomerations, characterized by pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ+, multi-autoantibody-positive) and partially-regulated (IL-10+, pauci-autoantibody-positive) responses. Multi-autoantibody-positive non-diabetic siblings at high-risk of disease progression showed similar clustering. Second, pancreas samples obtained post mortem from a separate cohort of 21 children/adolescents with recently-diagnosed type 1 diabetes were examined immunohistologically. This revealed two distinct types of insulitic lesion, distinguishable by degree of cellular infiltrate and presence of B-lymphocytes, that we term "hyper-immune CD20Hi" and "pauci-immune CD20Lo". Notably, subjects had only one infiltration phenotype and were partitioned by this into two equal-size groups that differed significantly by age of diabetes diagnosis, hyper-immune CD20Hi subjects being 5 years younger. These data indicate potentially related islet and blood autoimmune response phenotypes that coincide with, and precede disease. We conclude that different immunopathological processes (endotypes) may underlie type 1 diabetes, carrying important implications for treatment/prevention strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes results from T cell-mediated β-cell destruction. The HLA-A*24 class I gene confers significant risk of disease and early onset. We tested the hypothesis that HLA-A24 molecules on islet cells present preproinsulin (PPI) peptide epitopes to CD8 cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Surrogate β-cell lines secreting proinsulin and expressing HLA-A24 were generated and their peptide ligandome examined by mass spectrometry to discover naturally processed and HLA-A24-presented PPI epitopes. A novel PPI epitope was identified and used to generate HLA-A24 tetramers and examine the frequency of PPI-specific T cells in new-onset HLA-A*24(+) patients and control subjects. We identified a novel naturally processed and HLA-A24-presented PPI signal peptide epitope (PPI(3-11); LWMRLLPLL). HLA-A24 tetramer analysis reveals a significant expansion of PPI(3-11)-specific CD8 T cells in the blood of HLA-A*24(+) recent-onset patients compared with HLA-matched control subjects. Moreover, a patient-derived PPI(3-11)-specific CD8 T-cell clone shows a proinflammatory phenotype and kills surrogate β-cells and human HLA-A*24(+) islet cells in vitro. These results indicate that the type 1 diabetes susceptibility molecule HLA-A24 presents a naturally processed PPI signal peptide epitope. PPI-specific, HLA-A24-restricted CD8 T cells are expanded in patients with recent-onset disease. Human islet cells process and present PPI(3-11), rendering themselves targets for CTL-mediated killing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4 T-cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17 are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases, but their role in type 1 diabetes has not been defined. To address the relevance of such cells, we examined IL-17 secretion in response to β-cell autoantigens, IL-17A gene expression in islets, and the potential functional consequences of IL-17 release for β-cells.
Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell responses to β-cell autoantigens (proinsulin, insulinoma-associated protein, and GAD65 peptides) were measured by IL-17 enzyme-linked immunospot assay in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 50). mRNA expression of IL-17A and IFNG pathway genes was studied by qRT-PCR using islets obtained from subjects who died 5 days and 10 years after diagnosis of disease, respectively, and from matched control subjects. IL-17 effects on the function of human islets, rat β-cells, and the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1E were examined.
A total of 27 patients (54%) showed IL-17 reactivity to one or more β-cell peptides versus 3 of 30 (10%) control subjects (P = 0.0001). In a single case examined close to diagnosis, islet expression of IL17A, RORC, and IL22 was detected. It is noteworthy that we show that IL-17 mediates significant and reproducible enhancement of IL-1β/interferon (IFN)-γ-induced and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/IFN-γ-induced apoptosis in human islets, rat β-cells, and INS-1E cells, in association with significant upregulation of β-cell IL17RA expression via activation of the transcription factors STAT1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB.
Circulating IL-17(+) β-cell-specific autoreactive CD4 T-cells are a feature of type 1 diabetes diagnosis. We disclose a novel pathway to β-cell death involving IL-17 and STAT1 and NF-κB, rendering this cytokine a novel disease biomarker and potential therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic low-dose cabergoline treatment for microprolactinoma may cause cardiac valve pathology, but the evidence is contradictory. We investigated whether the expectation of the echocardiographer could influence the report.
Transthoracic echocardiograms from 40 patients aged 49·3 ± 9·6 (mean ± SD) years (Men:Women 7:33) on long-term cabergoline and bromocriptine therapy (duration 9·94 ± 4·5 years) were randomly assigned to two groups of echocardiographers so that each echocardiogram was reported twice. One group was told that 'the patients were control subjects' (Group A) and the other that 'the patients were on dopamine agonist therapy which is known to cause valve disease' (Group B). An observer who was blind to the group scored the reports for regurgitation at each valve (scores 0-4; max 16 per case).
Mean total regurgitation score was significantly higher in Group B (1·43 ± 1·28; P = 0·014) than in Group A (0·73 ± 1·30). The difference was mainly from reporting trivial regurgitation: (mitral 16 vs 5, P = 0·005; tricuspid 17 vs 6, P = 0·007 and pulmonary 8 vs 1, P = 0·013). Mild regurgitation was uncommon (mitral 1 vs 1 and tricuspid 3 vs 6). Moderate regurgitation occurred in only one case and was associated with restriction of the leaflets consistent with the effects of cabergoline. Valve thickening was not reported in Group A, but in 9 (23%) mitral and 4 (10%) aortic valves in Group B.
Long-term, low-dose dopamine agonist therapy rarely causes cardiac valve disease, but operator bias can lead to over-reporting of both valve thickening and trivial regurgitation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Withdrawal of dopamine agonist (DA) therapy in the management of microprolactinoma is common practice, but it is unclear which patients are likely to attain long-term remission.
To identify predictive factors for long-term remission.
Prospective cohort study.
Forty subjects (39 female, aged 24-60 years) with microprolactinoma; all had been normoprolactinaemic on DA therapy for at least 2 years [mean duration of therapy 9 years (range 2-27)].
A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 36 (90%) subjects before DA withdrawal. Relapse was defined as prolactin greater than 480 mIU/l (22.8 microg/l) on two occasions.
Nine out of 40 (22.5%) subjects were normoprolactinaemic 12 months after DA withdrawal. Amongst the relapse group, 24 of 31 subjects (79.4%) had already relapsed at 3 months. Normalization of MRI prior to DA withdrawal (P = 0.0006) and longer duration of DA treatment (P = 0.032) were significant predictors of remission. Age, pre-treatment prolactin, nadir prolactin, previous failure of DA withdrawal, pregnancy, dose and type of DA were not significant predictors of remission. The nine patients who were in remission at 12 months were then followed up for 58.0 +/- 5.8 months; all remained in remission.
As many as 22.5% of subjects with microprolactinoma remained normoprolactinaemic 12 months after DA withdrawal and these subjects stayed in remission for up to 5 years. Significant predictive factors were normalization of MRI prior to discontinuation, and duration of DA treatment. Our findings support intermittent DA withdrawal after a period of normoprolactinaemia, particularly where MRI appearances have normalized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thomas Addison was first to describe adrenocortical failure in 1855. Despite advances in the treatment of this condition, the diagnosis is still often delayed and sometimes missed with potentially fatal consequences. From the same institution where Thomas Addison performed his original autopsy studies, we present four recent cases highlighting the wide clinical spectrum and discuss how modern biochemical and immunological tests could be utilized in early diagnosis and aetiological classification.
QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 06/2009; 102(8):569-73. DOI:10.1093/qjmed/hcp053 · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a test for GH abuse in sport.
A double blind placebo controlled study of one month's GH administration to 102 healthy non-competing but trained subjects. Blood levels of nine markers of GH action were measured throughout the study and for 56 days after cessation of GH administration. Blood samples were also taken from 813 elite athletes both in and out of competition.
GH caused a significant change in the nine measured blood markers. Men were more sensitive to the effects of GH than women. IGF-I and N-terminal extension peptide of procollagen type III were selected to construct formulae which gave optimal discrimination between the GH and placebo groups. Adjustments were made to account for the fall in IGF-I and P-III-P with age and the altered distribution seen in elite athletes. Using a cut-off specificity of 1:10,000 these formulae would allow the detection of up to 86% of men and 60% of women abusing GH at the doses used in this study.
We report a methodology that will allow the detection of GH abuse. This will provide the basis of a robust and enforceable test identifying those who are already cheating and provide a deterrent to those who may be tempted to do so.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral oestrogen preparations increase total cortisol concentration by increasing circulating cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels. Transdermal oestrogen treatments are being used increasingly in clinical practice. These topical preparations may have less of an effect on CBG and hence on total serum cortisol levels by reducing hepatic oestrogen exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oral and topical oestrogen treatments on CBG, total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol levels.
This was a single-centre, cross-sectional study of 37 women aged 33 +/- 6 years (mean +/- SD). Fourteen women were using oral oestrogen therapy, eight were using transdermal therapy and 15 were oestrogen-naïve control subjects.
Following a screening visit, the subjects attended the endocrine investigation unit following an overnight fast. Blood and salivary samples were taken from 0830 to 0930 h between days 10 and 18 of the menstrual cycle (where appropriate).
Total serum cortisol concentrations were 67% higher in those receiving oral oestrogen when compared to control subjects (660.9 +/- 89.9 vs. 395.4 +/- 53.2 nmol/l, P < 0.001). Values in those receiving transdermal oestrogen (334.7 +/- 72.0 nmol/l) were no different from the control group. CBG levels were higher in those on oral oestrogen therapy (110.9 +/- 19.6 mg/l, P < 0.001) when compared with either those on transdermal oestrogen (51.0 +/- 5.4 mg/l) or the control population (49.0 +/- 11.8 mg/l). Similar salivary cortisol concentrations were recorded in the three groups (controls 13.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l, oral oestrogen 15.5 +/- 2.6 nmol/l, transdermal oestrogen 15.7 +/- 3.9 nmol/l).
Oral oestrogen-containing preparations increase total cortisol levels by increasing circulating CBG concentration. These effects were not seen in patients using transdermal oestrogen replacement. Although further studies are indicated, it is probably unnecessary to routinely discontinue transdermal oestrogen replacement when performing an assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or evaluating adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. These tumours can be very small and therefore difficult to identify. Current localization techniques include CT, MRI and radioisotope scanning, but in a proportion of cases the NET remains occult. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, is a relatively new imaging modality that is increasingly used to detect and monitor lesions with high metabolic activity. We report on the use of PET scanning in the evaluation of the ectopic ACTH syndrome.
Three patients with ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome with varying difficulty in NET localization are included in the report.
Positron emission tomography scanning using 18flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) identifies tissue with high metabolic activity. 18FDG-PET scanning was used in each of these patients and the imaging is presented along with biochemical data.
In each case the NET was easily identified using 18FDG-PET, aiding clinical decision making and therapeutic outcome. A cure was identified by clinical resolution of symptoms and undetectable ACTH levels postsurgery.
18FDG-PET assisted in localizing small metabolically active NETs, suggesting this imaging modality may have a useful role in identifying NET causing Cushing's syndrome as a result of ectopic ACTH production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an uncommon condition that typically occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy or in the postpartum period. Presentation is of an anterior pituitary mass with varying degrees of pituitary dysfunction. We present a case in which there was dramatic resolution of the pituitary lesion on sequential MRI scanning. Despite this apparent resolution, however, the patient continues to have significant pituitary dysfunction.
International Journal of Clinical Practice 07/2001; 55(5):339-40. · 2.57 Impact Factor