A C Gerber

University Children's Hospital Basel, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (89)182.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Tracheal bronchus (TB) is defined as an abnormal bronchus that originates directly from the lateral wall of the trachea above the carina and goes towards the upper lobe territory of the lung. We analyzed rigid endoscopies of the trachea in children to determine the incidence and characteristics of TB. In total, 1021 rigid endoscopies of the trachea recorded from children aged 0 to 6 years were analyzed. Endoscopic examination was performed from supraglottic region to carina using a 0-degree Hopkins rod-lens telescope. Patients with a TB were identified and the site of origin of the TB and its level above the carina was noted. Data of the identified patients was reviewed for the presence of preoperative airway findings such as stridor, upper lobe pneumonia and wheezing or atelectasis, other congenital anomalies, and intraoperative complications. TB was detected in 11 (1.06%) of 1021 upper airway endoscopic examinations. All originated from the right lateral wall of the trachea. Six children had retained secretions in the TB, and 3 children had perioperative airway problems unrelated to the TB. One child showed right main stem bronchus narrowing as seen at the true carina, in the presence of a TB. All the children with TB exhibited at least 1 additional congenital anomaly at birth besides TB. TB is a relatively common congenital endoscopic lower airway anomaly in childhood, which is itself rarely symptomatic, but almost always coexists with other congenital anomalies.
    Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology. 01/2014; 21(1):26-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of pediatric tracheotomy practice over time. A retrospective analysis of all tracheotomies at the University Children's Hospital Zurich from January 1990 to December 2009 was performed. Data analyzed included the indication for tracheotomy, patient comorbidities, age, duration of cannulation, and complications. The second part of the study consisted of comparing our results with data from an earlier study done at the same institution by Simma et al. (Eur J Pediatr 1994;153:291-296) reviewing the patients with tracheotomies treated from 1979 to 1989. Between 1990 and 2009, 119 patients were included. The indication for tracheotomy was airway obstruction in 70% and prolonged ventilation in 30%. 70% of the patients were operated on before 1year of age. Serious postoperative complications occurred in 25 patients (23%). There was one death related to tracheotomy. Successful decannulation was achieved in 60%, on average 28months after tracheotomy. The decannulation rate in patients with airway obstruction was 74% compared to 52% for the patients in prolonged ventilation group; a statistically significant difference was observed (p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis showed an increase of indications for prolonged ventilation and a trend toward decreased tracheotomy complications. Over 30years, a shift in the indications of pediatric tracheotomy, with an increasing number of procedures performed for prolonged ventilation, was found. The tracheotomy-related mortality was under 1%. Tracheotomy remains a valid and safe option for pediatric patients. Level of evidence 2c.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/2013; 48(7):1470-5. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Classic rapid sequence induction puts pediatric patients at risk of cardiorespiratory deterioration and traumatic intubation due to their reduced apnea tolerance and related shortened intubation time. A 'controlled' rapid sequence induction and intubation technique (cRSII) with gentle facemask ventilation prior to intubation may be a safer and more appropriate approach in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits and complications of cRSII in a large cohort. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of all patients undergoing cRSII according to a standardized institutional protocol between 2007 and 2011 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. By means of an electronic patient data management system, vital sign data were reviewed for cardiorespiratory parameters, intubation conditions, general adverse respiratory events, and general anesthesia parameters. RESULTS: A total of 1001 patients with cRSII were analyzed. Moderate hypoxemia (SpO2 80-89%) during cRSII occurred in 0.5% (n = 5) and severe hypoxemia (SpO2 <80%) in 0.3% of patients (n = 3). None of these patients developed bradycardia or hypotension. Overall, one single gastric regurgitation was observed (0.1%), but no pulmonary aspiration could be detected. Intubation was documented as 'difficult' in two patients with expected (0.2%) and in three patients with unexpected difficult intubation (0.3%). The further course of anesthesia as well as respiratory conditions after extubation did not reveal evidence of 'silent aspiration' during cRSII. CONCLUSION: Controlled RSII with gentle facemask ventilation prior to intubation supports stable cardiorespiratory conditions for securing the airway in children with an expected or suspected full stomach. Pulmonary aspiration does not seem to be significantly increased.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 06/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Airway alterations found after endotracheal intubation are usually associated with mechanical trauma from the tube. However, no studies are available concerning alterations in airways that have never been intubated before. It was the aim of the study to compare endoscopic findings in the larynx and trachea of children who had undergone prior endotracheal intubation with findings in children who had not been intubated before. In 1021 children aged from 0 to 6 years, rigid endoscopies were performed before planned elective endotracheal intubation. The anonymized endoscopy videos were reviewed and graded by five international airway experts. Data was compared between the two groups using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Endoscopic records of 971 children (473 with prior intubation; 498 without prior airway intubation) were included in the final calculations. Most patients (93.7%) with prior intubation had been intubated with a cuffed tube. The number of intubations ranged from 1 to 27. The median interval between intubation and endoscopy was 0.53 years (0.003-5.57 years). Abnormal findings were observed in 31.7% and 26.8% of patients with and without prior intubation, respectively (P = 0.063). Glottic granulomas were significantly more common after intubation (3.6% vs 1.4%; P = 0.028). The incidence of other abnormal findings was similar in both groups. Endoscopic airway alterations can be observed in about one-quarter of children presenting for routine surgery without prior intubation. Except for glottic granulomas, the abnormalities are found with similar frequency in patients with and without prior intubation. No relevant airway damage from short-term endotracheal intubation was found.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 02/2013; 23(2):103-10. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • C.M. Dillier, M. Weiss, A.C. Gerber
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    ABSTRACT: Fragestellung: Erbrechen und Übelkeit nach Tonsillektomien bei Kindern sind ein häufiges Problem. Aufgrund der positiven Erfahrungen mit Tropisetron, einem neueren 5HT3 Rezeptor-Antagonisten bei Chemotherapien in der pädiatrischen Onkologie und mit anderen 5HT3 Rezeptor-Antagonisten in der Kinderchirurgie, prüften wir die Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit einer Einzeldosis Tropisetron zur Prävention von postoperativem Erbrechen bei chirurgischen Kindern mit erhöhtem Risiko für postoperatives Erbrechen. Methodik: Bei 98 Kindern im Alter von 2– 12 Jahren, die eine Tonsillektomie oder Adenotonsillektomie benötigten, führten wir eine randomisierte, doppelblinde, plazebokontrollierte Studie durch. Die Patienten erhielten Tropisetron oder Plazebo in einer Dosis von 0,1 mg (=0,1 ml)/kg KG i.v. unmittelbar nach der Narkoseeinleitung. Die Narkose erfolgte standardisiert mit Sevofluran/N2O/O2 ohne Einsatz von Opioiden und Muskelrelaxanzien. Vitalparameter, Sedationstiefe, das Auftreten von postoperativem Erbrechen und unerwünschte Wirkungen wurden aufgezeichnet. Ergebnisse: In der Tropisetrongruppe zeigten 65,3% der Kinder kein postoperatives Erbrechen, im Gegensatz zu nur 34,7% der Kinder in der Plazebogruppe (P=0,0024). Mehr als 3 Episoden von postoperativem Erbrechen zeigten nur 10,2% der Patienten in der Tropisetrongruppe im Vergleich zu 22,4% der Patienten der Kontrollgruppe (P=0,0004). Auch der Bedarf an antiemetischer Zusatzmedikation war in der Tropisetrongruppe mit 10,4% signifikant niedriger als in der Kontrollgruppe mit 28,6% (P=0,025). Bedeutsame Nebenwirkungen der Studienmedikation konnten nicht dokumentiert werden. Schlussfolgerungen: Eine prophylaktische intravenöse Einzelgabe von Tropisetron reduziert bei Kindern wirksam das Auftreten von postoperativem Erbrechen während der ersten 24 h nach einer Tonsillektomie oder Adenotonsillektomie. Die geringe Inzidenz von Nebenwirkungen rechtfertigt unserer Ansicht nach die prophylaktische Anwendung von Tropisetron bei Kindern nach Tonsillektomien. Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after tonsillectomy is a common problem in children. Tropisetron is a new 5HT3 receptor antagonist and is successfully used in paediatric patients receiving cancer therapy. The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of a single intravenous dose of tropisetron for prevention of PONV in paediatric patients at risk for postoperative vomiting. Methods: In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we studied 98 children aged 2–12 years undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Patients received placebo or tropisetron 0.1 mg (=0.1 ml)/kg body weight immediately after induction of anesthesia. A standard general anesthetic technique (Sevoflurane/N2O/O2 without neuromuscular blockers or opioids) was used. Perioperative vital signs, grade of sedation and episodes of postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. Results: No vomiting episodes occurred in 65.3% of the tropisetron treated patients compared to 34.7% of the placebo group (p=0.0024). Only 10.2% of the tropisetron treated patients vomited more than 3 times compared to 22.4% of the control patients (p=0.0004). The need for antiemetic rescue medication was significantly lower in the study group (10.4%) compared to 28.6% (p=0.025). No significant adverse effects of the study medication were shown. Conclusion: A single intravenous prophylactic dose of tropisetron effectively reduces the incidence of PONV during the first 24 postoperative hours after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Because of the low incidence of adverse effects, the prophylactic use of tropisetron seems to be safe and justified in paediatric surgical patients at high risk for postoperative vomiting.
    Der Anaesthesist 04/2012; 49(4):275-278. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Markus Weiss, Andreas C Gerber
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    ABSTRACT: In the last 5 years the use of cuffed tracheal tubes in infants and children has become popular worldwide and is accepted by major medical authorities. The advantages of cuffed tracheal tubes in smaller children - in particular the almost 100% chance to insert the right sized tracheal tube at the first attempt and their reliable sealing characteristics within the trachea - makes tracheal intubation and ventilation considerable easier and safer. This certainly compensates for the higher cost of cuffed compared to uncuffed tracheal tubes. The fear that cuffed tracheal tubes cause increased laryngeal damage in small children could not be confirmed, if adequately designed, cuffed tracheal tubes are correctly used. Conditions for the safe use of cuffed tubes in children are the availability of an adequately designed cuffed tube with a proofed recommendation for tube size selection and cuff pressure monitoring. The following rules must be fulfiled when cuffed tubes in children using are: confirmation of an air leak < 20 cmH2O inspiratory pressure with the cuff not inflated, cuff pressure limitation at 20 cmH2O and the avoidance of negative cuff pressures, resulting in sharp, cutting edges of the cuff membrane within the trachea.
    ains · Anästhesiologie · Intensivmedizin 04/2012; 47(4):232-7. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrathecal opioids have been shown to be safe and effective for postoperative analgesia in healthy children for spinal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of intrathecal opioids in severely handicapped children scheduled for spinal surgery. With hospital ethical committee approval, patients with physical states III and IV of the ASA classification requiring spinal surgery were retrospectively studied. In addition to inhalational anesthesia with sevoflurane or intravenous anesthesia using propofol, morphine 20 microg/kgBW and sufentanil 1.5 microg/kgBW were administered intrathecally before surgery. After surgery an infusion of nalbuphine was started. Need for additional intraoperative and postoperative analgesics, time of extubation, postoperative pain scores and p(a)CO2 values as well as adverse effects were recorded. A total of 28 patients aged from 2.8 to 18.5 years (median 11.6 years) were studied. Immediate tracheal extubation in the operating room was possible in 17 patients and for 11 patients delayed extubation was elected. All patients were extubated within 24 h except for 1 patient who received massive postoperative transfusions. In 26 out of 28 patients (93%) the combination of intrathecal opioids with postoperative nalbuphine provided adequate analgesia. Observed side effects were post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), pruritus and moderate hypoventilation. In two patients a change to intravenous morphine therapy was necessary. The use of intrathecal opioids for perioperative pain control from spinal fusion in severely handicapped children is feasible. Intrathecal opioids provide adequate postoperative analgesia and allow early extubation without persisting relevant respiratory compromise in most of these patients.
    Der Anaesthesist 07/2010; 59(7):614-20. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal anesthesia (SA) is widely used for awake regional anesthesia in ex-preterm infants scheduled for herniotomy. Awake caudal anesthesia (CA) is suggested as an alternative approach for these patients and type of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and complications of the two different techniques. Two historical populations of 575 ex-preterm infants undergoing herniotomy under awake SA (n = 339; 1998-2001) and under awake CA (n = 236; 2001-2009) were investigated. Data are compared using t-test and chi-square tests (P < 0.05). The SA group consisted of 339 patients, they were born after 32.0 (3.3) weeks of gestation on average with a mean birth weight of 1691 g (725). The CA group consisted of 236 patients born after 32.1 weeks (3.7) with a mean birth weight of 1617 g (726). At the time of operation, the total age was 41.37 (3.6) and 41.28 (4.0), respectively, for SA and CA patients, and the corresponding weights were 3326 (1083) g and 3267 (931) g for SA and CA patients, respectively. For SA, significantly more puncture attempts were needed (1.83 vs 1.44, P < 0.001). Surgery was performed under pure regional anesthesia in 85% (SA) and 90.1% (CA) (ns). A change to general anesthesia was necessary in 7.7% (SA) and 3.9% (CA) (ns). Overall, intra- and postoperative complications were not statistically different. Caudal anesthesia was shown to be technically less difficult than SA and to have a higher success rate. Its application as awake regional anesthesia technique in these patients seems more appropriate than SA.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 04/2010; 20(7):620-4. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology - EUR J ANAESTH. 01/2010; 27.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate sevoflurane and anaesthetic gas consumption using uncuffed vs. cuffed endotracheal tubes (ETT) in paediatric surgical patients. Uncuffed or cuffed ETT were used in paediatric patients (newborn to 5 years) undergoing elective surgery in a randomized order. Duration of assessment, lowest possible fresh gas flow (minimal allowed FGF: 0.5 l/min) and sevoflurane concentrations used were recorded. Consumption and costs for sevoflurane and medical gases were calculated. Seventy children (35 uncuffed ETT/35 cuffed ETT), aged 1.73 (0.01-4.80) years, were enrolled. No significant differences in patient characteristics, study period and sevoflurane concentrations used were found between the two groups. Lowest possible FGF was significantly lower in the cuffed ETT group [1.0 (0.5-1.0) l/min] than in the uncuffed ETT group [2.0 (0.5-4.3) l/min], P<0.001. Sevoflurane consumption per patient was 16.1 (6.4-82.8) ml in the uncuffed ETT group and 6.2 (1.1-14.9) ml in the cuffed ETT group, P=0.003. Medical gas consumption was 129 (53-552) l in the uncuffed ETT group vs. 46 (9-149) l in the cuffed ETT group, P<0.001. The total costs for sevoflurane and medical gases were 13.4 (6.0-67.3)euro/patient in the uncuffed ETT group and 5.2 (1.0-12.5)euro/patient in the cuffed ETT group, P<0.001. The use of cuffed ETT in children significantly reduced the costs of sevoflurane and medical gas consumption during anaesthesia. Increased costs for cuffed compared with uncuffed ETT were completely compensated by a reduction in sevoflurane and medical gas consumption.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 01/2010; 54(7):855-858. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of cuffed tracheal tubes (TTs) in small children is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare post-extubation morbidity and TT exchange rates when using cuffed vs uncuffed tubes in small children. Patients aged from birth to 5 yr requiring general anaesthesia with TT intubation were included in 24 European paediatric anaesthesia centres. Patients were prospectively randomized into a cuffed TT group (Microcuff PET) and an uncuffed TT group (Mallinckrodt, Portex, Rüsch, Sheridan). Endpoints were incidence of post-extubation stridor and the number of TT exchanges to find an appropriate-sized tube. For cuffed TTs, minimal cuff pressure required to seal the airway was noted; maximal cuff pressure was limited at 20 cm H(2)O with a pressure release valve. Data are mean (SD). A total of 2246 children were studied (1119/1127 cuffed/uncuffed). The age was 1.93 (1.48) yr in the cuffed and 1.87 (1.45) yr in the uncuffed groups. Post-extubation stridor was noted in 4.4% of patients with cuffed and in 4.7% with uncuffed TTs (P=0.543). TT exchange rate was 2.1% in the cuffed and 30.8% in the uncuffed groups (P<0.0001). Minimal cuff pressure required to seal the trachea was 10.6 (4.3) cm H(2)O. The use of cuffed TTs in small children provides a reliably sealed airway at cuff pressures of <or=20 cm H(2)O, reduces the need for TT exchanges, and does not increase the risk for post-extubation stridor compared with uncuffed TTs.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2009; 103(6):867-73. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ketamine is widely used in emergency departments (EDs) to facilitate painful procedures; however, existing descriptors of predictors of emesis and recovery agitation are derived from relatively small studies. We pooled individual-patient data from 32 ED studies and performed multiple logistic regression to determine which clinical variables would predict emesis and recovery agitation. The first phase of this study similarly identified predictors of airway and respiratory adverse events. In 8,282 pediatric ketamine sedations, the overall incidence of emesis, any recovery agitation, and clinically important recovery agitation was 8.4%, 7.6%, and 1.4%, respectively. The most important independent predictors of emesis are unusually high intravenous (IV) dose (initial dose of > or =2.5 mg/kg or a total dose of > or =5.0 mg/kg), intramuscular (IM) route, and increasing age (peak at 12 years). Similar risk factors for any recovery agitation are low IM dose (<3.0 mg/kg) and unusually high IV dose, with no such important risk factors for clinically important recovery agitation. Early adolescence is the peak age for ketamine-associated emesis, and its rate is higher with IM administration and with unusually high IV doses. Recovery agitation is not age related to a clinically important degree. When we interpreted it in conjunction with the separate airway adverse event phase of this analysis, we found no apparent clinically important benefit or harm from coadministered anticholinergics and benzodiazepines and no increase in adverse events with either oropharyngeal procedures or the presence of substantial underlying illness. These and other results herein challenge many widely held views about ED ketamine administration.
    Annals of emergency medicine 06/2009; 54(2):171-80.e1-4. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although ketamine is one of the most commonly used sedatives to facilitate painful procedures for children in the emergency department (ED), existing studies have not been large enough to identify clinical factors that are predictive of uncommon airway and respiratory adverse events. We pooled individual-patient data from 32 ED studies and performed multiple logistic regressions to determine which clinical variables would predict airway and respiratory adverse events. In 8,282 pediatric ketamine sedations, the overall incidence of airway and respiratory adverse events was 3.9%, with the following significant independent predictors: younger than 2 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 2.72), aged 13 years or older (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.97 to 3.75), high intravenous dosing (initial dose > or =2.5 mg/kg or total dose > or =5.0 mg/kg; OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.99), coadministered anticholinergic (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.42), and coadministered benzodiazepine (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.78). Variables without independent association included oropharyngeal procedures, underlying physical illness (American Society of Anesthesiologists class >or = 3), and the choice of intravenous versus intramuscular route. Risk factors that predict ketamine-associated airway and respiratory adverse events are high intravenous doses, administration to children younger than 2 years or aged 13 years or older, and the use of coadministered anticholinergics or benzodiazepines.
    Annals of emergency medicine 02/2009; 54(2):158-68.e1-4. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether repairing hypospadias before or after 18 months affects psychological adjustment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and surgical outcome. Seventy-seven boys aged 6-17 years were assigned to one of two groups, according to whether they had a hypospadias repair before or after the age of 18 months. The surgical outcome was assessed using the pediatric penile perception score by non-involved urologists. A psychologist interviewed the patients to assess HRQoL and gender-role behavior. The child's psychological adjustment was assessed with a questionnaire for parents. The surgical outcome and complication rate were not significantly different between groups. A covariance analysis of HRQoL, gender-role behavior and psychological adjustment as a function of age at the last operation with current age as covariant was performed, but differences did not reach significance. This study does not provide evidence to support recommendations concerning the ideal age for hypospadias repair. In the absence of evidence of a benefit of early surgery, anesthesia-related risk factors must be considered when operating in very early infancy. Large, prospective studies, measuring surgical and psychological outcome with similar instruments to those presented may reveal whether there is a true ideal age for hypospadias surgery.
    Journal of pediatric urology 02/2009; 5(5):345-50. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Markus Weiss, Andreas Gerber
    Pediatric Anesthesia 12/2008; 18(11):1105. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Markus Weiss, Andreas Gerber
    Pediatric Anesthesia 11/2008; 18(10):980. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Andreas C Gerber, Markus Weiss
    Pediatric Anesthesia 10/2008; 18(9):894-5; author reply 895-6. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Markus Weiss, Andreas Gerber
    Pediatric Anesthesia 10/2008; 18(10). · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Markus Weiss, Andreas C Gerber
    Pediatric Anesthesia 03/2008; 18(2):97-9. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fiberoptic tracheoscopy assisted repair of tracheoesophageal fistula (TARTEF) has been reported to be useful for the surgeon with regards to identification of the fistula and proper fistula ligation. The aim of this article is to report our 10-year experience using TARTEF with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) during tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) repair in newborns. With ethical committee approval, we included all patients undergoing TARTEF from 1995-2005. Variables of interest were (1) respiratory deterioration caused by gastric inflation because of IPPV during surgery and endoscopy; (2) detection of additional airway anomalies; (3) success of intubation of the fistula; (4) other side effects or adverse events. Data are given in median and range. Forty-seven neonates with TARTEF were included. Mean gestational age was 37 weeks (31-42) and mean weight was 2.5 kg (1.1-3.8). The patients were intubated with tracheal tubes size 2.5-3.5 mm ID. Appropriately sized fiberoptic bronchoscopes with an outer diameter of 2.0, 2.4 and 2.8 mm were used; passed through the lumen of the tracheal tube (TT) thereby requiring the use of IPPV to ensure adequate ventilation. No respiratory deterioration was noted as a consequence of intraoperative fiberoptic manipulation within the trachea or because of gastric hyperinflation with IPPV. In all patients, the TEF was successfully penetrated with the fiberscope and this clearly helped the surgeon to rapidly identify and dissect the fistula. In two patients a tracheal bronchus was identified. In two patients accidental extubation occurred during endoscopic confirmation of successful fistula repair. While fiberoptic TARTEF through the tracheal tube with IPPV did expedite and facilitate surgery, it did not cause clinically relevant impairment of ventilation. Careful manipulation during fiberoptic assessment is required to avoid tube displacement.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 07/2007; 17(6):557-62. · 2.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
182.93 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2013
    • University Children's Hospital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1999–2012
    • University of Zurich
      • Institut für Anästhesiologie
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria