[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The criteria for erythrocyte transfusion in stable premature infants are currently controversial. Haemodynamic measurements are not common in transfusion practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether haemodynamic measurements could be helpful as objective criterion for transfusion decisions. We, therefore, evaluated clinical and haemodynamic changes in stable, anaemic, premature infants before and after transfusion using our current blood transfusion protocol based on a haematocrit threshold (<24%) and the neonatologist's discretion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stable premature infants with a haematocrit level ≤30% were prospectively enrolled into the study. Cerebral, intestinal and renal blood flow velocities, cardiac function parameters and vital signs were measured up to three times following every routine haematocrit analysis. Moreover, transfused infants were evaluated three more times: directly before transfusion, and 24 hours and 72 hours after transfusion. RESULTS: Thirty-six infants were enrolled and 23 of them were transfused. Subgroup analysis of transfused infants showed a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow velocities, cardiac output and heart rate. These changes persisted after transfusion. In the entire cohort, the degree of anaemia correlated with the increase of cerebral blood flow velocities, heart rate and cardiac output. DISCUSSION: Cerebral blood velocities in the anterior cerebral artery might represent an objective Doppler sonographic criterion indicating the need for transfusion. The measurement of these velocities is non-invasive and quick and easy to perform. However, a randomised, controlled trial is necessary before a formal recommendation can be made.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid enteral feeding volume advancement in preterm infants can reduce the use of intravenous fluids. This practice may decrease the hazards of intravenous infusion solutions and potentially the morbidity rate. Several cohort trials demand the standardised nutritional regimen to reduce the complications and the time to reach full enteral feeds.
to determine whether using a standardized nutritional regimen the rapid enteral feeding advancement in preterm infants is practicable without increasing the incidence of feeding complications.
A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed in 99 preterm infants, birth weight ≤1,750 g. Group ST (standardized nutritional regimen) received breast human milk according to a standardized nutritional regimen. Group IN (individual nutritional regimen) received breast human milk or semi-elemental nutrition (Pregomin(®) Milupa) depending on enteral problems of the infant. The feeding volume advancement in the IN-Group was decided individually. The main outcome measure was time to reach full enteral feedings.
Infants in the ST-Group achieved full enteral feedings after 14.93±9.95 (median 12) d, infants in the IN-Group after 16.23±10.86 (median 14) d. The difference between the groups was significant only in small for gestational age (SGA) infants: ST-Group 10.20±4.78 (median 8.5) vs. IN-Group 16.73±8.57 (Median 15) days (p=0.045). The weight gain was similar in both groups. Infants in ST-Group achieved full enteral feedings having 116% of birth weight, infants in IN-Group 122% of birth weight. This difference was not significant (p=0.195). The incidence of NEC (necrotizing enterocolitis, 4%) and other complications were low in both groups. The diagnosis "feeding complications" was described in IN-Group in 14 vs. 7 infants in ST-Group.
SGA-infants profit from the enteral feeding advancement by using a standardized nutritional regimen. These infants achieved full enteral feedings sooner then the SGA-infants, who did not feed by using a standardized nutritional regimen. A standardized nutritional regimen can be realized in clinical routine and is by strict clinical observation practicable without increasing the incidence of feeding complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of the prospective study was to investigate perinatal parameters and outcome of term SGA neonates. 100 term neonates were enrolled into 2 groups: group 1: 50 SGA neonates with birth weight below tenth percentile, group 2: 50 appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates. Both groups were compared concerning parental anamnesis, perinatal parameters, postnatal adaptation and development during the first days of life. After discharge from the hospital all children were observed during the first 15 weeks. In all infants the gain of weight, length, head circumference and the amount and type of nutrition were recorded. It was observed that only 13% of the SGA neonates were small children of small parents. Most of the SGA neonates had a normal target high. We found a significantly increased number of mothers with disturbed uterine or placental perfusion in the SGA group as well as increased problems in postnatal adaptation. SGA children had a significantly faster increase of gaining weight and a higher amount of nutrition during the first 15 weeks of life. This could be an early sign of catch-up-growth in SGA neonates, which could be regard as a part of the complex risk for developing a metabolic syndrome in formerly SGA children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CPAP is widely used in preterm infants on NICUs but it poses a stressful stimulus to the patient, sometimes requiring the use of analgosedative drugs.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the risks and benefits associated with the use of low-dose morphine in preterm infants with CPAP, especially apnea.
Sixty-four CPAP-treated preterm infants, who received a low single dose of morphine (recommended 0.01 mg/kg), were included in this prospective study. Observation-time was 4 h prior to injection, directly before injecting, until 15 min and 15-30 min, 30 min-1 h, 1-2 h, 2-3 h, 3-4 h, 4-5 h and 5-6 h after injection. For all observation periods incidence of apnea, heart rate, respiratory rate and a score for analgesia and for sedation were recorded.
Sixty-four preterm infants (29.6+/-3.3 weeks gestational age (GA), birth weight 1401+/-735 g) received 0.025+/-0.012 mg/kg morphine i.v. on the day 10-13 of life. The decrease in heart and respiratory rate, scores for analgesia and sedation were significant. The overall incidence of apnea did not increase compared to the 4 h pre-morphine period. Six patients (9.3%) experienced considerable delayed apnea. This group was significantly younger in GA (p<0.001) and lighter in birth weight (p=0.002).
Morphine in dosage less than half of recommended dosage has a high analgetic and sedative potential. The danger of delayed severe apnea has to be taken into consideration in the clinical situation, especially in patients<28 weeks.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraluminal calcified meconium is found frequently by prenatal ultrasound in cases with bowel perforation and meconium peritonitis. Intraluminal intestinal meconium calcifications are rarely seen in prenatal sonography. Meconium calcifications result from a mixture of meconium and urine that indicates a connection between intestinal and urinary tract. We report a case of a male newborn prenatally diagnosed with intraluminal echogenic calcifications at 23 weeks of gestation, suggesting an anorectal malformation (ARM) with rectourinary fistula. At birth, the child presented with a complex ARM including high anal atresia with both perineal and rectourethral fistula. Furthermore, a bladder outlet obstruction due to a urethral stenosis was diagnosed. Vesicostomy was performed as an emergency procedure followed by colostomy during neonatal period. Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty was performed at the age of 4 months. Prenatal echogenic calcifications within bowel should raise the suspicion of ARM with rectourinary fistula and bladder outlet obstruction.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/2008; 43(4):e11-3. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infants of drug abusing mothers are at high risk to suffer from neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Depending on the drug signs of neonatal withdrawal vary but mainly include central nervous system irritability. NAS causes long duration of hospital stay. Severe withdrawal signs are seen in infants exposed to methadone, infants exposed to other opioids like heroin or buprenorphine have been shown to be less symptomatic. Between the years 1997 and 2003 following the border opening there was a dramatic increase in drug exposed newborns seen in the area of Leipzig (East Germany).
In a retrospective study maternal and infant characteristics, severity of symptoms, duration of withdrawal and hospital stay, duration and kind of treatment as well as modalities for release from hospital were analyzed.
From 1997 to 2003 49 drug exposed newborns were admitted to our neonatal care unit. There was an increase of the number of affected infants within these years ( ). Maternal drug abuse (n=48) included mainly methadone (n=33), in second line heroine and benzodiazepines, in a few cases also cocaine and cannabinoides. 3 mothers received substitution therapy with buprenorphine. Additional drug use to substitution therapy was seen in 15 mothers. Drugs of abuse were detected in infant urine specimen (36/48). 35 of exposed newborns showed signs of NAS (incidence of NAS 71%). For evaluation of withdrawal signs and conduction of therapy the Finnegan score was used. As first line pharmacological treatment phenobarbitone was administered (n=42), secondary morphine was used (n=14, treatment failure 33%). Mean duration of hospital stay was 21 days. Mean duration of pharmacological treatment was 14 days with longer duration for methadone exposed infants vs. non-methadone exposed infants (16 vs. 10 days). Hospital stay was longer for non-methadone exposed infants. Maternal intake of more than 20 mg methadone per day vs. up to 20 mg per day caused longer duration of hospital stay (28 vs. 20 days, p=0,015).
Long duration of hospital stay and pharmacological treatment call for optimised principal guide lines for diagnosis, treatment and long term follow-up. The results also underline the need for further research for an effective pharmacological treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study effects of dobutamine on cardiac functional parameters, cerebral, mesenteric and renal blood flow in preterm neonates with myocardial dysfunction.
Prospective evaluation of Doppler sonographically measured left ventricular systolic time intervals, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and blood flow parameters of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and renal arteries (RA), before, after 20 min and 8-10 h of dobutamine treatment in 20 neonates (gestational age 29.6+/-4.4 weeks, birth weight 1450+/-609 g and postnatal age 2+/-2.1 days). Dobutamine was given in a mean dosage of 9.1+/-1.1 microg/kg.
After 20 min SV increased from 1.71+/-0.5 ml to 2.12+0.57 ml/kg, CO from 223+/-76 to 290 ml/kg/min. A shortening of left ventricular pre ejection period from 86+/-12 to 66+/-13 ms and of the ratio of pre-ejection period/ejection time from 0.52+/-0.12 to 0.40+/-0.11 were observed. Blood flow velocities of ACA increased after 8-10 h: peak systolic flow velocity (PSV) from 19.0+/-6 to 29.6+/-7.1 ms, end diastolic velocity (EDV) from 2.9+/-2.6 to 12.7+/-11.3 ms. PSV of SMA increased from 32.5+/-4.7 to 49.7+/-7.8 ms after 8-10 h, EDV from 8.9+/-8 ms to 20.6+/-6.1 ms. PSV of RA increased from 18.2+/-6.1 ms to 39.9+/-4.8 ms, EDV from 2.2+/-1.2 to 8.2+/-2.1 ms after 8-10 h. The pulsatility indices decreased significantly after 8-10 h: ACA from 2.3+/-0.6 to 1.4+/-0.5, SMA from 1.7 to 1.2 and RA from 2.57 to 1.57.
Dobutamine improves the cardiac functional parameters already after 20 min and has an influence on the blood flow parameters of ACA, SMA and RA 8-10 h after administration in neonates with myocardial dysfunction.
Early Human Development 06/2007; 83(5):307-12. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other ocular morbidities in extremely premature infants.
A retrospective analysis of the prevalence and nature of ocular abnormalities in a cohort of 22 extremely pre-term infants born <25 + 0 weeks of estimated gestational age (GA) was performed.
The children were grouped according to the observed disorder: 13 out of 22 (59%) neonates with mild ophthalmologic findings (ROP < or = stage II) [Group 1], 5 out of 22 (23%) infants with ROP stage III or more (Group 2) and 4 out of 22 (18%) neonates with severe ocular morbidity (congenital cataract, microphthalmia, partial optic nerve atrophy and corneal perforation due to an ulcer with lens protrusion), partly combined with ROP > or = stage III (three of four). One child of 22 (5%) needed laser therapy. Out of 22 admitted infants, 20 (91%) were discharged alive.
The high rate of ocular morbidity besides ROP in extremely pre-term infants is noteworthy. Mechanisms influencing the postnatal development of the eye, especially their relation to the grade of prematurity and neonatological therapeutical strategies, require further investigations.