G Stephen Bowen

Nova Southeastern University, Florida, NY, United States

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Publications (19)26.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Planning for end-of-life (EOL) care can result in better patient outcomes and lowered health care costs. We hypothesized that knowledge and experiences with EOL care would influence patients' EOL planning (i.e., health care decisions, hospice use). Using an observational, cross-sectional design, we recruited a community sample of 331 South Floridians aged 18 to 84 (M = 44 years, SD = 14.95) to complete a questionnaire examining knowledge and opinions on EOL issues. Regression analyses showed that prior knowledge of living wills and hospice services were associated with more favorable attitudes toward hospice care, preference for limited medical interventions at EOL, and more comfort in communicating about death and dying. Patient education on EOL care may increase hospice use, enhance EOL planning, and improve patient outcomes.
    The American journal of hospice & palliative care 05/2011; 28(3):176-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) may provide added benefits to standard human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS treatments. However, lack of access to trained OMT providers is a potential barrier to the widespread use of OMT in the management of HIV and AIDS. To determine the best time to measure the short-term impact of a brief OMT protocol on white blood cell counts in individuals with HIV and AIDS. Also, to explore recruiting and training laypersons to administer select osteopathic manual techniques. Participants were HIV-positive men aged between 18 and 65 years who had not undergone antiretroviral therapy in the past 12 months, had CD4(+) lymphocyte counts of 200 to 700 cells/mm(3), and had viral load levels of less than 100,000 copies/mL. Participants were randomly assigned to an OMT group or a control group; those in the OMT group recruited a layperson for training in osteopathic manual therapy. Participants in the OMT group received a 15-minute OMT protocol consisting of myofascial release of the thoracic inlet, pectoral traction, rib raising, thoracic pump, and abdominal pump. Participants in the control group engaged in conversation with the researcher for 15 minutes. Between-group differences for each white blood cell type were examined at varying time intervals after the protocols. Laypersons were trained to administer thoracic and abdominal pump techniques. They were tested by multiple choice examinations and by an independent rater for fidelity of administration. Twenty-one participants met the eligibility criteria. Of those, 18 returned for their study visit (OMT group, n=9; control group, n=9). An optimal time interval for measurement of white blood cell changes across the 5 cell types was not determined. However, P values for the 30-minute interval were consistently below 0.18 for neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes. Nine laypersons were trained in osteopathic manual therapy, 5 of whom scored 100% on initial completion of the multiple-choice examination; the remaining 4 laypersons scored 80% on the first try and 100% on the second try. All laypersons appropriately administered the manual therapy protocol. It is feasible to recruit and train laypersons to administer selected osteopathic manual therapy techniques with fidelity. Longitudinal studies on this concept are needed to examine patient outcomes and to evaluate the retention and fidelity of laypersons over time.
    The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 05/2011; 111(5):325-30.
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    ABSTRACT: an estimated 252,000 to 312,000 individuals have undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States. To date, little has been known about osteopathic physicians' attitudes and practices regarding routine HIV testing. to understand osteopathic primary care physicians' attitudes and practices toward HIV testing and sexual history taking and to examine factors associated with osteopathic physicians' recommendations of HIV testing at the initial patient visit. a cross-sectional survey of osteopathic physicians was conducted at the 106th Annual Convention of the Florida Osteopathic Medical Association in February 2009. Survey participants were asked 36 questions about osteopathic physician and patient sociodemographic factors and osteopathic physician attitudes and office practices regarding HIV testing and sexual history taking. a total of 233 osteopathic physicians completed the survey, but only 160 respondents (69%) met inclusion criteria of working in primary care and spending more than 50% of their time with patients. Almost two-thirds of participants were men, 80% were white, and the age range was 28 to 83 years. Twenty-two percent of participants recommended HIV testing at the initial patient visit, and 18% recommended annual HIV testing for all patients. Eighty-seven percent obtained a separate consent form for HIV testing, and 19% included HIV testing in general consent forms. About two-thirds of participants recommended annual HIV testing for homosexual men. Three factors were associated with recommending HIV testing at the initial patient visit: (1) recommending an annual HIV test for sexually active patients (odds ratio [OR], 12.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.97-41.67); (2) having an agree/strongly agree attitude toward HIV testing (OR, 5.59; 95% CI, 1.63-19.23); and (3) obtaining a general consent form that included permission for HIV testing (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.07-9.90). osteopathic physicians who practice primary care medicine can play a crucial role in reducing the number of individuals with undiagnosed HIV infection. More concerted efforts are needed to help osteopathic physicians incorporate HIV testing as part of routine care for all patients.
    The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 12/2010; 110(12):712-20.
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of HIV infection is increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 40 and older yet little is known about factors that influence their risky sexual behavior, such as sexual positioning. The goal of this study was to examine multi-level factors associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) and unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIAI) in MSM aged 40 and older. A community-based sample of 802 self-identified MSM aged 40-94 years was recruited through targeted outreach from community venues (e.g., bars, social events) in South Florida and completed an anonymous pen-and-paper questionnaire. Logistic regression showed that younger age (i.e., aged 40-59; odds ratio [OR]=0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4, 0.9), HIV-positive status (OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.9, 4.0), drug use (OR=2.6; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.7), a larger number of male sexual partners (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3), and lower scores on internalized homonegativity (OR=0.9; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.0) were associated with higher risk for URAI. Younger age (OR=0.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6), HIV-positive status (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), drug use (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 22.3), Viagra use (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4), larger number of sexual partners (OR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.9), and holding views more characterized by high optimism concerning the future (OR=1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.1) were associated with higher risk for UIAI. These results provide useful information that may guide the development of tailored prevention interventions to reduce the growing rates of HIV among MSM aged 40 and older.
    AIDS Care 03/2010; 22(10):1204-11. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite continued high HIV risk among Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM), culturally tailored, theoretically based interventions have yet to be developed and tested. As a first step toward intervention development, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on sociocultural and psychological factors associated with drug use and risky sex among 566 HMSM recruited from community and Internet venues. Participants reported high rates of drug use (43%), unprotected anal sex (45%), and multiple sex partners (median 4) in the past 6 months. In multivariate analyses, use of drugs was associated with HIV seropositivity, less orientation to the Hispanic community, stronger attachment to the gay community, lower levels of homophobia, higher numbers of sex partners and more unprotected anal sex. The need for acceptance and desire to please partners emerged as core drivers of HIV risk in the qualitative data. Findings were used to guide development of Proyecto SOL, a theoretically grounded intervention that targets core determinants of HIV risk, builds on protective cultural influences, and strengthens positive social connections.
    AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 10/2009; 21(5 Suppl):45-60. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to describe the sexual practices, drug use behaviors, psychosocial factors, and predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) born in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries who currently reside in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Hispanic MSM (N = 566) recruited from community and Internet venues completed a computer-assisted self-interview assessing sociodemographic factors, drug use, sexual behaviors, and psychosocial factors. We focused on the 470 men who were born in LAC countries, including Puerto Rico. We first examined separately, by country of origin, the sexual practices, drug use behaviors, and psychosocial factors of the sample. We then collapsed the groups and examined the factors associated with UAI in the previous 6 months for the entire sample of Hispanic MSM from LAC countries. In the previous 6 months, 44% of the sample engaged in UAI, and 41% used club drugs. At the multivariate level, psychological distress, higher number of sexual partners, club drug use, HIV-positive status at the time of immigration, and greater orientation to American culture were significantly associated with UAI in the previous 6 months. Many MSM born in LAC countries engage in HIV-related risk behaviors in the AIDS epicenter of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Culturally appropriate interventions should address these risk behaviors in this underserved population.
    Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 06/2008; 23(5):341-8. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Difficulties with recruitment of hidden populations, such as Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM), have hampered HIV prevention research, leading researchers to explore alternative recruitment modalities such as the Internet. In this paper, we compare the efficiency and cost of recruiting HMSM from Internet chat rooms versus community venues and examine the differences between participants recruited from each type of venue. Internet recruitment was more efficient and somewhat less costly than community recruitment. Although the two groups were comparable in most demographic factors and HIV risk behaviors, Internet recruits were more likely to be bisexual, more likely to be HIV seropositive, had a higher level of education, and reported higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of gay community attachment. Implications of our findings for using Internet chatrooms as recruitment venues are discussed.
    Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 02/2007; 6(2):143-62.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether use of crystal methamphetamine increases HIV risk behaviors beyond the risk associated with use of other recreational drugs among Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM). We compared the sexual behaviors and psychosocial characteristics of non-recreational drug users (non-users), recreational drug users who did not use crystal (non-crystal drug users), and recreational drug users who used crystal (crystal users). We recruited 294 HMSM from Internet and 272 from community venues. Eligible men completed an ACASI to assess socio-demographic factors, drug use, sexual behaviors and psychosocial factors and received 50 dollars. In the multivariate model, crystal users were more likely than non-crystal drug users to have lower Hispanicism, higher attachment to the gay community, and history of suicide attempts. Crystal users were not significantly different from non-crystal drug users in number of sex partners; however, differences in unprotected receptive anal sex approached significance. The additional risk of crystal above that of other recreational drugs needs to be disentangled from those associated with poly-drug use. Our data suggest that it may depend on how one defines risky sexual behavior and is influenced by psychological, physiologic and social factors.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2007; 86(2-3):245-52. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this cross-sectional study the authors examine condom use attempts and condom use among 305 high-risk, low-income African American women who reported having a main partner. Women who had recently attempted to convince their main partner to use condoms were almost 10 times more likely to have recently used condoms with their partner than women who had not made an attempt. Among the subsample of 116 women who had recently made a condom use attempt with their main partner, having a history of childhood abuse and having one's main partner raise infidelity questions in response to the condom use attempt were negatively associated with recent condom use with this partner. Findings provide initial insights into the importance of women's condom use attempts, as well as subgroups of women who may encounter special challenges convincing their main partner to use condoms.
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 02/2006; 12(1):70-83. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Internet presents unique and growing opportunities for conducting HIV/ STD research. This article reports on the first 171 participants enrolled in an ongoing study examining use of the Internet to recruit Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM) living in an AIDS epicenter to participate in community-based studies. First, it describes initial success with chatroom recruitment. Second, it compares the demographic, psychosocial, and sexual risk practices among HMSM recruited through the Internet who had used club drugs in the last 6 months and those who had not. In 2 months, 211 hours were spent recruiting in chatrooms; 735 chatroom users were engaged. Researchers used a scripted dialogue to describe the study and to invite chatroom users to visit the study's community sites for screening and enrollment. One hundred and seventy-six men came to the community sites; 172 (98%) were eligible and completed an audio-computer assisted self-interview. In the last 6 months, 48.5% of the sample had used club drugs [defined as cocaine, crystal methamphetamines (crystal), amyl nitrites (poppers), Ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (Special K), and Viagra]. The proportion of men reporting use of each drug was: cocaine (15.8%), crystal (11.7%), poppers (31.6%), Ecstasy (14%), GHB (3.5%), Special K (3.5%), and Viagra (19.3%). In multivariate analyses, having higher number of sex partners, having higher social isolation scores, and having engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse were significantly associated with club-drug use. These initial findings suggest that high-risk HMSM can be successfully recruited through chatroom dialogues to participate in community-based HIV studies. The alarmingly high rates of club-drug use and risky sexual practices among HMSM underscore the need for effective HIV preventive interventions for this population.
    Journal of Urban Health 04/2005; 82(1 Suppl 1):i79-88. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study measured use of club drugs among 262 Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited at community venues in Miami-Dade County, Florida in 2001. More than 50% of men used club drugs, and 36% used them in the last 3 months. Lifetime and 3-month rates were: ecstasy (36% and 20%), cocaine (34% and 12%), amyl nitrates (28% and 9%), and crystal methamphetamine (20% and 15%). Thirty-six percent had used two or more drugs (polydrug use) in their lifetime and 20% reported polydrug use in the last 3 months. Club drug users had significantly more sex partners in the last 12 months than nonclub drug users. High rates (35%) of unprotected anal sex in the last 3 months were reported by both groups. Men who reported polydrug use in the last 3 months were significantly more likely than men who used a single club drug to have had sex under the influence of club drugs (83% vs. 57%; X2=7.4, p=0.006). At the multivariate level, a significant association between preference for use of English and lifetime club drug use emerged. Effective interventions to reduce club drug use and risky sex for Hispanic MSM are needed.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 02/2005; 40(9-10):1347-62. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From a study of high-risk minority women, we examined data for a subgroup of 201 women who participated in a "male condom- focused" HIV prevention intervention, and who reported having attempted to convince their main partner to use condoms in the 3 months following intervention. Factors related to consistent condom use with a main partner post-intervention were not living with the partner, fewer sexual encounters, and no recent sexual encounter in which either partner was under the influence of drugs. At 3 months following intervention, factors related to women's future intentions to use condoms consistently with a main partner were no recent sex while either partner was under the influence of drugs, and the woman's desire to use condoms consistently with the partner. Main partner's resistance to condoms was unrelated to consistent condom use or future intentions to use condoms consistently. Findings identify barriers to consistent condom use within primary relationships, a critical yet challenging focal point for HIV prevention interventions.
    Women & Health 02/2005; 42(3):37-56. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. This study reports on the club drug use and sexual behaviors of two distinct samples (community and Internet) of Hispanic MSM living in the AIDS epicenter of Miami-Dade County. Both samples reported high rates of unprotected anal sex and high numbers of sex partners; rates of club drug use (cocaine, ecstasy, methamphetamines, GHB, amyl nitrites, and Viagra) were also high. Recent use of club drugs was associated with both unprotected receptive and insertive anal sex in the Internet sample, but not in the community sample. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
    Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions 01/2005; 5(4):81-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Although use of the Internet as a vehicle for HIV/STI research is increasing, its viability to recruit at-risk populations such as Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM) to participate in community-based HIV studies is in its infancy. We report on the first 171 participants enrolled in an ongoing study exploring use of the Internet to recruit Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM) living in Miami-Dade County, Florida to participate in community-based studies. We report our initial success with chat-room recruitment and describe the sexual and drug use practices of the initial set of participants who were recruited through the Internet. In addition, we describe the formative work conducted to develop the Internet recruitment procedures we are testing. In two months, we spent 211 hours recruiting in chat-rooms and engaged 735 chatters. One hundred and seventy-six men came to our community sites; 172 (98%) were eligible and completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. In the previous six months, 94.7% of participants had anal sex; 48.9% did not use condoms for anal sex or used them inconsistently; and 48.5% had used club drugs. Six-month use rates for individual drugs were: poppers (31.6%), cocaine (15.8%), ecstasy (14%) and crystal methamphetamines (11.7%). Use of club drugs was significantly associated with unprotected insertive and unprotected receptive anal sex. These initial findings point to the Internet's potential as a tool for recruiting at-risk Hispanic MSM for community studies.
    AIDS Care 11/2004; 16(8):953-63. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined factors associated with being at risk of sexually acquiring HIV among a community sample of 244 Hispanic migrant and seasonal farm workers. Bilingual staff interviewed respondents anonymously at worksites, camps, and other public venues in South Florida during the 2002 winter/spring growing season. The following variables were positively associated with being at risk of sexually acquiring HIV in multivariable analyses: being female; being married; having "some" or "a lot" of knowledge about HIV transmission, having ever used marijuana, having two or more sex partners in the last 12 months, and having had a sexually transmitted infection. The findings heighten the importance of recognizing women's elevated risk of HIV infection and conducting further studies to examine the factors associated with this increased risk. The study is an important first step toward developing tailored HIV prevention interventions for this at-risk, understudied population.
    AIDS and Behavior 07/2004; 8(2):165-74. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV epidemic has been the most significant public health crisis of the last 2 decades. Although Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) principles have been used by many HIV prevention researchers, the clearest application is the series of model-building and replication experiments conducted by Kelly and colleagues. The model mobilized, trained, and engaged key opinion leaders to serve as behavior change and safe-sex endorsers in their social networks. This paper illustrates how ESID principles were used to develop, test, and disseminate an innovative social model and discusses the challenges of applying ESID methodology in the midst of a public health emergency.
    American Journal of Community Psychology 01/2004; 32(3-4):333-44. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined factors associated with HIV testing intentions among a community sample of 255 never-tested Hispanic men. It compared (1) men who intended to test in the next 6 months with those who did not and (2) men who intended to test only on the day of the interview with those who intended to test in the next 6 months. Eighty-four percent of men had never been offered testing. Yet, 86% would accept testing if recommended by their doctor. The strongest multivariate predictor of testing intention was willingness to accept a physician-endorsed test. Almost 49% of men who intended to test in the next 6 months would only do so if the test were offered on the interview day. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging physicians, particularly in high-prevalence areas, to routinely recommend testing. They also suggest that for some men, there is a window of opportunity for testing that does not endure.
    AIDS and Behavior 10/2003; 7(3):253-62. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined factors associated with repeat (n > or = 3 lifetime) and regular (n > or = 2 times per year, for a minimum of 1 year) HIV testing among a community sample of 538 seronegative Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM). Bilingual staff interviewed respondents anonymously at public venues in South Florida. We compared (a) repeat testers with nonrepeat testers and (b) regular testers with nonregular testers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that repeat testers were more likely to be older, more educated, have a history of sexually transmitted disease, and have more sex partners than nonrepeat testers. Regular testers were more likely to be younger, have lower HIV risk perceptions, and have intentionally taken their first HIV test than were nonregular testers. They were also more likely to engage in oral sex and to only engage in 100% protected insertive anal sex. These findings suggest the importance of studying both the frequency and regularity of HIV testing behaviors, and using them to design interventions to promote testing among Hispanic MSM who are most at risk.
    AIDS Education and Prevention 02/2003; 15(1 Suppl A):105-16. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined how HIV testing history and future testing intentions were related to sexual risk and perceptions of risk in a community sample of 1,052 Hispanic men. This sample is noteworthy in its diverse representation of Hispanics, its high ratio of participants born outside the USA, and its inclusion of heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM). We used area-based sampling to recruit participants at public venues. Data were collected via anonymous, structured interviews from December 1999 to February 2001. Lifetime testing rates were high (76%), but only 45% had been tested in the last 12 months. Results indicate that men at highest risk-those who were MSM, had more partners and had STDs-were more likely to have been tested, and to have been tested recently, than men with lower risk. Being MSM and having been previously tested predicted future testing intentions. Inconsistent condom users with more than five partners were less likely to intend to be tested than men with more than five partners who used condoms consistently. Studying men who have successfully routinized HIV prevention practices (including testing) will assist in the development of interventions for those who remain at risk.
    AIDS Care 07/2002; 14(3):375-84. · 1.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

312 Citations
26.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2009
    • Nova Southeastern University
      • College of Osteopathic Medicine
      Florida, NY, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      Miami, FL, United States