Kyu-Chang Wang

Seoul National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (191)469.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 30 % of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) have presented with involvement of the posterior circulation, mainly the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Diagnosis of delayed progression of PCA stenosis in MMD may be difficult due to the diversity in clinical features. The goal of this study was to evaluate pediatric MMD patients with delayed PCA involvement after completion of revascularization of the anterior circulation. Forty-one pediatric MMD patients who underwent revascularization of the PCA territory due to delayed posterior circulation insufficiency MMD from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The average interval between the initial operation and the occipital artery (OA) procedure was 5.0 years. Common symptoms were headaches and transient visual symptoms. The decision to operate was made based on a combination of diagnostic tools. The results obtained with perfusion MRI, SPECT, MR angiography, and EEG supported posterior circulation insufficiency in 78, 41, 73, and 71 % of patients, respectively. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) using the OA was performed in 15 patients, and 26 patients received multiple burr hole trephination of the occipital area. All patients showed clinical improvement. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of delayed involvement of the PCA in pediatric MMD patients. The clinical decision regarding treatment should be based on a combination of symptomatology and the results obtained with various tools to assess whether the blood flow in the PCA territory is insufficient. Surgical treatment using indirect revascularization appears to be effective for patients with delayed PCA involvement.
    Journal of neurology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The indication of surgical treatment for intracranial arachnoid cysts (ACs) is a controversial issue. In this study, we reviewed surgical outcomes of intracranial ACs that were treated with endoscopic fenestration or microscopic fenestration, which are currently standard practices for surgical treatment of AC. In addition, we also evaluated the validity of current surgical indications.
    Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Object Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus. In certain situations, uncommon complications can occur after shunting procedures. The authors undertook this study to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients who developed multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages (MIPHs) as a complication of shunt surgery. The authors also analyzed the risk factors for MIPH in a large cohort of patients with hydrocephalus. Methods This study included all pediatric patients (age < 18 years) who underwent VP shunt surgery at the authors' institution between January 2001 and December 2012. During this period, 507 VP shunt operations were performed in 330 patients. Four of these patients were subsequently diagnosed as having MIPH. The authors analyzed the clinical characteristics of these patients in comparison with those of the entire group of shunt-treated patients. Results The incidence of MIPH was 1.2% (4 of 330 cases) for all pediatric patients who underwent VP shunt placement but 2.9% (4 of 140 cases) for infants less than 1 year old. When the analysis was limited to patients whose corrected age was less than 3 months, the incidence was 5.3% (4 of 76 cases). Of the 4 patients with MIPH, 2 were male and 2 were female. Their median age at surgery was 54 days (range 25-127 days), and in all 4 cases, the patients' corrected age was less than 1 month. Three patients were preterm infants, whereas one patient was full-term. None of these patients had a prior history of intracranial surgery (including CSF diversion procedures). All showed severe hydrocephalus during the preoperative period. Their clinical courses as patients with MIPH were comparatively favorable, despite the radiological findings. Conclusions MIPH is a rare but not negligible complication of VP shunt surgery. This complication might be a unique phenomenon in infants, especially young, preterm infants with severe hydrocephalus. Moreover, the absence of previous intracranial procedures might be one of the risk factors for this complication. The rapid alteration of brain conditions in the setting of immaturity might cause MIPH. To prevent this complication, the authors recommend that pressure settings of programmable valves should be gradually adapted to the target pressure.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 07/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brainstem glioma is a highly devastating disease, and any mass-like lesion in the brainstem can raise suspicion of this diagnosis. However, other inflammatory, demyelinating, or degenerative diseases can mimic brainstem glioma in clinical presentation and imaging features. Therefore, diagnosis based solely on imaging is often insufficient for brainstem lesions and may lead to incorrect diagnosis and treatment. This case report is the first description of central nervous system aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity confined mainly to the brainstem. It demonstrates the wide spectrum of neuroinflammatory diseases in children and highlights the utility of surgical biopsy for suspicious brainstem lesions with atypical imaging features for glioma.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 07/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease, characterized by multiple neoplasia syndromes, including meningioma, schwannoma, glioma, and ependymoma. In this report, the authors present their clinical experience with pediatric NF2 patients. In particular, they focused on the clinical course of vestibular schwannoma (VS), including the natural growth rate, tumor control, and functional hearing outcomes. Methods From May 1988 to June 2012, the authors recruited patients who were younger than 18 years and fulfilled the Manchester criteria. In total, 25 patients were enrolled in this study. The authors analyzed the clinical course of these patients. In addition, they measured the natural growth rate of VS before any treatment in these children with NF2. Then, they evaluated the tumor control rate and functional hearing outcomes after the treatment of VS. Results The mean age at the onset of NF2-related symptoms was 9.9 ± 4.5 years (mean ± SD, range 1-17 years). The mean age at the diagnosis of NF2 was 12.9 ± 2.9 years (range 5-17 years). The mean follow-up period was 89.3 months (range 12-311 months). As initial manifestations, nonvestibular symptoms were frequently observed in pediatric patients with NF2. The mean natural growth rate of VS was 0.33 ± 0.41 cm(3)/year (range 0-1.35 cm(3)/year). The tumor control rate of VS was 35.3% at 3 years after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The actuarial rate of useful hearing preservation was 67% in the 1st year and 53% in the 5th year after GKS. Conclusions Clinical manifestations in children with NF2 were highly variable, compared with their adult counterparts. The natural growth rate of VS in children is slow, and this oncological feature may explain the diverse clinical manifestations besides vestibular symptoms in children with NF2. The treatment outcome of GKS for VS in children with NF2 was not favorable compared with previous reports of affected adults.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 04/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyu-Chang Wang
    Child s Nervous System 02/2014; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Large studies by single institutions have been infrequent because of the rarity of the disease and the diversity of clinical manifestations. In this study, the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively for the 154 patients diagnosed and treated with LCH at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from January 1986 to December 2007. A total of 154 patients were evaluated. One hundred and six patients (68.8%) had single system disease, 48 patients (31.2%) had multisystem disease. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) had risk organ involvement. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) relapsed and the overall survival (OS) of the total study population was 97.1% with a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Patients less than 4 years old, with involvement more than 2 organs and with risk organ involvement showed lower progression free survival (PFS) (P = .001, <.001, and <.001, respectively). Estimated 10-year PFS of patients with and without risk organ involvement were 52.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Patients with single system LCH had excellent prognosis showing 89.6% of PFS and 100% of OS. Patients with multisystem LCH also had a high survival rate, although the incidences of relapse remain to be solved. A new strategy to decrease the incidence of relapse is needed.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 01/2014; · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patient: Female, 14 months Final Diagnosis: Slit ventricle syndrome Symptoms: Hydrocephalus • lethargy and seizure • vomiting Medication: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology.
    The American journal of case reports. 01/2014; 15:246-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell-based treatment of traumatic brain injury has been limited in its capacity to bring about complete functional recovery, because of the poor survival rate of the implanted stem cells. It is known that biocompatible biomaterials play a critical role in enhancing survival and proliferation of transplanted stem cells via provision of mechanical support. In this study, we noninvasively monitored in vivo behavior of implanted neural stem cells embedded within poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold, and showed that they survived over prolonged periods in corticectomized rat model. Corticectomized rat models were established by motor-cortex ablation of the rat. F3 cells expressing enhanced firefly luciferase (F3-effLuc) were established through retroviral infection. The F3-effLuc within PLLA was monitored using IVIS-100 imaging system 7 days after corticectomized surgery. F3-effLuc within PLLA robustly adhered, and gradually increased luciferase signals of F3-effLuc within PLLA were detected in a day dependent manner. The implantation of F3-effLuc cells/PLLA complex into corticectomized rats showed longer-lasting luciferase activity than F3-effLuc cells alone. The bioluminescence signals from the PLLA-encapsulated cells were maintained for 14 days, compared with 8 days for the non-encapsulated cells. Immunostaining results revealed expression of the early neuronal marker, Tuj-1, in PLLA-F3-effLuc cells in the motor-cortex-ablated area. We observed noninvasively that the mechanical support by PLLA scaffold increased the survival of implanted neural stem cells in the corticectomized rat. The image-guided approach easily proved that scaffolds could provide supportive effect to implanted cells, increasing their viability in terms of enhancing therapeutic efficacy of stem-cell therapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e105129. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause of epilepsy in children and is characterized by focal regions of malformed cerebral cortex. The pathogenesis and epileptogenesis of CD have not been fully elucidated, and in particular, the potential role of epigenetics has not been examined. miRNA microarray was performed on surgical specimens from CD (n = 8) and normal control (n = 2) children. A total of 10 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) that were up-regulated in CD were identified including hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-155. The microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. After searching for the putative target genes of the DEmiRs, their biological significance was further evaluated by exploring the pathways in which the genes were enriched. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was the most significantly associated, and the pathway of lissencephaly gene in neuronal migration and development was also noted. This study suggests a possible role for miRNAs in the pathogenesis of CD, especially in relation to the mTOR signaling pathway. Future studies on the epigenetic mechanisms underlying CD pathogenesis and epileptogenesis are needed.
    Epilepsy research 01/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The factors affecting glioblastoma progression are of great clinical importance since dismal outcomes have been observed for glioblastoma patients. The Snail gene is known to coordinate the regulation of tumor progression in diverse tumors through induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, its role in glioblastoma is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to further define its role in vitro.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 01/2014; 7(5):1977-87.
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    ABSTRACT: Involuntary movement is a rare symptom of moyamoya disease (MMD). No consensus has been reached regarding its clinical features and pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, pediatric MMD patients presenting with involuntary movement were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the image findings. A total of 513 patients who were treated for MMD were reviewed. After exclusion of MMD syndromes and those with accompanying conditions related to involuntary movements, five patients (mean age: 11.6 years, range: 5-13 years) were evaluated. All of the patients improved their symptoms rapidly after the indirect bypass operations to the contralateral hemisphere. All remained symptom-free during the long follow-up period. Comprehensive evaluation of the preoperative imaging findings failed to suggest a characteristic feature in common, corresponding to the existing hypotheses or a new hypothesis. Only one patient showed infarction preoperatively, and only one patient showed prominently enhanced collateral vessels in the basal ganglia. Although a decrease in vascular reserve was observed in all patients, the location and laterality were nonspecific. There still appears to be confusion regarding the pathogenetic mechanism of involuntary movement in MMD with no repetitive, established imaging features to explain the phenomenon. Nonetheless, with its excellent response to surgical treatment, clinical awareness of this rare symptom of MMD should be emphasized as a differential diagnosis for secondary movement disorder in children.
    Child s Nervous System 12/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The elevation of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I (CRABP-I) has been suggested as a candidate in the pathogenesis of paediatric moyamoya disease (MMD). However, few studies have addressed CRABP-I in adult onset MMD. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of CRABP-I in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult onset MMD, and to evaluate its association with clinical presentation and postoperative haemodynamic change. This study examined the CSF from 103 patients: bilateral MMD, n=58 (56.3%); unilateral MMD, n=19 (18.4%); atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD), n=21 (20.4%); and control group, n=5 (4.9%). The intensity of CRABP-I was confirmed by western blotting and expressed as the median (25th-75th percentile). The differences in CRABP-I expression according to disease entity (unilateral MMD vs bilateral MMD vs ACVD), initial presenting symptoms (haemorrhage vs ischaemia) and postoperative haemodynamic change (vascular reserve in single photon emission CT and basal collateral vessels in digital subtraction angiography) were analysed. CRABP-I intensities in bilateral MMD (1.45(0.86-2.52)) were significantly higher than in unilateral MMD (0.91(0.78-1.20)) (p=0.044) or ACVD (0.85(0.66-1.11)) (p=0.004). No significant differences were noted based on the initial presenting symptoms (p=0.687). CRABP-I was not associated with improvement in vascular reserve (p=0.327), but with decrease in basal collateral vessels (p=0.023) postoperatively. Higher CRABP-I in the CSF can be associated with typical bilateral MMD pathogenesis in adults. Additionally, postoperative basal collateral change may be related to the degree of CRABP-I expression.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 11/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sylvian arachnoid cyst (AC) is a common benign disease; however, it sometimes leads to subdural or intracystic hemorrhage without major trauma. The reason of easy bleeding of the AC is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bleeding mechanism of the sylvian AC in biomechanical aspect and suggest treatment guidelines. A finite element (FE) model of normal male adult head/brain was developed and validated by comparison with cadaveric experimental studies. Based on the normal FE model, two sylvian AC models with different sizes (mean size, 55.5 cm(3); large size, 75.2 cm(3)) were developed. To simulate the interface between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, spot-weld constraints were assigned. The vulnerability of vein rupture was forecasted with calculated shear force at the spot-weld elements (SFSW). Simulation was performed for four different loading directions. The newly developed normal FE models showed reliable biomechanical responses comparable with the cadaveric experiments. The sylvian AC model showed significantly increased SFSW compared with normal model. As AC size increased, higher shear force was generated at the spot-weld element of outer wall of sylvian AC regardless of impact directions. Outer wall of sylvian AC receives higher shear force comparing with normal brain, which is a possible cause of vulnerability to bleeding. Although the size-reducing surgery may decrease bleeding risk of sylvian AC, clinicians need to consider the rare incidence of AC bleeding and unsatisfactory volume reduction in many cases of fenestration.
    Child s Nervous System 11/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting bilateral internal carotid termini. Smooth-muscle cells are one of the major cell types involved in this disease process. The characteristics of circulating smooth-muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) in MMD are poorly understood. The authors purified SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD and sought to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SPCs from these patients. Methods The authors cultured and isolated SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD (n = 25) and healthy control volunteers (n = 22). After confirmation of the cellular phenotype, RNA was extracted from the cells and DEGs were identified using a commercially available gene chip. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the putative pathogenetic DEGs. Results The SPC-type outgrowth cells in patients with MMD invariably showed a hill-and-valley appearance under microscopic examination, and demonstrated high α-smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin expression (96.5% ± 2.1%, 42.8% ± 18.6%, and 87.1% ± 8.2%, respectively), and minimal CD31 expression (less than 1%) on fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. The SPCs in the MMD group tended to make more irregularly arranged and thickened tubules on the tube formation assay. In the SPCs from patients with MMD, 286 genes (124 upregulated and 162 downregulated) were differentially expressed; they were related to cell adhesion, cell migration, immune response, and vascular development. Conclusions With adequate culture conditions, SPCs could be established from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD. These cells showed specific DEGs compared with healthy control volunteers. This study provides a novel experimental cell model for further research of MMD.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With recent advancements in stem cell-based gene therapy, concerns about safety have grown. Stem cell-based gene therapies may pose the risk of immunological problems and oncogenesis. We investigated the feasibility of treating glioblastomas with neural stem cells [(NSCs), HB1.F3 cells] expressing double prodrug enzymes [cytosine deaminase (CD) and tyrosine kinase (TK)] to eliminate the NSCs following treatment for safety purposes. First, the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacies of NSCs engineered with double prodrug enzymes (HB1.F3-CD.TK cells) were compared to cells expressing a single prodrug enzyme (HB1.F3-CD). Second, the degree of safety achieved by NSC elimination was compared with an in vitro viability assay of the NSCs after treatment with the double prodrugs. We further compared the differences in in vivo proliferation of control, single prodrug enzyme and double prodrug enzyme expressing NSCs. HB1.F3-CD.TK cells showed a better or comparable treatment outcome than HB1.F3-CD cells in vitro and in vivo. For safety, HB1.F3-CD.TK cells showed the least viability in vitro after treatment with prodrugs compared to HB1.F3 and HB1.F3-CD cells. Additionally, the in vivo proliferation among the injected NSCs found in the tumor was the smallest for HB1.F3-CD.TK cells. Double-prodrug enzyme-directed gene therapy shows good therapeutic efficacy as well as efficient eradication of the NSCs to ensure safety for clinical applications of stem cell-based gene therapies.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been identified in stem cells from both normal and cancerous tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of ALDH as a universal brain tumour initiating cell (BTIC) marker applicable to primary brain tumours and their biological role in maintaining stem cell status. Cells from various primary brain tumours (24paediatric and 6 adult brain tumours) were stained with Aldefluor and sorted by flow cytometry. We investigated the impact of ALDH expression on BTIC characteristics in vitro and on tumourigenic potential in vivo. Primary brain tumours showed universal expression of ALDH, with 0.3-28.9% of the cells in various tumours identified as ALDH(+). The proportion of CD133(+) cells within ALDH(+) is higher than ALDH cells. ALDH(+) cells generate neurospheres with high proliferative potential, express neural stem cell markers and differentiate into multiple nervous system lineages. ALDH(+) cells tend to show high expression of induced pluripotent stem cell-related genes. Notably, targeted knockdown of ALDH1 by shRNA interference in BTICs potently disturbed their self-renewing ability. After 3months, ALDH(+) cells gave rise to tumours in 93% of mice whereas ALDH cells did not. The characteristic pathology of mice brain tumours from ALDH(+) cells was similar to that of human brain tumours, and these cells are highly proliferative in vivo. Our data suggest that primary brain tumours contain distinct subpopulations of cells that have high expression levels of ALDH and BTIC characteristics. ALDH might be a potential therapeutic target applicable to primary brain tumours.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 10/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental animal models are essential for investigation of the pathoembryogenesis, pathophysiology, and management strategy of spinal open neural tube defect (ONTD) and its associated anomalies including Chiari type II malformation. Genetic, chemical/nutrient, and surgical models have been widely used for a variety of purposes. The aim of this article is to review the representative animal models of spinal ONTD and associated Chiari type II malformation with respect to their advantages and disadvantages. Among them, the surgical model was described in detail because it is familiar to neurosurgeons and it is used for evaluations of prenatal repair of spinal ONTDs. The surgical model also has advantages because it allows quantitative analysis of the lesions. A description of our previous studies on spinal ONTDs using a chick surgical model is presented as an example.
    Child s Nervous System 09/2013; 29(9):1435-49. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment for Chiari I malformation in children is still under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome of the pediatric Chiari I malformation, focusing on clinico-radiological factors and technical aspects. Fifty-six patients with Chiari I malformation who received surgery at Seoul National University Children's Hospital were included. The mean age was 7.9 years. The patients were divided into three groups: group I (n = 8) with hydrocephalus, group II (n = 11) without syrinx, and group III (n = 37) with syrinx. Group I received shunting operation initially, and others received foramen magnum decompression (FMD). Group III was further subdivided: group IIIa (n = 9), minimal intradural manipulation, and group IIIb (n = 27), active intradural manipulation. The outcomes were compared between the groups. The mean follow-up period was 75.9 months. In group I, symptoms were resolved or had improved in most patients, with only one patient received additional FMD. Symptoms resolved or improved in 10 (91 %) and 25 cases (84 %) in groups II and III, respectively. Syrinx was markedly decreased in 31 cases (86 %) in group III. FMD was less effective for scoliosis (improved or stabilized in 57 %). The persistence of syrinx was related with an aggravation of scoliosis. The outcomes between group IIIa and IIIb showed no significant difference. In most pediatric Chiari I patients with hydrocephalus, a shunting operation was sufficient. FMD showed high efficacy in treating patients without hydrocephalus. The extent of the intradural procedure did not have a significant effect on the clinical outcome.
    Child s Nervous System 08/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
469.85 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Red Cross
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2013
    • Jeju National University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Kangwon National University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Syunsen, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 1999–2011
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Gyeongsang National University
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2001–2006
    • Kangwon National University Hospital
      Shunsen, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000
    • Wooridul Spine Hospital Group
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea