Karen Rodham

University of Bath, Bath, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (34)69.72 Total impact

  • Rodham K, Fox F, Doran N
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    ABSTRACT: Typically authors explain how they conduct interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), but fail to explain how they ensured that their analytical process was trustworthy. For example, a minority mention that they ‘reached consensus’ after having engaged in a shared analysis of the data, but do not explain how they did so. In this article, we report on our experience of engaging in a shared analysis and aim to stimulate discussion about the process of ensuring the trustworthiness of one’s data when employing IPA. Our key recommendation is that all researchers involved in analysis should listen to the audio recordings; failure to do so increases the potential for researchers to superimpose their own presuppositions or interpretative bias onto the data. We also suggest that audio recordings should be kept for a longer duration in case secondary analysis is required. We finish our article with a series of tips developed from our experience of shared analysis.
    International Journal of Social Research Methodology 01/2013; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objetive of the study was to identify a) the motivations for communicating about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a publicly accessible online forum, b) The significance (if any) of the "publicness" of the behavior. Using a Thematic Analysis of 423 text-based posts from an online NSSI forum, 5 motivations for using the site were identified: confessional, marking a turning point, acting as a deterrent, dispelling myths and offering or seeking support. Motivations for using the site differ markedly from motivations for engaging in NSSI and tend to be more outwardly focused. The publicness of the site therefore seems to be significant in terms of bearing witness, providing the opportunity to confront negative stereotypes, and the ability to seek and offer support to like-minded individuals.
    Archives of suicide research: official journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research 01/2013; 17(2):173-83.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To explore what advice people currently living with chronic complex regional pain syndrome would offer to another person coming to terms with a diagnosis of chronic complex regional pain syndrome. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 21 adults (5 male) living with chronic complex regional pain syndrome who had completed a complex regional pain syndrome rehabilitation programme were conducted. RESULTS: Effectively self-managing complex regional pain syndrome required individuals to play an active role. This could only be achieved if they felt they had sufficient control. Means of attaining control involved attaining a level of acceptance, becoming well-informed and accessing the right kind of support. The advice offered by patients for patients largely reflected that offered by healthcare professionals. One area where there was a conflict concerned sleep hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides support both for the argument put forward by Redman that without appropriate preparation and support, self-management is ineffective, and that by Skuladottir and Hallsdottir that the main challenge of the chronic pain trajectory is that of retaining a sense of control. The clinical implications of this are discussed.
    Chronic Illness 06/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is difficult to diagnose and is characterised by burning pain in one or more limbs. Treatment is palliative not curative and focuses on improving function. This requires patients to make long-term changes to their behaviour. As with all such regimens, adherence is often poor. This study explored the lived experience of 10 patients who had returned home after completing a two-week in-patient treatment programme. The interviews focused on how they coped with the transition from hospital to home, and on the things that they considered had facilitated or hindered this transition. Battling for control was an overarching theme that connected the four superordinate themes: 'gaining momentum' that facilitated the implementation of treatment advice, 'distance from the pool of expertise' that detailed the barriers to adherence experienced; 'It helped me realise it was not all in my head' that detailed a facilitative process, and the 'nag list' that was a technique patients' used to garner support. This article offers insights into the transition experience. A key outcome is the recognition of the need to better prepare patients for their transition back home.
    Psychology & Health 01/2012; 27(10):1150-65. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Professional status and working arrangements can inhibit doctors from acknowledging and seeking care for their own ill health. Research identifies that a culture of immunity to illness within the medical profession takes root during training. What happens when trainee doctors become unwell during their formative period of education and training? What support do they receive and how do they perceive that the experience of ill health affects their training trajectory? These research questions were developed by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and health professionals, who adopted a qualitative approach to investigate the experiences of personal illness among trainees in their Foundation Programme (FP) years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight FP trainees from the Severn Deanery in southwest England who had experienced significant illness. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to conduct and analyse the interviews, resulting in a comprehensive list of master themes. This paper reports an interpretative analysis of the themes of Support, Illness Experience, Crossing the Line, Medical Culture, Stigma and Disclosure. Ineffective communication within the medical education and employment system underpins many of the difficulties encountered by trainees who are unwell. Coping style plays a key role in predicting how trainees experience support during and after their illness, although this may be influenced by their particular diagnoses. The barriers to disclosure of their illnesses are discussed within the context of mobilising and maintaining support. Concern about the impact of missing training as a result of ill health appears to be significant in the transmitting of an ethos of invulnerability within the medical culture. Suggestions to improve support procedures for trainees who are unwell include the provision of greater flexibility within the rotation system along with independent pastoral support. Promoting the importance of disclosing significant illness as early as possible might go some way towards challenging the culture of invulnerability to illness that prevails among doctors.
    Medical Education 12/2011; 45(12):1251-61. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explored the perceptions and experiences of those who support a relative or friend with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology usually affecting a single limb. Semi-structured interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, and four superordinate themes are presented here. These themes describe the efforts of carers to make sense of CRPS and the rehabilitation process, to be sensitive to the discomfort of the person with CRPS and to respond in an attuned and helpful way. CRPS had become integrated into the carers' lives as they sought to monitor, protect and motivate the person they supported. The themes are discussed in relation to each other and to extant literature, including work on social support and adjustment to chronic illness, and the clinical implications are explored. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Musculoskeletal Care 06/2011;
  • Karen Rodham, Nicola Rance, David Blake
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has largely focused on the lived experience either of those who have fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) or their spousal carers. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of both those with FMS and their spousal carers. Participants were aged between 38 and 65 years and all came from the south-west of England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four women with FMS and their spousal carers, who were interviewed separately. The resultant transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. An overriding theme running throughout was loss of identity, which fed into a sense of isolation. Participants reported feeling isolated from: healthcare professionals, whom they felt they had to convince that they had something 'real', and from friends and family because the unpredictability of their symptoms meant that they were less able to plan ahead and often had to pull out of arranged outings. They also felt isolated from their identity because they no longer recognized the person that they once were, and struggled to recognize the person that they had become. As a consequence, the people with FMS and their carers were both engaged in a process of reassessing who they were, now that FMS had become such a large part of their lives. This sense of isolation was evidenced for the carers as well as the people with FMS and is documented in three sub-themes described in the paper: 'others' attitudes', 'invisible illness' and 'role'. This study has provided new information regarding the lifeworlds both of people living with FMS and their spousal carers. We identified a number of practical and attitudinal barriers that had led to the diminution of social networks for both members of the couple and have explored the related clinical and theoretical implications of this.
    Musculoskeletal Care 03/2010; 8(2):68-77.
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    Mike Osborn, Karen Rodham
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    ABSTRACT: •Qualitative research exposes and explores important aspects of the pain experience that are inaccessible to other approaches.•Qualitative work adopts a different epistemological and ontological perspective to quantitative work.•Qualitative research is not well established in the field of pain, but is growing.•More interpretative engagement with qualitative data is required.
    Reviews in Pain. 03/2010; 4(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The “Global Person Generated Index” (GPGI) is an individualised measure of global quality of life (QoL). Individualised measures have been used within a health context, however until recently have been rarely used to explore global QoL. This paper establishes the GPGI’s validity and reliability in Thailand. Data were collected from participants in two sites in Northeast Thailand. Participants completed the Thai GPGI, the “Satisfaction with Life Scale”(SWLS), a modified “Positive and Negative Affect Scale” (PANAS) and provided demographic data. 81 participants provided data at T1. 70 participants completed data for test-retest (two week interval) reliability comparisons. Test-retest reliability correlation was 0.678 (p < 0.001) for participants reporting no change in QoL. GPGI correlated moderately with SWLS (0.381, p < 0.01) and PANAS scales (0.291 and −0.378, both p < 0.01), indicating validity. GPGI scores were related to health and correlated to a moderate degree with income (0.379, p < 0.05). GPGI scores did not show the expected differences in scores based on gender, although this may be owing to cultural issues. Areas nominated as important to QoL included family, money, house, health and employment, which mirrors items on other QoL scales and previous work with individualised measures. The Thai GPGI is reliable for group comparisons and valid. The difficulties of designing cross-cultural construct validity hypotheses are acknowledged. Areas nominated as important to QoL were diverse and largely asset based. The GPGI is recommended for use to explore global QoL and potentially useful for needs assessment and exploration of response shift. KeywordsIndividualised quality of life measures-Thailand-Global Person Generated Index-Patient Generated Index-Global quality of life
    Applied Research in Quality of Life 01/2010; 5(3):219-232. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethical guidance from the British Medical Association (BMA) about treating doctor-patients is compared and contrasted with evidence from a qualitative study of general practitioners (GPs) who have been patients. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 GPs who had experienced a significant illness. Their experiences were discussed and issues about both being and treating doctor-patients were revealed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to evaluate the data. In this article data extracts are used to illustrate and discuss three key points that summarise the BMA ethical guidance, in order to develop a picture of how far experiences map onto guidance. The data illustrate and extend the complexities of the issues outlined by the BMA document. In particular, differences between experienced GPs and those who have recently completed their training are identified. This analysis will be useful for medical professionals both when they themselves are unwell and when they treat doctor-patients. It will also inform recommendations for professionals who educate medical students or trainees.
    Journal of medical ethics 01/2010; 36(1):7-11. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The somatosensory system is an integral component of the motor control system that facilitates the recognition of location and experience of peripheral stimuli, as well as body part position and differentiation. In chronic pain, this system may be disrupted by alterations in peripheral and cortical processing. Clinical symptoms that accompany such changes can be difficult for patients to describe and health care practitioners to comprehend. Patients with chronic pain conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome or fibromyalgia typically describe a diverse range of somatosensory changes. This article describes how sensory information processing can become disturbed in fibromyalgia syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome and how symptoms can potentially be explained by the mechanisms that generate them.
    Current Rheumatology Reports 12/2009; 11(6):461-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Work-related pressures and susceptibility to health problems mean that many general practitioners (GPs) will, at some stage, experience the role of patient. However qualitative evidence about their experiences of illness and patienthood is sparse. Our study offers an interpretative perspective on GPs' experiences of illness and the influence that this has had on their practice. Seventeen GPs who had experienced significant illness took part in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings highlight the relationship between empathy and empowerment and explore the role of self-disclosure of GP status by GPs in consultations. We make suggestions as to how empathy in doctor-patient relationships can be developed through consideration of power and status as well as through interaction with patients from similar backgrounds. Future research should focus on more specific ways to integrate these ideas into medical training.
    Qualitative Health Research 11/2009; 19(11):1580-8. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current evidence about the experiences of doctors who are unwell is limited to poor quality data. To investigate GPs' experiences of significant illness, and how this affects their own subsequent practice. Qualitative study using interpretative phenomenological analysis to conduct and analyse semi-structured interviews with GPs who have experienced significant illness. Two primary care trusts in the West of England. A total of 17 GPs were recruited to take part in semi-structured interviews which were conducted and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis Results: Four main categories emerged from the data. The category, 'Who cares when doctors are ill?' embodies the tension between perceptions of medicine as a 'caring profession' and as a 'system'. 'Being a doctor-patient' covers the role ambiguity experienced by doctors who experience significant illness. The category 'Treating doctor-patients' reveals the fragility of negotiating shared medical care. 'Impact on practice' highlights ways in which personal illness can inform GPs' understanding of being a patient and their own consultation style. Challenging the culture of immunity to illness among GPs may require interventions at both individual and organisational levels. Training and development of doctors should include opportunities to consider personal health issues as well as how to cope with role ambiguity when being a patient and when treating doctor-patients. Guidelines about being and treating doctor-patients need to be developed, and GPs need easy access to an occupational health service.
    British Journal of General Practice 11/2009; 59(568):811-8. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Emily Hargus, Keith Hawton, Karen Rodham
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    ABSTRACT: The differences in factors associated with subgroups of adolescents in the continuum of deliberate self-harm (DSH) phenomena were investigated. In an anonymous self-report survey of 6,020 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years, 3.2% of adolescents (5.3% females, 1.3% males) reported DSH with intent to die, 2.8% (4.3% females; 1.5% males) reported DSH without intent to die, and 15% (22.4% females; 8.5% males) reported thoughts of DSH without acts. Regression analysis indicated considerable overlap in vulnerability factors along the spectrum of DSH thoughts and acts. A uniquely distinct relationship was found between DSH of a friend and DSH without intent to die on one hand and DSH of a family member with DSH with intent to die on the other. Results indicate that familial and nonfamilial social influences on DSH behavior may be important in designing prevention programs and that educational programs for the promotion of psychological well-being may be helpful for adolescents at any point along the spectrum of DSH that was examined.
    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 10/2009; 39(5):518-37. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    Keith Hawton, Louise Harriss, Karen Rodham
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to identify in what ways adolescents who cut themselves differ from those who take overdoses, and to investigate the role of contagion in these behaviours. Data from an anonymous self-report questionnaire survey of 6,020 adolescents in 41 schools were analysed. Comparison of 220 adolescents who reported self-cutting in the previous year with 86 who had taken overdoses in the previous year as the sole method of deliberate self-harm (DSH) showed that far more of those who cut themselves had friends who had also engaged in DSH in the same period (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.5-5.3, P < 0.001), and fewer had sought help from friends before cutting (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, P < 0.02). Self-cutting usually involved less premeditation. Analyses at both the individual and school level showed that the association between engaging in DSH and exposure to DSH amongst peers was largely confined to girls who cut themselves. There are important differences between adolescents who cut themselves and those who take overdoses. Contagion may be an important factor in DSH by adolescents, especially in girls who cut themselves. These findings are relevant to the design of prevention and treatment programmes.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 09/2009; 19(6):513-23. · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • Sarah Riley, Karen Rodham, Jeff Gavin
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores the role of online ‘body talk’ (text-based communication about bodies and bodily experiences) in the management, negotiation and development of eating disorder related identities. Two anorexia related Internet discussion forums (a ‘pro-ana’ and a ‘recovery’ website) were analyzed through the means of discourse analysis. The analysis focused on the type of body-talk produced in the different sites and the functions of this talk in relation to eating disorder related identities. Three forms of body talk were identified: descriptions of doing something with the body; descriptions of the body and descriptions of bodily experiences. On both sites these forms of body talk reproduced the thin ideal; demonstrated valid claims of group membership; and, for the pro-ana group, dynamically (re)produced eating disorder related identities through the reframing of health/appearance concerns as markers of success. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 08/2009; 19(5):348 - 359. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Karen Rodham, Candy McCabe, David Blake
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we report on the findings of a qualitative inquiry into how an online message board for people who have Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) was used by its members. All messages (and responses) posted on the CRPS message board over a 4-month period were collected retrospectively. The data were analysed using the method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Members used the message board to seek (and provide) support to those with CRPS, and also to express their emotions, feelings and experiences linked to their condition. The message board provided an important source of support for a patient group that can otherwise become isolated as a result of their mobility problems. Furthermore, the analysis revealed the unrealistic hopes that patients can hold concerning the anticipated outcomes of their treatment. This is an important issue for healthcare professionals to explicitly address when interacting with the patient group.
    Psychology & Health 07/2009; 24(6):619-34. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Aimee Hadert, Karen Rodham
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    ABSTRACT: Living with a chronic illness, such as arthritis, creates many psychosocial stressors, which can be difficult to cope with. Exploring the interactions which take place on an online message board for people with arthritis may provide insight into both the social support offered, as well as highlighting the groups' needs that perhaps are not being met in a more formal 'offline' setting. The aim of this study was to investigate how and why an arthritis online message board was used. A retrospective three-month period of discussions posted on an online message board for people who have arthritis was downloaded into a word document. Collecting data in this manner ensured that completed discussions were captured. Eighty-seven initial messages and 981 replies were analysed. The discussions were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Four master themes were identified. Firstly, the invisible reality of the condition; secondly, information exchange, whereby users of the message board were shown to be both seeking and providing information; thirdly, while users praised the support they received from family and friends, the support offered and received online was considered to provide additional benefits. Finally, the message board allowed users to share (primarily negative) emotions which they felt unable to express in their offline worlds. Patients do not always understand the information being offered by health care professionals, and they do not have the confidence to ask for clarification. Health care professionals need to ensure that they find a way of checking levels of patient understanding. Failure to do so means that patients may turn to alternative sources, which may not provide accurate information. The study also showed that people with arthritic conditions find it difficult to express how they are feeling in their offline world; furthermore, they find it difficult to ask for support from their significant others, preferring instead to 'suffer in silence' and seek support from the online community, potentially further isolating them from the support of those in their offline world. There is scope for such patients to be both empowered and educated, so that they are better able to ask for the help they need, which in turn will help to counteract the danger of isolation.
    Musculoskeletal Care 06/2008; 6(3):181-96.
  • Jeff Gavin, Karen Rodham, Helen Poyer
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    ABSTRACT: Although pro-anorexia online support forums and the narratives that occur within them are increasingly the focus of research, none, to date, focuses closely on issues of identity within this online context. Our aim in conducting this study was to examine the presentation of pro-anorexia via an interpretive phenomenological analysis of postings to a pro-anorexia ("pro-ana") online discussion forum. Analysis indicates that pro-anorexic identities are normalized and strengthened through the normalization of participants' pro-ana thoughts and behaviors, and the group bond created through sharing a secret identity. This process renders participants less likely to reveal their pro-ana identity to friends and family in the real world. The implications of our findings are discussed in relation to the theory of identity demarginalization.
    Qualitative Health Research 04/2008; 18(3):325-33. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:  Deliberate self harm (DSH) by adolescents is a major problem at both hospital and community levels although little is known about the factors associated with hospital presentation.Method:  Using a community survey a comparison was undertaken of adolescents in 41 schools who reported DSH and presented to hospital with those who reported DSH but did not attend hospital.Results:  While hospital presentation following DSH was associated with several factors, multivariate analysis indicated that the most important were method of DSH (overdose, methods other than self-cutting and multiple methods) and help-seeking before the act.Conclusions:  The few differences between adolescents who present to hospital following DSH and those who do not, other than in method of DSH and prior help-seeking, highlight the need for primary preventive initiatives.
    Child and Adolescent Mental Health 03/2008; 14(1):24 - 30. · 0.64 Impact Factor