[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies link early rhinovirus (RV) infections to later asthma development. We hypothesized that neonatal RV infection leads to an IL-13-driven asthma-like phenotype in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated with RV1B or sham on day 7 of life. Viral RNA persisted in the neonatal lung up to 7 d postinfection. Within this time frame, IFN-α, -β, and -γ peaked 1 d postinfection, whereas IFN-λ levels persisted. Next, we examined mice on day 35 of life, 28 d after initial infection. Compared with sham-treated controls, virus-inoculated mice demonstrated airways hyperresponsiveness. Lungs from RV-infected mice showed increases in several immune cell populations, as well as the percentages of CD4-positive T cells expressing IFN-γ and of NKp46/CD335(+), TCR-β(+) cells expressing IL-13. Periodic acid-Schiff and immunohistochemical staining revealed mucous cell metaplasia and muc5AC expression in RV1B- but not sham-inoculated lungs. Mucous metaplasia was accompanied by induction of gob-5, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and IL-13 mRNA. By comparison, adult mice infected with RV1B showed no change in IL-13 expression, mucus production, or airways responsiveness 28 d postinfection. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-IL-13 neutralizing Ab attenuated RV-induced mucous metaplasia and methacholine responses, and IL-4R null mice failed to show RV-induced mucous metaplasia. Finally, neonatal RV increased the inflammatory response to subsequent allergic sensitization and challenge. We conclude that neonatal RV1B infection leads to persistent airways inflammation, mucous metaplasia, and hyperresponsiveness, which are mediated, at least in part, by IL-13.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(6):2894-904. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinovirus (RV), a single-stranded RNA picornavirus, is the most frequent cause of asthma exacerbations. We previously demonstrated in human bronchial epithelial cells that melanoma differentiation-associated gene (MDA)-5 and the adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 are each required for maximal RV1B-induced interferon (IFN) responses. However, in vivo, the overall airway response to viral infection likely represents a coordinated response integrating both antiviral and pro-inflammatory pathways. We examined the airway responses of MDA5- and TLR3-deficient mice to infection with RV1B, a minor group virus which replicates in mouse lungs. MDA5 null mice showed a delayed type I IFN and attenuated type III IFN response to RV1B infection, leading to a transient increase in viral titer. TLR3 null mice showed normal IFN responses and unchanged viral titers. Further, RV-infected MDA5 and TLR3 null mice showed reduced lung inflammatory responses and reduced airways responsiveness. Finally, RV-infected MDA5 null mice with allergic airways disease showed lower viral titers despite deficient IFN responses, and allergic MDA5 and TLR3 null mice each showed decreased RV-induced airway inflammatory and contractile responses. These results suggest that, in the context of RV infection, binding of viral dsRNA to MDA5 and TLR3 initiates pro-inflammatory signaling pathways leading to airways inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Previously, we demonstrated that one of the highly transmissible strains, BC7, expresses cable pili and the associated 22 kDa adhesin, both of which contribute to BC7 binding to airway epithelial cells. However, the contribution of these factors to induce inflammation and bacterial persistence in vivo is not known.
Wild-type BC7 stimulated higher IL-8 responses than the BC7 cbl and BC7 adhA mutants in both CF and normal bronchial epithelial cells. To determine the role of cable pili and the associated adhesin, we characterized a mouse model of B. cenocepacia, where BC7 are suspended in Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate. C57BL/6 mice were infected intratracheally with wild-type BC7 suspended in either alginate or PBS and were monitored for lung bacterial load and inflammation. Mice infected with BC7 suspended in PBS completely cleared the bacteria by 3 days and resolved the inflammation. In contrast, mice infected with BC7 suspended in alginate showed persistence of bacteria and moderate lung inflammation up to 5 days post-infection. Using this model, mice infected with the BC7 cbl and BC7 adhA mutants showed lower bacterial loads and mild inflammation compared to mice infected with wild-type BC7. Complementation of the BC7 cblS mutation in trans restored the capacity of this strain to persist in vivo. Immunolocalization of bacteria revealed wild-type BC7 in both airway lumen and alveoli, while the BC7 cbl and BC7 adhA mutants were found mainly in airway lumen and peribronchiolar region.
B. cenocepacia suspended in alginate can be used to determine the capacity of bacteria to persist and cause lung inflammation in normal mice. Both cable pili and adhesin contribute to BC7-stimulated IL-8 response in vitro, and BC7 persistence and resultant inflammation in vivo.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22435. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. To determine the immunologic mechanisms underlying rhinovirus (RV)-induced asthma exacerbations, we combined mouse models of allergic airways disease and human rhinovirus infection. We inoculated OVA-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with rhinovirus serotype 1B, a minor group strain capable of infecting mouse cells. Compared with sham-infected, OVA-treated mice, virus-infected mice showed increased lung infiltration with neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness, and increased lung expression of cytokines including eotaxin-1/CCL11, IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-gamma. Administration of anti-eotaxin-1 attenuated rhinovirus-induced airway eosinophilia and responsiveness. Immunohistochemical analysis showed eotaxin-1 in the lung macrophages of virus-infected, OVA-treated mice, and confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed colocalization of rhinovirus, eotaxin-1, and IL-4 in CD68-positive cells. RV inoculation of lung macrophages from OVA-treated, but not PBS-treated, mice induced expression of eotaxin-1, IL-4, and IL-13 ex vivo. Macrophages from OVA-treated mice showed increased expression of arginase-1, Ym-1, Mgl-2, and IL-10, indicating a shift in macrophage activation status. Depletion of macrophages from OVA-sensitized and -challenged mice reduced eosinophilic inflammation and airways responsiveness following RV infection. We conclude that augmented airway eosinophilic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in RV-infected mice with allergic airways disease is directed in part by eotaxin-1. Airway macrophages from mice with allergic airways disease demonstrate a change in activation state characterized in part by altered eotaxin and IL-4 production in response to RV infection. These data provide a new paradigm to explain RV-induced asthma exacerbations.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 185(4):2525-35. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major respiratory pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, facilitates infection by other opportunistic pathogens. Burkholderia cenocepacia, which normally infects adolescent patients, encounters alginate elaborated by mucoid P. aeruginosa. To determine whether P. aeruginosa alginate facilitates B. cenocepacia infection in mice, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice were infected with B. cenocepacia strain BC7 suspended in either phosphate-buffered saline (BC7/PBS) or P. aeruginosa alginate (BC7/alginate), and the pulmonary bacterial load and inflammation were monitored. Mice infected with BC7/PBS cleared all of the bacteria within 3 days, and inflammation was resolved by day 5. In contrast, mice infected with BC7/alginate showed persistence of bacteria and increased cytokine levels for up to 7 days. Histological examination of the lungs indicated that there was moderate to severe inflammation and pneumonic consolidation in isolated areas at 5 and 7 days postinfection in the BC7/alginate group. Further, alginate decreased phagocytosis of B. cenocepacia by professional phagocytes both in vivo and in vitro. P. aeruginosa alginate also reduced the proinflammatory responses of CF airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages to B. cenocepacia infection. The observed effects are specific to P. aeruginosa alginate, because enzymatically degraded alginate or other polyuronic acids did not facilitate bacterial persistence. These observations suggest that P. aeruginosa alginate may facilitate B. cenocepacia infection by interfering with host innate defense mechanisms.
Infection and immunity 03/2010; 78(3):984-93. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (RV) infection is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. Using a mouse model of human RV infection, we sought to determine the requirement of CXCR2, the receptor for ELR-positive CXC chemokines, for RV-induced airway neutrophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Wild-type and CXCR2(-/-) mice were inoculated intranasally with RV1B or sham HeLa cell supernatant. Following RV1B infection, CXCR2(-/-) mice showed reduced airway and lung neutrophils and cholinergic responsiveness compared with wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained in mice treated with neutralizing Ab to Ly6G, a neutrophil-depleting Ab. Lungs from RV-infected, CXCR2(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced production of TNF-alpha, MIP-2/CXCL2, and KC/CXCL1 and lower expression of MUC5B compared with RV-treated wild-type mice. The requirement of TNF-alpha for RV1B-induced airway responses was tested using TNFR1(-/-) mice. TNFR1(-/-) animals displayed reduced airway responsiveness to RV1B, even when exogenous MIP-2 was added to the airways. We conclude that CXCR2 is required for RV-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation and that neutrophil TNF-alpha release is required for airway hyperresponsiveness.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(10):6698-707. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinovirus (RV), a ssRNA virus of the picornavirus family, is a major cause of the common cold as well as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Viral dsRNA produced during replication may be recognized by the host pattern recognition receptors TLR-3, retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene (MDA)-5. No study has yet identified the receptor required for sensing RV dsRNA. To examine this, BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells were infected with intact RV-1B or replication-deficient UV-irradiated virus, and IFN and IFN-stimulated gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR. The separate requirements of RIG-I, MDA5, and IFN response factor (IRF)-3 were determined using their respective small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The requirement of TLR3 was determined using siRNA against the TLR3 adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R homologous region-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF). Intact RV-1B, but not UV-irradiated RV, induced IRF3 phosphorylation and dimerization, as well as mRNA expression of IFN-beta, IFN-lambda1, IFN-lambda2/3, IRF7, RIG-I, MDA5, 10-kDa IFN-gamma-inducible protein/CXCL10, IL-8/CXCL8, and GM-CSF. siRNA against IRF3, MDA5, and TRIF, but not RIG-I, decreased RV-1B-induced expression of IFN-beta, IFN-lambda1, IFN-lambda2/3, IRF7, RIG-I, MDA5, and inflammatory protein-10/CXCL10 but had no effect on IL-8/CXCL8 and GM-CSF. siRNAs against MDA5 and TRIF also reduced IRF3 dimerization. Finally, in primary cells, transfection with MDA5 siRNA significantly reduced IFN expression, as it did in BEAS-2B cells. These results suggest that TLR3 and MDA5, but not RIG-I, are required for maximal sensing of RV dsRNA and that TLR3 and MDA5 signal through a common downstream signaling intermediate, IRF3.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(11):6989-97. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral infection is associated with approximately one-half of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which in turn, accelerate disease progression. In this study, we infected mice exposed to a combination of elastase and LPS, a constituent of cigarette smoke and a risk factor for development of COPD, with rhinovirus serotype 1B, and examined animals for viral persistence, airway resistance, lung volume, and cytokine responses. Mice exposed to elastase and LPS once a week for 4 wk showed features of COPD such as airway inflammation and obstruction, goblet cell metaplasia, reduced lung elastance, increased total lung volume, and increased alveolar chord length. In general, mice exposed to elastase or LPS alone showed intermediate effects. Compared with rhinovirus (RV)-infected PBS-exposed mice, RV-infected elastase/LPS-exposed mice showed persistence of viral RNA, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased lung volume, and sustained increases in expression of TNFalpha, IL-5, IL-13, and muc5AC (up to 14 days postinfection). Furthermore, virus-induced IFNs, interferon response factor-7, and IL-10 were deficient in elastase/LPS-treated mice. Mice exposed to LPS or elastase alone cleared virus similar to PBS-treated control mice. We conclude that limited exposure of mice to elastase/LPS produces a COPD-like condition including increased persistence of RV, likely due to skewing of the immune response towards a Th2 phenotype. Similar mechanisms may be operative in COPD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secondary bacterial infection following rhinovirus (RV) infection has been recognized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
We sought to understand mechanisms by which RV infection facilitates secondary bacterial infection.
Primary human airway epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) cells grown as polarized monolayers were infected apically with RV. Transmigration of bacteria (nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and others) was assessed by colony counting and transmission electron microscopy. Transepithelial resistance (R(T)) was measured by using a voltmeter. The distribution of zona occludins (ZO)-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.
Epithelial cells infected with RV showed 2-log more bound bacteria than sham-infected cultures, and bacteria were recovered from the basolateral media of RV- but not sham-infected cells. Infection of polarized airway epithelial cell cultures with RV for 24 hours caused a significant decrease in R(T) without causing cell death or apoptosis. Ultraviolet-treated RV did not decrease R(T), suggesting a requirement for viral replication. Reduced R(T) was associated with increased paracellular permeability, as determined by flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin. Neutralizing antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta reversed corresponding cytokine-induced reductions in R(T) but not that induced by RV, indicating that the RV effect is independent of these proinflammatory cytokines. Confocal microscopy and immunoblotting revealed the loss of ZO-1 from tight junction complexes in RV-infected cells. Intranasal inoculation of mice with RV1B also caused the loss of ZO-1 from the bronchial epithelium tight junctions in vivo.
RV facilitates binding, translocation, and persistence of bacteria by disrupting airway epithelial barrier function.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10/2008; 178(12):1271-81. · 11.04 Impact Factor