P Khowsathit

Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (30)22.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac imaging plays an important role in both congenital and acquired heart diseases. Cardiac computed tomography (angiography) cCT(A) is a non-invasive, increasingly popular, complementary modality to echocardiography in evaluation of congenital heart diseases (CHD) in children. Despite radiation exposure, cCT(A) is now commonly used for evaluation of the complex CHD, giving information of both intra-cardiac and extra-cardiac anatomy, coronary arteries, and vascular structures. This review article will focus on the fundamentals and essentials for performing cCT(A) in children, including radiation dose awareness, basic techniques, and strengths and weaknesses of cCT(A) compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), and applications. The limitations of this modality will also be discussed, including the CHD for which cMRI may be substituted.
    European journal of radiology 12/2011; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in stem cell therapy to restore cardiac function have great promise for patients with congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction in an adult population. We examined the benefits of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells treatment modality for the pediatric patient. We present our first case of transcoronary autologous stem cell transplantation in a 9-year-old girl with refractory congestive heart failure secondary to myocardial infarction 1 year after transcatheter revascularization. The child received daily injections of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for 3 days prior to the bone marrow aspiration. The bone marrow cells were isolated to constitute CD133+/CD34+ more than 90% of the total number. Subsequently, the progenitor cell suspension was injected via a transcoronary catheter without any complication. Three months after stem cell therapy, her cardiac function, assessed by both cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiogram, has been improved with the left ventricular ejection fraction at 47% compared to the baseline of 30%. This is the first reported pediatric case of successful transcoronary injection of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells for end-stage heart disease. The procedure is considered safe and feasible for the pediatric population.
    Clinical Cardiology 08/2010; 33(8):E7-12. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • A Limsuwan, R Wongwandee, P Khowsathit
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between 6-min walk test (SMWT) and incremental treadmill exercise stress test (EST) as indicators for the functional capacity in children. Healthy children aged 9-12 years were included. The anthropometric data, SMWT and EST were prospectively measured using the standard protocols. Various parameters were analysed to define the correlation between SMWT and EST. A total of 100 subjects (53 boys) aged 10.3 +/- 1.0 years participated in the study. The SMWT distance was 586.1 +/- 44.0 m. Height (r = 0.59, R(2) = 35%), length of the leg (r = 0.64, R(2) = 41%), heart rate at the end of SMWT (r = 0.59, R(2) = 35%) and heart rate difference at the end of SMWT (r = 0.71, R(2) = 50%) were found to have significant correlation with SMWT distance. The estimated maximal oxygen consumption (eVO2) obtained during the EST tended to be greater in boys than in girls. Among the parameters obtained during EST, maximal heart rate (r = 0.33, R(2) = 11%) and the eVO2 (r = 0.54, R(2) = 53%) were found to have significant correlation with SMWT. SMWT distance is significantly correlated with the eVO2 obtained during the EST. This indicates that SMWT is also one of the predictive markers for EST performance.
    Acta Paediatrica 11/2009; 99(3):438-41. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Alisa Limsuwan, Pongsak Khowsathit
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    ABSTRACT: With the current advance in understanding and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children, pulmonary vasoreactivity testing would navigate the treatment option. An inclusive review of the milestone studies and also recent literature over the last few years on the pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in children will provide the update on various available pulmonary vasodilator agents, markers related to vasoreactivity response, the implication of the testing result on child management and outlook for the long-term outcome. There continue to be emerging data regarding pulmonary vasodilators for vasoreactivity testing in children and the genetic predictor of pulmonary vasoreactivity response, particularly in children with idiopathic and familial pulmonary hypertension. Despite a recent advance in pulmonary hypertension therapy leading to improved prognosis in children, the novel knowledge on standardized pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in children and its interpretation remain limited and controversial. The precise definition of pulmonary vasoreactivity testing remains debatable, particularly in children with pulmonary hypertension related to congenital heart defect. Defining the responder, in order to navigate the treatment option, is frequently dictated by institutional experience and facilities. Meanwhile, the criteria for responder in children with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension are reasonably consistent. In general, responders seem to have less severe disease and better prognosis.
    Current opinion in pediatrics 08/2009; 21(5):594-9. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure, progressive changes in the vascular structure can lead to irreversible pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary hemodynamic parameters are used to determine whether surgical correction is no longer indicated. In this study, aerosolized iloprost was used to assess pulmonary vasoreactivity in children with long-standing PH related to congenital heart disease. Children with long-standing and severe PH secondary to congenital heart disease were included in this study. Various hemodynamic parameters were measured before and after iloprost inhalation (0.5 microg/kg), and vascular resistance was determined. Responders to the iloprost test were defined as those with a decrease in both pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance ratio (R(p)/R(s)) of >10%. Eighteen children aged between 7 months and 13 years with long-standing and severe PH secondary to congenital heart disease were studied. Thirteen children had a positive response, resulting in a mean (+/- SD) decrease of PVR from 9.3 +/- 4.6 to 4.6 +/- 2.7 Wood U x m(2) (P < 0.001), and a mean decrease of R(p)/R(s) from 0.54 +/- 0.37 to 0.24 +/- 0.14 (P = 0.005). Iloprost-induced pulmonary vasodilator responses vary among children with PH related to congenital heart disease. The use of inhaled iloprost in the cardiac catheterization laboratory results in pulmonary vasoreactivity for some of these children particularly a reduction in PVR and the pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance ratio.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 10/2008; 73(1):98-104. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • A Limsuwan, P Khowsathit, P Pienvichit
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    ABSTRACT: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects the aorta and its primary branches and occasionally the coronary arteries. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who was presented with chest pain and was referred to our institution with the presumptive diagnosis of pneumonia and sepsis. Ultimately, the patient's chest pain was attributed to myocardial infarction secondary to coronary occlusion from TA. She underwent a successful stenting of the left main coronary artery with sirolimus-eluting stent. In a review of the literature, we discuss the demographic profile, clinical and radiographic findings, and available therapeutic options.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2007; 28(3):234-7. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after total correction usually have residual pulmonary regurgitation resulting in right ventricular (RV) dilatation and dysfunction. This study was performed to evaluate N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in predicting RV dilatation and RV dysfunction in TOF after total correction. Twenty-one patients with TOF after total correction (12 males and 9 females, 12.06 +/- 2.54 years old) underwent echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood sampling for NT-proBNP. Mean time after total correction was 7.59 +/- 2.30 years. From cardiac MRI study, mean right ventricular end diastolic volume index (RVEDVi) was 148.36 +/- 64.50 ml/m2 and mean right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was 35.50 +/- 10.50%. Right ventricular dilatation was considered if RVEDVi was >108 ml/m2 and RV dysfunction was considered if RVEF was <40%. A plasma NT-proBNP level of 115 pg/ml was identified by receiver operating characteristic analysis in predicting RV dilatation and/or dysfunction. At this value, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting RV dilatation, RV dysfunction, and both RV dilatation and dysfunction were 71 and 100%, 71 and 71%, and 83 and 78%, respectively. In conclusion, plasma NT-proBNP level may be helpful in follow-up patients. Plasma NT-proBNP levels >115 pg/ml can be used as a marker in the detection of RV dilatation and dysfunction.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2007; 28(5):333-8. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrops fetalis due to congenital complete heart block (CCHB) is a rare condition. The outcome of the preterm fetus with hydrops fetalis due to CCHB is poor, and is frequently associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The management of this condition is difficult. We report our experience in a hydropic preterm using staged pacing by applying left ventricular epicardial pacing with a temporary pacemaker and subsequently, left ventricular epicardial pacing with a permanent pacemaker.
    Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 11/2006; 14(5):428-31.
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    ABSTRACT: A patient with pericardial effusion and a complicated presentation of primary systemic carnitine deficiency (PSCD) is described. This is the first case of PSCD reported to have pericardial effusion. Compound heterozygosity for two mutations in the SLC22A5 gene, T440M and F23del, and four SLC22A5 polymorphisms (c.IVS3+6A>G, c.-77G>A, c.-78C>T, and p.S95S) were identified in the patient.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 09/2006; 29(4):589. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • A Limsuwan, P Pienvichit, P Khowsathit
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    ABSTRACT: We present a report on children with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease who received 6 months of beraprost therapy. The children had an increase in intracardiac left-to-right shunt and a reduction of the pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance ratio, whereas the pulmonary artery pressure was not significantly changed.
    Pediatric Cardiology 12/2005; 26(6):787-91. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed this study to determine the frequency of 22q11 deletions and associated phenotypic features and abnormalities in conotruncal heart defects. Sixty-one patients with conotruncal heart defects, including tetralogy of Fallot (TOF; n = 32), pulmonary atresia/ventricular septal defect (PAVSD; n = 12), double-outlet right ventricle (DORV; n = 5), transposition of the great arteries (TGA; n = 4 ), truncus arteriosus (TA; n = 4), subpulmonary ventricular septal defect (SPVSD; n = 3), and interrupted aortic arch (IAA; n = 1), were enrolled in this study and screened for 22q11 deletions by the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Phenotypic features and associated abnormalities, including submucosal cleft palate, abnormal facies, square nose, nasal voice, abnormal ears, long and slender fingers, delayed development, mental retardation, delayed growth, short stature, and hypocalcemia, were examined in these patients. Nine of 61 patients (14.8%) had 22q11 deletions, including 100% of IAA, 50% of TA, 33.3% of SPVSD, 33.3% of PAVSD, and 3.1% of TOF. Deletions were not detected in DORV and TGA. In all patients with 22q11 deletions, > or =1 phenotypic features or associated abnormalities were observed. A subgroup of patients with IAA, TA, SPVSD, and PAVSD associated with phenotypic features or abnormalities warrants evaluation for the presence of 22q11 deletions.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2005; 26(5):570-3. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Even IVIG was established as a standard of care for patients with Kawasaki disease, there are still significant numbers of patients who developed coronary artery abnormality (CAA) or were resistant to therapy. Inflammation at the walls of these arteries has been demonstrated earlier during the acute phase. Direct analysis on these sites may reflect the ongoing pathological process. The purpose of our study was to quantitatively analyze the videodensity (VD) of the coronary arterial walls indexed to that of myocardium (videodensity index-VDI). The VDI was evaluated as a potential predictor for subsequent CAA. Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria, ranging in age from 2 months to 9 years, were studied. All the patients ware treated with IVIG 1-2 gm/kg. An HP Sonos 4500 echocardiographic system was used to acquire images of the coronary arteries. Optimal images of the major branches of the coronary arteries including the right ventricular free wall myocardium were digitally captured and analyzed for VD using the NIH Image software. The echocardiographic studies were performed at the time of diagnosis, 2 months, and 6 months later. Sixty-two of 72 patients (86%) had adequate echocardiographic images for analysis. Eleven patients developed small (6), medium (2), and giant (3) coronary artery aneurysms. The VDIs in acute phase ranged from 0.50 to 2.49. The ROC curve analysis using SPSS identified an optimal VDI cut-off at 1.32 with sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 78% for predicting the CAA. The mean interobserver variability of the measurement was 5%. In conclusion, echocardiographic videodensity index of the coronary arterial wall may predict for the subsequent occurrence of coronary artery abnormality in patients with Kawasaki disease.
    Pediatric Research 01/2003; 53(1):184-184. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile illness recognized most often in young children. Coronary abnormality is the most serious complication preventable with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration. Various treatment regimens of IVIG have been reported. To determine initial treatment failure and prevalence of coronary artery abnormality (CAA) in Kawasaki disease (KD) treated with a moderate dose (1 g/kg) of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). All patients with a diagnosis of KD who had initial treatment with 1 g/kg of IVIG at Ramathibodi Hospital between 1994 and 1998 were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one of 41(76%) patients responded completely to a single treatment with a moderate dose of IVIG (group A). The second dose of 1 g/kg of IVIG was required in 7 patients (17%) due to persistent fever more than 48 hours after the initial treatment (group B), and 3 patients (7%) required 3 doses of 1 g/kg of IVIG due to persistent fever after the second dose (group C). During the convalescent phase, there were 19 per cent, 29 per cent and 100 per cent of the patients in group A, B and C, respectively who developed CAA with an overall rate of 27 per cent. After 1-year follow-up, the prevalence of CAA had decreased to 3 per cent, 0 per cent and 67 per cent in the according groups with overall rate of 9.6 per cent. Only 1 patient in group C developed a giant aneurysm of the right coronary artery. The efficacy of a moderate dose (1 g/kg) of IVIG in preventing CAA is lower than that of the high dose regimen (2 g/kg) reported previously. Short duration of fever before starting IVIG and low hemoglobin level may be the risk factors of unresponsiveness to moderate-dose IVIG.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/2002; 85 Suppl 4:S1121-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Ibuprofen given intravenously to premature newborn infants is a proven treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The efficacy of ibuprofen is comparable to indomethacin in many clinical trials with fewer renal side effects. However, the intravenous form of ibuprofen is not available in Thailand, whereas, the oral suspension form is widely used for antipyretic treatment in children. Therefore, the authors investigated the possibilities of using oral ibuprofen for the treatment of PDA in premature newborn infants. To assess whether oral ibuprofen at 10 mg/kg/dose daily for 3 days was as effective as indomethacin to treat symptomatic PDA in premature infants and to compare the side effects of oral ibuprofen to indomethacin. Eighteen premature infants with gestational ages less than 34 weeks born at Ramathibodi Hospital who developed symptomatic PDA were randomly assigned to receive three doses of either indomethacin (oral or intravenous administration 0.2 mg/kg/dose for three doses given at 12 hourly intervals or oral ibuprofen (10 mg/kg/dose for three doses given at 24 hourly intervals). The rates of ductal closure, infants' clinical courses, side effects and complications were recorded. Birth weight, gestational age, gender, age onset and number of infants who had respiratory distress syndrome were similar in both groups, PDA was closed in 7 of 9 infants given ibuprofen (78%) and in 8 of 9 infants given indomethacin (89%) (p > 0.05). The mean plasma concentration of ibuprofen was 28.05 microg/ml at 1 hour after the third dose. Neonates in the ibuprofen group had more urine output. However, the increment of serum BUN and creatinine were not significantly different in both groups. There were no significant differences in duration of ventilator support as well as number of patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and death in both groups. Oral ibuprofen therapy is as effective as indomethacin for the treatment of PDA in premature infants and seems to have fewer renal side effects.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 11/2002; 85 Suppl 4:S1252-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with reconstruction of the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract invariably results in pulmonary regurgitation (PR). Chronic PR has been associated with RV dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmia. Pericardial monocusp has recently been used at Ramathibodi Hospital to preserve pulmonary valve function. First, to study the competency of the pericardial monocusp, one-year after correction. Second, to assess the right and left ventricular (LV) functions after surgery. Third, to assess correlation between severity of PR and the characters of electrocardiography (ECG) and chest X-ray (CXR) after correction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who, had undergone total correction for TOF at least one year ago. The past medical history was retrospectively reviewed from the medical records. The patients who underwent surgical correction with and without pericardial monocusp were recruited into group I and group II, respectively. The clinical symptoms, QRS duration from ECG, and cardio-thoracic (CT) ratio from CXR were analyzed. From the echocardiographic standpoint, the LV systolic function was determined by LV fractional shortening (LVFS), whereas the RV systolic function was determined by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Restrictive physiology of the RV was determined by presence of antegrade flow across the pulmonary valve during diastole. Sixty four patients were enrolled in the study, 7 in group I and 57 in group II. The median follow-up time after the surgery was 6.5 years, which was 3 years in group I and 7 years in group II (p < 0.01). All patients in group I (100%) and 45 (80.4%) in group II had moderate or severe PR. The severity of PR, the RV and LV systolic functions were not statistically significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.01). The median of the LVFS was 32.4 per cent, and of the TAPSE was 10.5 mm. There was no restrictive physiology of the RV in all patients. There were no significant correlations between symptoms, CT-ratio, QRS duration and the severity of PR. The pericardial monocusp could neither reduce severity of PR nor improve right and left ventricular functions after 3 years follow-up post-operatively. However, the right and left ventricular performances in mid-term period remained insignificantly changed and severity of PR could not be predicted from symptoms and simple laboratory investigations.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 11/2002; 85 Suppl 4:S1266-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Absent pulmonary valve syndrome in a 4-month-old infant was successfully corrected using a fresh autologous pericardial trileaflet valved conduit. He recovered from operation with only mild pulmonary regurgitation at 4 months postoperatively. This technique is an effective alternative for infants with congenital heart disease who need tissue valved conduits. It may be more suitable than the aortic homograft by reason of the shortage of small homografts and its lower costs.
    Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 10/2002; 10(3):270-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Sixty patients with thromboembolic complications from 1987 to 1997 at the Department of Pediatrics, Ramathibodi Hospital were retrospectively studied. Twenty patients were infants and 40 patients were children and adolescents with a mean age of 18 days and 8 years, respectively. The sites of thromboembolic complications were in the central nervous system, 27.5 per cent; skin as purpura fulminans or necrotic lesions, 24.5 per cent; gangrene of the toe, finger or colon, 19 per cent; deep vein thrombosis, 16 per cent; and other sites such as heart and lungs, 13 per cent. Most of them had triggering conditions (80%) and underlying diseases (76.7%) causing thromboembolism. The low levels of either antithrombin III, protein C or protein S were found in 42 per cent (15/36). The management included administration of standard or low molecular weight heparin if not contraindicated, replacement of fresh frozen plasma 10 ml/kg twice a day and treatment of underlying and triggering conditions. The fatality rate was 15 per cent (9/60). Subsequent episodes of thromboembolism occurred in 6 patients including: pulmonary emboli in one patient with protein C deficiency who refused warfarin administration, deep vein thrombosis in 2 patients with unidentified etiology, and necrotic skin lesions in 3 patients with vasculitis who did not respond to treatment. In conclusion, a comprehensive investigation and specific treatment for patients with thromboembolic complications are emphasized in order to prevent recurring episodes.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 06/2001; 84(5):681-7.
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of 100 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation from 1993 to 1997 is reported. Forty-five patients were neonates with a mean age of 12.6 days and 55 patients were infants, children and adolescents with a mean age of 6 years and 3 months. Most of them (91.5%) had complicated underlying conditions which included congenital anomalies, prematurity, malignancy, hematological and various diseases. Additionally, every patient had triggering conditions commonly identified as gram-negative septicemia. Bleeding and thromboembolic manifestations were found in 59.4 per cent and 19.8 per cent, respectively. The laboratory findings revealed red blood cell fragmentation, 89.6 per cent and thrombocytopenia, 85.8 per cent. Natural anticoagulants were studied in a few cases and revealed low levels of antithrombin III and protein C. The prompt effective management included treatment of underlying diseases, identification and relief of triggering conditions, correction of thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy, and fully supportive care. The overall case-fatality rate was 41.6 per cent which was not correlated with age, underlying diseases, triggering conditions, manifestation of bleeding, thromboembolism or shock, and exchange transfusion. However, a significant lower case-fatality rate was found in patients with positive culture (25%) as compared to those with sepsis and negative culture (51.7%) (p = 0.044). In addition, the febrile neutropenic patients, who showed good response to the administrated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), survived from the DIC.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/1999; 82 Suppl 1:S63-8.
  • P Khowsathit, A Khositseth, B Pongpanich
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter occlusion with Gianturco coils has become the treatment of choice for small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Coil occlusion was attempted in 20 patients with ductus diameter less than 4 mm who did not require other cardiac surgery. Sixteen of 20 patients had successful implantation. The mean age was 4.2 years. Their mean weight was 14.1 +/- 5.9 kg. The mean ductus diameter was 2.21 +/- 0.91 mm (range 1-3.7 mm). Nine patients had complete occlusion but 7 had residual shunting immediately after the procedure. However, 4 patients had spontaneous resolution of residual shunts at 6 months after the procedure. The other 3 who had diameter of ductus greater than 3 mm still had significant residual shunt at 6 months and 1 year after the procedure. The second coil was successfully implanted in one of these 3 patients and the closure of PDA was accomplished. We concluded that the second coil should be implanted if the ductus diameter is greater than 3 mm and significant residual shunt is still demonstrated angiographically after the first coil implantation.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/1999; 82 Suppl 1:S5-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Williams syndrome (WS) has long been known as a complex disorder of dysmorphic facial features, described as elfin face, mental retardation or learning disability, loquacious personality, and supravalvular aortic stenosis. The etiology is now known to be due to deletion of the elastin gene (ELN) on long arm of chromosome 7. Thai patients were previously reported by clinical diagnosis. This study reports the first two cases of WS with ELN deletion diagnosed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Clinically, hyperacusis is a common finding in WS associated with otitis media. Neither of the patients had hyperacusis, but one of them had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, which to our knowledge, has never been reported.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/1999; 82 Suppl 1:S174-8.