J. Fabregat

Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (367)582.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalogue of 247 photometrically and spectroscopically confirmed fainter classical Be stars (13 < r < 16) in the direction of the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way (-1 < b < +4, 120 < l < 140). The catalogue consists of 181 IPHAS-selected new classical Be stars, in addition to 66 objects that were studied by Raddi et al. (2013) more closely, and 3 stars identified as classical Be stars in earlier work. This study more than doubles the number known in the region. Photometry spanning 0.6 to 5 micron, spectral types, and interstellar reddenings are given for each object. The spectral types were determined from low-resolution spectra (lambda / Delta-lambda ~ 800-2000), to a precision of 1-3 subtypes. The interstellar reddenings are derived from the (r - i) colour, using a method that corrects for circumstellar disc emission. The colour excesses obtained range from E(B-V) = 0.3 up to 1.6 - a distribution that modestly extends the range reported in the literature for Perseus-Arm open clusters. For around half the sample, the reddenings obtained are compatible with measures of the total sightline Galactic extinction. Many of these are likely to lie well beyond the Perseus Arm.
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    ABSTRACT: The INT/WFC Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is a 1800 square degrees imaging survey covering Galactic latitudes |b| < 5 deg and longitudes l = 30 to 215 deg in the r, i and H\alpha\ filters using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma. We present the first quality-controlled and globally-calibrated source catalogue derived from the survey, providing single-epoch photometry for 219 million unique sources across 92% of the footprint. The observations were carried out between 2003 and 2012 at a median seeing of 1.1 arcsec (sampled at 0.33 arcsec/pixel) and to a mean 5\sigma-depth of 21.2 (r), 20.0 (i) and 20.3 (H\alpha) in the Vega magnitude system. We explain the data reduction and quality control procedures, describe and test the global re-calibration, and detail the construction of the new catalogue. We show that the new calibration is accurate to 0.03 mag (rms) and recommend a series of quality criteria to select the most reliable data from the catalogue. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the catalogue's unique (r-H\alpha, r-i) diagram to (1) characterise stellar populations and extinction regimes towards different Galactic sightlines and (2) select H\alpha\ emission-line objects. IPHAS is the first survey to offer comprehensive CCD photometry of point sources across the Galactic Plane at visible wavelengths, providing the much-needed counterpart to recent infrared surveys.
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery is the accepted treatment for infected acute pancreatitis, although mortality remains high. As an alternative, a staged management has been proposed to improve results. Initial percutaneous drainage could allow surgery to be posponed, and improve postoperative results. Few centres in Spain have published their results of surgery for acute pancreatitis.
    Cirugía Española 06/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first case, to our knowledge, of Candida arteritis in a liver transplant recipient. The patient presented with hemorrhagic shock requiring emergency arterial repair. As Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were growing in the arterial tissue, the patient received antifungal therapy for 5 months, but died because of chronic graft dysfunction. No evidence of fungal infection was found in the tissue on postmortem examination.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 04/2014; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Observatory in Spain with a purpose-built, dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7 sq.deg. camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in late 2015, J-PAS will observe 8500sq.deg. of Northern Sky and measure $0.003(1+z)$ photo-z for $9\times10^7$ LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of $\sim 14$ Gpc$^3$ up to $z=1.3$ and becoming the first radial BAO experiment to reach Stage IV. J-PAS will detect $7\times 10^5$ galaxy clusters and groups, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from its BAO measurements. Thanks to the superb characteristics of the site (seeing ~0.7 arcsec), J-PAS is expected to obtain a deep, sub-arcsec image of the Northern sky, which combined with its unique photo-z precision will produce one of the most powerful cosmological lensing surveys before the arrival of Euclid. J-PAS unprecedented spectral time domain information will enable a self-contained SN survey that, without the need for external spectroscopic follow-up, will detect, classify and measure $\sigma_z\sim 0.5\%$ redshifts for $\sim 4000$ SNeIa and $\sim 900$ core-collapse SNe. The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach: a contiguous system of 54 filters with $145\AA$ width, placed $100\AA$ apart over a multi-degree FoV is a powerful "redshift machine", with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. The J-PAS camera is equivalent to a 4.7 sq.deg. "IFU" and it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations.
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    arXiv:1403.5237. 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The VST Photometric Halpha Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane and Bulge (VPHAS+) is surveying the southern Milky Way in u, g, r, i and Halpha at 1 arcsec angular resolution. Its footprint spans the Galactic latitude range -5 < b < +5 at all longitudes south of the celestial equator. Extensions around the Galactic Centre to Galactic latitudes +/-10 bring in much of the Galactic Bulge. This ESO public survey, begun on 28th December 2011, reaches down to 20th magnitude (10-sigma) and will provide single-epoch digital optical photometry for around 300 million stars. The observing strategy and data pipelining is described, and an appraisal of the segmented narrowband Halpha filter in use is presented. Using model atmospheres and library spectra, we compute main-sequence (u - g), (g - r), (r - i) and (r - Halpha) stellar colours in the Vega system. We report on a preliminary validation of the photometry using test data obtained from two pointings overlapping the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An example of the (u - g, g - r) and (r - Halpha, r - i) diagrams for a full VPHAS+ survey field is given. Attention is drawn to the opportunities for studies of compact nebulae and nebular morphologies that arise from the image quality being achieved. The value of the u band as the means to identify planetary-nebula central stars is demonstrated by the discovery of the central star of NGC 2899 in survey data. Thanks to its excellent imaging performance, the VST/OmegaCam combination used by this survey is a perfect vehicle for automated searches for reddened early-type stars, and will allow the discovery and analysis of compact binaries, white dwarfs and transient sources.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcome of patients with hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (I-CC) on pathological examination after liver transplantation for HCC. Information on the outcome of cirrhotic patients undergoing a transplant for HCC and with a diagnosis of HCC-CC or I-CC by pathological study is limited. Multicenter, retrospective, matched cohort 1:2 study. Study group: 42 patients undergoing a transplant for HCC and with a diagnosis of HCC-CC or I-CC by pathological study; and control group: 84 patients with a diagnosis of HCC. I-CC subgroup: 27 patients compared with 54 controls; HCC-CC subgroup: 15 patients compared with 30 controls. Patients were also divided according to the preoperative tumor size and number: uninodular tumors 2 cm or smaller and multinodular or uninodular tumors 2 cm or larger. Median follow-up: 51 (range, 3-142) months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rate differed between the study and control groups (83%, 70%, and 60% vs 99%, 94%, and 89%, respectively; P < 0.001). Differences were found in 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates between the I-CC subgroup and their controls (78%, 66%, and 51% vs 100%, 98%, and 93%; P < 0.001), but no differences were observed between the HCC-CC subgroup and their controls (93%, 78%, and 78% vs 97%, 86%, and 86%; P = 0.9). Patients with uninodular tumors 2 cm or smaller in the study and control groups had similar 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate (92%, 83%, 62% vs 100%, 80%, 80%; P = 0.4). In contrast, patients in the study group with multinodular or uninodular tumors larger than 2 cm had worse 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates than their controls (80%, 66%, and 61% vs 99%, 96%, and 90%; P < 0.001). Patients with HCC-CC have similar survival to patients undergoing a transplant for HCC. Preoperative diagnosis of HCC-CC should not prompt the exclusion of these patients from transplant option.
    Annals of surgery 01/2014; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective cohort multicenter study was conducted to analyze the risk factors for tumor recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) in cirrhotic patients found to have an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) on pathology examination. We also aimed to ascertain whether there existed a subgroup of patients with single tumors ≤2 cm ("very early") in which results after LT can be acceptable. Twenty-nine patients comprised the study group, eight of whom had a "very early" iCCA (four of them incidentals). The risk of tumor recurrence was significantly associated with larger tumor size as well as larger tumor volume, microscopic vascular invasion and poor degree of differentiation. None of the patients in the "very early" iCCA subgroup presented tumor recurrence compared to 36.4% of those with single tumors >2 cm or multinodular tumors, p = 0.02. The 1-, 3- and 5-year actuarial survival of those in the "very early" iCCA subgroup was 100%, 73% and 73%, respectively. The present is the first multicenter attempt to ascertain the risk factors for tumor recurrence in cirrhotic patients found to have an iCCA on pathology examination. Cirrhotic patients with iCCA ≤2 cm achieved excellent 5-year survival, and validation of these findings by other groups may change the current exclusion of such patients from transplant programs.
    American Journal of Transplantation 01/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Surgery is the accepted treatment for infected acute pancreatitis, although mortality remains high. As an alternative, a staged management has been proposed to improve results. Initial percutaneous drainage could allow surgery to be posponed, and improve postoperative results. Few centres in Spain have published their results of surgery for acute pancreatitis. Objective To review the results obtained after surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis during a period of 12 years, focusing on postoperative mortality. Material and methods We have reviewed the experience in the surgical treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) at Bellvitge University Hospital from 1999 to 2011. To analyse the results, 2 periods were considered, before and after 2005. A descriptive and analitical study of risk factors for postoperative mortality was performed Results A total of 143 patients were operated on for SAP, and necrosectomy or debridement of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis was performed, or exploratory laparotomy in cases of massive intestinal ischemia. Postoperative mortality was 25%. Risk factors were advanced age (over 65 years), the presence of organ failure, sterility of the intraoperative simple, and early surgery (< 7 days). The only risk factor for mortality in the multivariant analysis was the time from the start of symptoms to surgery of < 7days; furthermore, 50% of these patients presented infection in one of the intraoperative cultures. Conclusions Pancreatic infection can appear at any moment in the evolution of the disease, even in early stages. Surgery for SAP has a high mortality rate, and its delay is a factor to be considered in order to improve results.
    Cirugía Española 01/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We present the experience of the liver transplantation program at the Hospital of Bellvitge with 500 transplantations performed during 15 years, to describe changes in liver transplantation observed throughout the time and to analyze the long term results. Patients and method Five groups each one including 100 consecutive transplantations are studied. Results The main indications were hepatocellular carcinoma (23%), alcoholic cirrhosis (22.8%), and post-hepatitis C cirrhosis (18.8%). Sixty-five retransplantations were performed in 59 patients (13%), being the more frequent indications arterial thrombosis (13 patients) and primary nonfunction of graft (10 patients). In 10 patients a hepatorenal transplantation was performed. In group I, the most frequent donor cause of death was cranial traumatism (80%), while in group V it was the vascular pathology (52%). There were other significative dif-ferences between these groups of patients (I vs V): patients with stage 2 or 3 from UNOS status (45 vs 19%), blood use (29.6 [26] vs 4.6 [5.3] PRBC), ICU stay (13 [13] vs 7.4 [11] days), hospital stay (40 [52] vs 23.7 [17] days), rejection rate (46 vs 20%) and primary graft non-function (9 vs 3%). However, the infection rates (48 vs 54.5%) and biliary tract complications (26 vs 20%) have not shown statistically significant differences. Actuarial one and 5-year survival are 83 and 70% respectively. Conclusions An important and progressive improvement of liver transplantation results has been observed. However, de novo tumours, hepatitis C virus recurrence and chronic rejection can limit long term results.
    Medicina Clínica. 07/2013; 115(14):521–529.
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Be stars are probably the most rapid rotators among stars in the main sequence (MS) and, as such, are excellent candidates to study the incidence of the rotation on the characteristics of their non-radial pulsations, as well as on their internal structure. Pulsations are also thought to be possible mechanisms that help the mass ejection needed to build up the circumstellar disks of Be stars. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to identify a number of faint Be stars observed with the CoRoT satellite and to determine their fundamental parameters, which will enable us to study their pulsation properties as a function of the location in the HR diagram and to search for correlations with the light outbursts, which are possibly produced by discrete mass ejections. Methods: We identified those objects in the exofields of CoRoT presenting the Be phenomenon using Hα surveys, as well as automated methods based on pulsation properties that we finally confirmed with FLAMES/GIRAFFE and X-shooter spectroscopic observations at VLT/ESO, and with near-IR photometry. The spectra were 1) corrected for the veiling effect, 2) treated with the GIRFIT code to determine apparent fundamental parameters, and 3) corrected with the FASTROT code for effects induced by the rapid rotation. Results: A list of 41 Be star candidates were found from photometric and spectroscopic criteria. The spectral coverage useful for determining the fundamental parameters was obtained for only about half of them. We then spectroscopically identified 21 Be stars, two probable Be stars, and two B stars contaminated by the Sh 2-284 nebulosity. A short description of the spectral characteristics of each star is given. The fundamental parameters and, in particular, the rotation frequency νr (cycles per day) were all corrected for rotational effects at rotation rates ranging from Ω/Ωc = 0.8 to 1.0. We have determined the positions of Be stars in the HR diagram and find two of them located beyond the MS phase. Conclusions: The well-determined fundamental parameters presented in this paper for a statistically reliable sample of Be stars will enable us in forthcoming papers to compare the properties of stars as pulsators either according to their location in different regions of the HR diagram or with those predicted from theory. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; 551:A130. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aims of present study were to analyze the mortality risk factors in patients who had surgery for acute pancreatitis and to assess the importance of culturing peripancreatic tissue or fluid infection to ascertain the infection status. METHODS: Surgery was indicated both in patients with infected severe acute pancreatitis and in those with sterile pancreatitis with an unfavorable course. During surgery, cultures were taken of tissues (pancreatic necrosis and peripancreatic fat), intra-abdominal fluid, and bile. RESULTS: Of 107 patients operated on, fluid culture was analyzed in 94 patients, pancreatic necrosis in 61 patients, peripancreatic fat in 39 patients, and bile in 38 patients. Sterile pancreatitis with sterile ascites was found in 17 patients, sterile pancreatitis with infected ascites in 22, and pancreatic tissue infection in 60. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that sterile tissue cultures, age over 65 years, and fewer than 12 days between the beginning of pain and surgery were risk factors for mortality. Sterile pancreatitis with sterile ascites and sterile pancreatitis with infected ascites had similar postoperative mortality (41% and 50%, respectively); the group with pancreatic tissue infection had a lower mortality (20%). CONCLUSIONS: Early surgery, advanced age, and sterility of tissue cultures have been demonstrated as mortality factors for acute pancreatitis. Intra-abdominal fluid may be infected in the presence of sterile necrosis.
    Pancreas 01/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate a region of the Galactic plane, between 120 <= l <= 140 and -1 <= b <= +4, and uncover a population of moderately reddened (E(B-V) \sim 1) classical Be stars within and beyond the Perseus and Outer Arms. 370 candidate emission line stars (13 <= r <= 16) selected from the INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic plane (IPHAS) have been followed up spectroscopically. A subset of these, 67 stars with properties consistent with those of classical Be stars, have been observed at sufficient spectral resolution (Delta_lambda \sim 2 - 4 Angstrom) at blue wavelengths to narrow down their spectral types. We determine these to a precision estimated to be +/- 1 sub-type and then we measure reddenings via SED fitting with reference to appropriate model atmospheres. Corrections for contribution to colour excess from circumstellar discs are made using an established scaling to H-alpha emission equivalent width. Spectroscopic parallaxes are obtained after luminosity class has been constrained via estimates of distances to neighbouring A/F stars with similar reddenings. Overwhelmingly, the stars in the sample are confirmed as luminous classical Be stars at heliocentric distances ranging from 2 kpc up to \sim 12 kpc. However, the errors are presently too large to enable the cumulative distribution function with respect to distance to distinguish between models placing the stars exclusively in spiral arms, or in a smooth exponentially-declining distribution.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 430(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Be stars are rapidly rotating stars with a circumstellar decretion disk. They usually undergo pressure and/or gravity pulsation modes excited by the κ-mechanism, i.e. an effect of the opacity of iron-peak elements in the envelope of the star. In the Milky Way, p-modes are observed in stars that are hotter than or equal to the B3 spectral type, while g-modes are observed at the B2 spectral type and cooler. Aims: We observed a B0IVe star, HD 51452, with the high-precision, high-cadence photometric CoRoT satellite and high-resolution, ground-based HARPS and SOPHIE spectrographs to study its pulsations in great detail. We also used the lower resolution spectra available in the BeSS database. Methods: We analyzed the CoRoT and spectroscopic data with several methods: Clean-NG, FreqFind, and a sliding window method. We also analyzed spectral quantities, such as the violet over red (V/R) emission variations, to obtain information about the variation in the circumstellar environment. We calculated a stellar structure model with the ESTER code to test the various interpretation of the results. Results: We detect 189 frequencies of variations in the CoRoT light curve in the range between 0 and 4.5 c d-1. The main frequencies are also recovered in the spectroscopic data. In particular we find that HD 51452 undergoes gravito-inertial modes that are not in the domain of those excited by the κ-mechanism. We propose that these are stochastic modes excited in the convective zones and that at least some of them are a multiplet of r-modes (i.e. subinertial modes mainly driven by the Coriolis acceleration). Stochastically excited gravito-inertial modes had never been observed in any star, and theory predicted that their very low amplitudes would be undetectable even with CoRoT. We suggest that the amplitudes are enhanced in HD 51452 because of the very rapid stellar rotation. In addition, we find that the amplitude variations of these modes are related to the occurrence of minor outbursts. Conclusions: Thanks to CoRoT data, we have detected a new kind of pulsations in HD 51452, which are stochastically excited gravito-inertial modes, probably due to its very rapid rotation. These modes are probably also present in other rapidly rotating hot Be stars. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD, and Science Programs), Germany, and Spain. This work uses observations partly made with the HARPS instrument at the 3.6-m ESO telescope (La Silla, Chile) in the framework of the LP182.D-0356, as well as data obtained with Sophie at OHP and from the BeSS database.Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; 546:A47. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 10/2012; 104(9):489-490. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary strictures are the most common biliary tract complication after liver transplantation. There are scarce data on the results of hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) in the management of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Thus, the role of surgery in this setting remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of patients with biliary complications at our institution. We reviewed 1000 consecutive liver transplantations performed at our institution from 1984 to 2007. We used a prospectively recorded database to identify patients who underwent HJ to treat any biliary tract complication. Overall, 62 patients (6.2%) underwent HJ, 40 for an anastomotic and 7 for a non-anastomotic stricture as well as 15 for biliary leaks. Postoperative morbidity was 16%, and postoperative mortality 1.6%. There were 7 cases of anastomotic stenosis (11.3%). Four patients (5%) required retransplantation. HJ is a safe procedure to manage biliary complications after OLT. It may be the first treatment choice especially for cases with anastomotic strictures.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2012; 44(6):1557-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los factores pronósticos y las indicaciones quirÚrgicas de las metástasis hepáticas de carcinoma colorrectal (CCR). Se realizaron 212 hepatectomías en 196 pacientes. No hubo un criterio fijo para la resección con respecto al nÚmero o tamaño de las metástasis o la enfermedad extrahepática excepto que la exéresis tenía que ser macroscópicamente curativa. El índice de resecabilidad fue del 91% (196/215). La mortalidad postoperatoria fue del 4,7%. Se efectuó la exéresis de metástasis pulmonares en 14 pacientes. La supervivencia actuarial a 1, 3 y 5 años fue del 88%, 60% y 39%, respectivamente. La supervivencia libre de enfermedad fue del 20% a los 5 años, pero el 48% de los pacientes estaban libres de recidiva hepática a los 5 años. En el estudio multivariante, 4 metástasis y la invasión de márgenes fueron factores independientes de peor supervivencia. La exéresis quirÚrgica es un tratamiento seguro y debe considerarse la terapéutica estándar en las metástasis hepáticas de CCR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and indications of surgical treatment of liver metastases from colorrectal cancer (CRC). One hundred ninety six patients were submitted to 212 liver resections. We had no predefined criteria of resectability with regard to either the number or size of the tumors or the locorregional invasion, except that resection had to be complete and macroscopically curative. Resectability rate was 91% (196/215). Postoperative mortality was 4.7%. A pulmonary resection could be performed in 14 patients with lung metastases. The actuarial survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 88%, 60% and 39%, respectively. Five-year disease free survival was 20%, but the rate of survival free of hepatic recurrence was 48% at 5 years. In the multivariate analysis, four or more metastases and positive margin were independent predictors of poor outcome. Surgical resection is safe and should be considered the standard treatment in patient with liver metastases of CRC.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 04/2012; 2(6):309-315. · 1.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
582.99 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge
      • • Department of Intensive Medicine
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1990–2014
    • University of Valencia
      • • Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica
      • • Departamento de Economía Aplicada
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2009
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992–2009
    • University of Barcelona
      • Departament de Medicina
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2007
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Division of Surgery V
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2006
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
    • University of Santiago de Compostela
      Santiago, Galicia, Spain
  • 2002–2003
    • Universitat Jaume I
      Castellón, Valencia, Spain
  • 1992–2002
    • University of Southampton
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1996
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1991
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States