J Begerow

Gesundheitsamt Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (34)70.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.
    Contact Dermatitis 06/2010; 62(6):355-62. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Jutta Begerow, Lothar Dunemann
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    ABSTRACT: Die ICP-MS ist eine der nachweisstärksten Methoden der Elementspurenanalytik. Ihre konsequente technische Weiterentwicklung läßt erwarten, daß sie in vielen Bereichen der Spurenanalytik erheblich an Bedeutung gewinnen wird. In diesem Beitrag werden ihre Möglichkeiten und Grenzen am Beispiel der Bestimmung von Elementspuren in biologischen Proben dargestellt.
    Nachrichten aus der Chemie 04/2010; 44(7‐8):739 - 743. · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Jutta Begerow, Lothar Dunemann
    12/2006; , ISBN: 9783527306732
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure of children and their mothers living in the vicinity of industrial sources (metal refining) was assessed by a cross-sectional study performed in 2000. Study areas were the highly industrialized city of Duisburg and a rural area of North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Exposure to ambient air concentrations of Cd and Pb was calculated from a Lagrange dispersion model using data sets from ambient air quality measurements. Cd in blood and urine and Pb in blood were measured by AAS. Mean age (years) was 6.4 (range 5.5-7.7) for children (n = 238) and 36 (range 23-48) for mothers (n = 213). A total of 49% of the children were males. Factors suspected to influence metal levels in blood or urine were obtained by questionnaire. Individual ambient Cd and Pb levels according to the home address ranged from 0.5 ng/m3 (Cd) and 0.03 microg/m3 (Pb) (rural area) up to 31.2 ng/m3 (Cd) and 0.73 microg/m3 (Pb) (industrialized area). Cd levels (geometric mean) in blood (0.13 and 0.10 microg/L) and urine (both areas 0.09 microg/L) of children did not differ between the two areas. Cd levels in blood and urine of mothers from the industrialized area were higher (blood 0.39 microg/L, urine 0.28 microg/L) than in those from the rural area (blood 0.25 microg/L, urine 0.25 microg/L). Pb levels in the blood of children from the industrialized area were higher (31 microg/L) than in those from the rural area (21 microg/L). Pb levels in the blood of mothers did not differ between the two areas (both 24 microg/L). Pb levels in blood showed a significant association between child and mother (n = 192; r = 0.26, p < 0.001). This did not apply for Cd in blood or urine. Regression analysis clearly revealed that Pb levels in ambient air were associated with Pb in the blood of children. Minor associations were also found between Cd in air and Cd in the blood of mothers and between Cd in air and urine of mothers.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 01/2005; 19(1):83-90. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platinum (Pt) is a well-known constituent of particles emitted by catalytic converters during car operation. To evaluate Pt as a potential marker for traffic related particle exposure, we investigated Pt content along with metals vanadium (V) and chromium (Cr) in coarse and fine particulate matter (PM), sampled in four areas with different traffic density, as well as in the nasal lavage (NAL) of 67 children (average age: 6 years) living in these areas. The different sites were characterised by significant differences in air pollutants including PM, NO, NO(2), CO and Cr, but differences in V or Pt were absent. No significant differences in neutrophil and epithelial cell counts or concentrations of the neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8) were found in the NAL of children living in the different areas. In addition, the concentrations of V, Cr and Pt, which were detectable in 64%, 73% and 93% of the individuals, respectively, did not differ between the different locations. However, in the NAL of the children, a significant correlation between Pt and the number of neutrophils/ml (r=0.40, p<0.001) as well as of epithelial cells/ml (r=0.41, p<0.001) was found. No relation was present between nasal inflammation and nasal Cr levels, whereas a relatively weak association was observed between V and epithelial cells counts (r=0.30, p=0.018). In conclusion, our data suggests a role for nasal lavage Pt as a candidate biomarker for traffic-related PM, which is able to induce inflammation in the upper respiratory tract.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2005; 334-335:447-55. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eine neuartige Kopplungstechnik für die Bestimmung von Hintergrundkonzentrationen an Trimethylarsinoxid (TMAO) und anderen Metaboliten des Arsens im menschlichen Urin wurde entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse liefern neue Einblicke in den Arsen-Metabolismus im menschlichen Organismus bei umweltbedingter Arsen-Exposition.A novel coupling technique for the determination of trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and other arsenic metabolites has been developed and validated in order to determine background levels of TMAO in human urine. The results provide new insights in metabolic pathways in man at environmental exposure levels.
    Chemie in unserer Zeit 08/2003; 37(4):248 - 256. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by fine (<2.5 microm) and coarse (10-2.5 microm) particulate matter (PM) sampled over time at one sampling location, and to relate the observed effects to the hydroxyl radical (*OH) generating activities and transition metal content of these samples, and to meteorological parameters. Weekly samples of coarse and fine PM were analysed for H(2)O(2) dependent *OH formation using electron spin resonance (ESR) and formation of 8-OHdG in calf thymus DNA using an immuno-dotblot assay. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine 8-OHdG formation in A549 human epithelial lung cells. To determine temporal effects, samples from six weeks in summer and six weeks in autumn/winter were compared using ESR and the dotblot assay. Concentrations of leachable V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Both PM fractions elicited *OH generation as well as 8-OHdG formation in calf thymus DNA and in A549 cells. 8-OHdG formation in the naked DNA was significantly related to *OH generation, but not to metal concentrations except for copper. A significantly higher *OH generation was observed for coarse PM, but not fine PM collected during the autumn/winter season; this was not due to differences in sampled mass or metal content. Specific weather conditions under which increased *OH formation in the coarse mode was observed suggest that other, as yet unknown, anthropogenic components might affect the radical generating capacity of PM. Both coarse and fine PM are able to generate *OH, and induce formation of 8-OHdG. When considered at equal mass, *OH formation shows considerable variability with regard to the fraction of PM, as well as the sampling season. The toxicological implications of this heterogeneity in *OH formation by PM, as can be easily determined by ESR, need further investigation.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine 05/2003; 60(5):315-21. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dietary intake of platinum and gold by 84 small children, 42 boys and 42 girls at the age of 14 to 83 months, with different food consumption behaviour living in urban and rural areas of Germany was measured by the duplicate method with a seven day sampling period from May to September 1998. The levels in the food duplicates were in the range of < 0.01 to 450 ng Pt/kg (dry weight) (median: 22) and < 0.14 to 28 microg Au/kg (dry weight) (median: 0.645). Related to the body weight, Pt was in the range of < 0.81 to 32 ng/(kg (body weight) x week) (median: 2.3) and Au was < 0.015 to 2.6 microg/(kg (body weight) x week) (median: 0.068). Children consuming exclusively products from the super market showed slightly higher Pt concentrations in the food duplicates and a higher dietary intake per body weight than children with food consumption including products from the family owned vegetable gardens or the surrounding area and/or products from domestic animals of the surrounding area. No influence of the food consumption behaviour was found for the concentrations in the food duplicates or the dietary intake of Au.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 01/2003; 17(2):117-22. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lead contents in hair, whole blood and saliva were determined for 245 healthy children (121 male, 124 female, age: 8-10 years) from three residential areas of Düsseldorf (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with different traffic densities. The geometric mean for the lead content in hair was found to be 0.87 microg/g (range: 0.2-9.9 microg/g) for the entire test group. While the levels of lead in hair in the suburban population were significantly lower than in the two city centre populations, no significant difference concerning the lead content in hair could be detected in the latter. The geometric mean for lead concentration in whole blood amounted to 25.0 microg/l (range: 8.0-154 microg/l). There was no significant difference between the sub-groups. The lead concentrations found in saliva were rather low (range: < 1.5-47.0 microg/l). Of the values, 89% were below the detection limit of 1.5 microg/l. Due to reduced levels of lead in fuel, the present study exposes that the amount of lead in the children examined has further decreased compared to preceding surveys. The correlation between the lead content in hair and the road traffic density was not corroborated by the findings with regard to amounts of lead found in blood, indicating that residual lead from fuel does not result in a substantial burden of lead found in the whole body. In contrast to levels of lead found in blood, levels of lead found in hair may be influenced more by environmental conditions. Saliva is not a suitable material for biological monitoring with respect to lead exposure in children.
    Science of The Total Environment 10/2002; 297(1-3):109-18. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We adapted our mouse model of allergic contact hypersensitivity to nickel for the study of tolerance. Sensitization in this model is achieved by the administration of nickel ions with H(2)O(2); nickel ions alone are unable to prime naive T cells, but can restimulate primed ones. A 4-wk course of oral or i.p. administration of 10 mM NiCl(2) to naive mice induced tolerance, preventing the induction of hypersensitivity for at least 20 wk; long term desensitization of nickel-sensitized mice, however, required continuous NiCl(2) administration. When splenic T cells of orally tolerized donors, even after a treatment-free interval of 20 wk, were transferred to naive recipients, as with lymph node cells (LNC), they specifically prevented sensitization of the recipients. The LNC of such donors were anergic, because upon in vivo sensitization with NiCl(2) in H(2)O(2) and in vitro restimulation with NiCl(2), they failed to show the enhanced proliferation and IL-2 production as seen with LNC of mice not tolerized before sensitization. As few as 10(2) bulk T cells, consisting of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, were able to specifically transfer tolerance to nickel. A hypothesis is provided to account for this extraordinarily high frequency of nickel-reactive, suppressive T cells; it takes into account that nickel ions fail to act as classical haptens, but form versatile, unstable metal-protein and metal-peptide complexes. Furthermore, a powerful amplification mechanism, such as infectious tolerance, must operate which allows but a few donor T cells to tolerize the recipient.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2002; 167(12):6794-803. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methods for the determination of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) as common markers of eight non-persistent pesticides in human urine are presented. 3,5-DCA is a marker for the exposure to the fungicides vinclozolin, procymidone, iprodione, and chlozolinate. Furthermore the herbicides diuron, linuron, neburon, and propanil are covered using their common marker 3,4-DCA. The urine samples were treated by basic hydrolysis to degrade all pesticides, metabolites, and their conjugates containing the intact moieties completely to the corresponding dichloroanilines. After addition of the internal standard 4-chloro-2-methylaniline, simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE) followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was carried out to produce, concentrate and purify the dichloroaniline moieties. Gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS-MS) detection and also detection with an electron-capture detector (ECD) after derivatisation with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) were employed for separation, detection, and identification. Limit of detection of the GC-MS-MS and the GC-ECD methods was 0.03 and 0.05 microg/l, respectively. Absolute recoveries obtained from a urine sample spiked with the internal standard, 3,5-, and 3,4-DCA, ranged from 93 to 103% with 9-18% coefficient of variation. The three detection techniques were compared concerning their performance, expenditure and suitability for their application in human biomonitoring studies. The described procedure has been successfully applied for the determination of 3,4- and 3,5-DCA in the urine of nonoccupationally exposed volunteers. The 3,4-DCA levels in these urine samples ranged between 0.13 and 0.34 microg/g creatinine or 0.11 and 0.56 microg/l, while those for 3,5-DCA were between 0.39 and 3.33 microg/g creatinine or 0.17 and 1.17 microg/l.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications 06/2001; 755(1-2):215-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Six aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in the indoor and outdoor air of 115 private non-smoker homes (∼380 rooms), about half of which were located in two city streets in Hannover (Northern Germany) with high traffic density, the other half in rural areas with hardly any traffic at all. This environmental monitoring was complemented by human biomonitoring (i.e. the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and exhaled air). Particular attention was paid to benzene as a result of its carcinogenicity. In the city streets with high traffic density, an average benzene concentration of 3.1 μg m−3 and in the rural areas of 1.8 μg m−3 was found in these non-smoker homes (all data=geometric means), which reflects the influence of the traffic (automobile exhaust) on the benzene level found indoors. Source identification is also possible by determining the indoor/outdoor (I/O) concentration ratio. For the rooms facing the city street, this I/O ratio is close to 1 for all aromatic hydrocarbons studied with the exception of toluene (I/O=3.5), while in the rural areas I/O ratios for the individual compounds ranging in 6–9 were determined, with the exception of benzene where the I/O ratio is only 1.5. These I/O ratios in the city street with high traffic density indicate that an equilibrium between indoor and outdoor air is almost reached. Indoor sources prevail only in the case of toluene. In contrast, in the rural area, indoor sources dominate for all aromatic hydrocarbons except benzene, the indoor level of which is mainly influenced by the outdoor air even in areas of very low traffic density. However, weak indoor sources must exist also for this compound even in non-smoker homes. The internal exposure of the non-smoking inhabitants of these homes to benzene is very low. Depending on the living area, mean values of 61–67 ng l−1 benzene in blood and 0.9–1.2 μg m−3 in the exhaled air were found.
    Atmospheric Environment 01/2001; · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • J. Begerow, M. Turfeld, L. Dunemann
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    ABSTRACT: Sector-field ICP-MS (SF-ICP-MS) was used for the quasi-simultaneous determination of selected trace and ultra-trace elements of occupational and environmental interest, such as Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pt, V and Zn, in human urine and serum. In the case of urine, Pb, Cd and Tl were additionally determined. Sample pretreatment was restricted to UV photolysis and to a subsequent moderate dilution with 0.5% HNO3 solution without using any chemical separation and enrichment. Contamination was carefully controlled at each step of the analytical procedure. Calibration was carried out by the standard addition procedure. Owing to spectral interferences, the determination of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, V and Zn was performed in the medium resolution (MR) mode (m/Δm 3000), while the determination of non-interfered elements, such as Cd, Mn, Pb, Pt and Tl, was carried out at low resolution (LR) to gain a maximum of sensitivity. The accuracy of the procedure was checked by the analysis of commercially available quality control serum and urine samples, by comparison with electrothermal (ET-)AAS as a second independent method and by successful participation in an inter-laboratory comparison programme. The results obtained with both methods were in excellent agreement. Regarding the quality control materials, good agreement was also achieved between the found and assigned values. The described SF-ICP-MS multi-element method is thus suitable for the quasi-simultaneous determination of trace and ultra-trace elements in urine and serum covering a wide range of concentrations. It is especially valuable for rapid multi-element screening purposes in cases of unknown exposures (non-target screening) and for determinations at very low concentrations, which are not accessible to AAS techniques.
    Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 01/2000; 15(4):347-352. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new, analytically valid procedure is described to assess the exposure of human beings to the so-called microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in air. The method can be used routinely for large sample numbers and is especially valuable as a basis for further research on the correlation between single MVOCs and indoor mould growth. The procedure is based on the fact that fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds, such as 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-2-ol, fenchone, heptan-2-one, hexan-2-one, octan-3-one, octan-3-ol, pentan-2-ol, alpha-terpineol, and thujopsene, which they emit into the indoor environment. Using diffusive samplers, these MVOCs are adsorbed onto charcoal during a sampling interval of four weeks. The described method is thus superior to existing methods which use short-term active sampling. After desorption with carbon disulfide, the MVOCs were determined by dual-column gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the large-volume injection technique for sample introduction. The detection limits ranged between 0.15 and 0.53 microgram m-3, within-series precision was found to range between 6.5 and 19.0%, and recovery was between 77 and 118%. The procedure has been successfully applied in the context of a large field study to measure the indoor MVOC exposure in children's rooms of 132 dwellings. The objective of the study was to examine the relation between indoor mould growth, the indoor MVOC exposure and the prevalence of adverse health effects. Information about mould formation has been obtained by a questionnaire and by the determination of colony forming units of mould fungi in mattress dust. With the exception of 3-methylbutan-2-ol, fenchone, nonan-2-one, octan-2-one, and thujopsene, indoor air concentrations of all MVOCs under investigation were significantly higher inside damp and mouldy dwellings. From the primary MVOCs under investigation, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, hexan-2-one, heptan-2-one, and octan-3-ol were found to be most reliable indicators for mould formation. A correlation was also found between selected MVOCs and the occurrence of mould species in mattress dust. Aspergillus sp. correlated with heptan-2-one, hexan-2-one, octan-3-ol, octan-3-one, and alpha-terpineol, while the occurrence of Eurotium sp. was correlated with higher indoor air concentrations of 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-2-ol, heptan-2-one, hexan-2-one, octan-3-ol, and thujopsene. Children living in dwellings with elevated MVOC levels had a higher prevalence of asthma, hay fever, wheezing, and irritations of the eyes. These positive associations persisted after controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, body-mass index, number of siblings, social status, passive smoking, type of heating, and ventilation habits. However, they were not statistically significant. This lack of significance may be a result of the small number of investigated samples.
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11/1999; 1(5):445-52. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/1999; 14(10):2464-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a pilot study the urinary platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and gold (Au) excretion was analyzed in 27 dental technicians, 17 road construction workers and 17 school-leavers using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Detection limits in urine were 0.24 ng/l for Pt and Au and 0.17 ng/l regarding Pd. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess information about kind and degree of contact to these metals, the physical condition of the volunteers and confounding factors. Significant differences between the three study groups were found. The mean Pt, Pd, and Au excretions of the dental technicians were significantly higher than those of the road construction workers and school-leavers. This indicates that the occupational treatment of dental alloys leads to an internal exposure to these metals which is distinctly higher than that from automobile exhaust exposure. Significant differences between Monday morning (pre-shift) and Thursday afternoon (post-shift) urine samples of the dental technicians were not found. The Pt excretion of road construction workers working near a much traveled highway was comparable with that of school-leavers being less (only environmentally) exposed to automobile exhaust. Regarding Pd and Au the road construction workers showed a tendency to higher levels in urine when compared with the school-leavers, but statistically significant differences were not found. The tendency to higher urinary Pd and Au levels in the road-construction workers may be explained by their slightly greater number of noble metal containing artificial dentures, which may cause an additional exposure. A statistically significant effect of age on the urinary noble metal excretion was not detectable.
    Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin = International journal of hygiene and environmental medicine 10/1999; 202(5):411-24.
  • R. Sur, J. Begerow, L. Dunemann
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    ABSTRACT: An improved analytical procedure is presented for the separation and simultaneous determination of hydride-forming (toxic) and not hydride-forming (non-toxic) arsenic species in human urine. Separation was performed by cation-exchange chromatography using a new solid phase type based on the continuous bed chromatography (CBC) technology. This column permits by a factor of 4 higher flow rates than conventional columns resulting in a drastical reduction of retention times without any loss of resolution. Using this type of column, arsenobetaine (AsBet), arsenocholine (AsChol), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were separated from the more toxic arsenic species arsenous acid (As(III)), arsenic acid (As(V)), and methylarsonic acid (MA) within only 4 min. The HPLC system was coupled via a flow injection system and either a UV or a microwave (MW) reactor to the HG-AAS instrument. UV photolysis and MW digestion were used to transform AsBet and AsChol to hydride-forming species and to make them accessible to HG-AAS. UV photolysis turned out to be more suitable for this application than MW digestion, because the latter technique led to peak broadening and poorer performance. The described procedure was applied to the determination of arsenic species in urine samples of non-occupationally exposed persons before and 12 h after seafood consumption. Detection limits were about 1 μg/L for each arsenic species. After consumption, the AsBet and DMA excretion increased by at least a factor of 150 for AsBet and by a factor of 6 for DMA, respectively, while the excretion of the other species did not increase significantly. This invalidates the use of total urinary arsenic as well as total hydride-forming arsenic as an indicator for exposure to inorganic arsenic.
    Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry 01/1999; 363(5):526-530.
  • K Elke, E Jermann, J Begerow, L Dunemann
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    ABSTRACT: An improved analytical method for passive air sampling is presented based on a combination of commercially available diffusive samplers with headspace solid-phase microextraction and high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID). This procedure is targeted for short-term BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-, m- and p-xylenes) determinations at environmental concentrations and can be applied for sampling intervals between 30 min and 24 h. The analytes are adsorbed onto the charcoal pad of a passive sampler and then extracted with carbon disulphide-methanol. After removal of the carbon disulphide by xanthation, the BTEXs are enriched on a Carboxen SPME fiber, thermally desorbed and analysed by HRGC-FID. Detection limits for a sampling interval of 2 h are between 0.4 and 2 micrograms/m3, within-series precision ranges between 6.6 and 12.8%, day-to-day precision is between 11.1 and 15.2%. The results obtained with this procedure are validated by comparison with active sampling. Detection limits and a further reduction of the sampling time are limited by blanks of the chemicals and the diffusive samplers. Procedures to eliminate these blanks are described in detail. Applications such as the determination of BTEXs in indoor air inside buildings, inside a train and a car are presented, indicating the usefulness of the described procedure for short-term measurements of environmental BTEX concentrations. An advantage of passive samplers is the storage stability for at least six months, which is essential for its use in large epidemiological studies.
    Journal of Chromatography A 12/1998; 826(2):191-200. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A static capillary gas chromatographic method using three different detectors [photoionization detector (PID), electron capture detector (ECD) and flame ionization detector (FID)] switched in series is presented for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sub microgram l-1 levels. The method was applied for the analysis of selected environmentally and occupationally relevant non-halogenated and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, xylenes, dichlorobenzenes) as well as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) in blood samples. Detailed investigations, in respect to the figures of merit were carried out. For most of the selected VOCs detection limits (calculated as the three-fold standard deviation of low level calibration standards) in the range from 26 (benzene) to 67 ng l-1 (m/p-xylene) were achieved which are comparable with those reported for dynamic headspace techniques in combination with mass spectrometric detection. For the individual VOCs the within-series precision varied from 4 to 19% and the day-to-day precision from 11 to 28%. Regarding PID as well as FID the calibration graphs for all substances were linear up to at least 10 micrograms l-1 while the ECD response was linear up to concentrations of about 0.6 microgram l-1 for the halogenated compounds. Our method is applicable for the quantitative determination of VOCs in blood in the occupationally as well as in the physiologically relevant (normal) concentration range.
    The Analyst 05/1998; 123(4):715-20. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extremely sensitive, reliable and simple procedure is described for the determination of physiological palladium, platinum and gold in human urine. The urine samples were adjusted to pH 4 (Pd, Au) or pH 5 (Pt), followed by conversion of the analytes to their pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate complexes. These complexes were separated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction into 4-methyl-2-pentanone resulting in a 25-fold enrichment. Determination was by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) using longitudinal inverse alternating current Zeeman-effect background correction. The limits of detection calculated from three standard deviations of the blank values were 20 ng l−1 for Pd and Au and 70 ng l−1 Pt. Within-day precision (n = 10, 5 μg l−1) ranged 5.2%–7.7%. The procedure is successfully applied to determine urinary palladium, platinum and gold in nine unexposed persons. Palladium levels in urine ranged < 20–80 ng l−1 (arithmetical mean=38.7 ng l−1), while gold levels ranged < 20–130 ng l−1 (36.0 ng l−1). Physiological platinum levels in urine were all < 70 ng l−1. The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analyzing a series of urine samples by a second independent method (magnetic sector field inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) in combination with UV photolysis.
    Analytica Chimica Acta 01/1997; · 4.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

549 Citations
70.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Gesundheitsamt Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2003
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      • Abteilung Hydrogeologie
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1994–2001
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institute of Environmental Health Research at the HHU
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1999
    • RWTH Aachen University
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany