M Tshamala

Ghent University, Gand, Flanders, Belgium

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Publications (22)32.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective adjunctive treatment for refractory epilepsy in humans, but its mechanism of action (MOA) and optimal stimulation parameters are still unknown. Functional neuroimaging studies could provide better insight into the brain structures involved in the activity of VNS, but have not yet been described in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute VNS on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dogs using micro-SPECT (μ-SPECT). Additionally, a novel stimulation paradigm (microburst VNS) was used and compared with standard VNS. Methods A VNS Therapy System was implanted in ten Beagle dogs. μ-SPECT was performed after sham, standard and microburst VNS in a randomized, cross-over study. Nineteen volumes of interest (VOIs) were semi-quantitatively analysed and perfusion indices (PIs) were calculated. Furthermore, a rostro-caudal gradient (R-C), an asymmetry index (AI) and a cortical-subcortical index (Co-SCo) were determined. The SPECT results after standard and microburst VNS were compared pairwise with sham stimulation. Results Acute standard VNS did not cause significant rCBF alterations. Acute microburst VNS caused a significant hypoperfusion in the left frontal lobe (P = 0.023) and in the right parietal lobe (P = 0.035). Both stimulation paradigms did not cause changes in R-C, AI nor Co-SCo. Conclusions Microburst VNS is more potent than standard VNS to modulate the rCBF in the dog. Our results promote further research towards the antiepileptic effect of microburst VNS in dogs and humans.
    Epilepsy research 01/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate a distractable titanium cage for the treatment of disk-associated wobbler syndrome (DAWS). Prospective study. Dogs (n = 7) with DAWS. After total discectomy of C5-C6 and C6-C7, the median part of the vertebral body of C6 was removed with preservation of the lateral walls and dorsal cortex. The removed cancellous bone was collected. The implant was placed in the bony defect of C6. After placement, the titanium cage was distracted and affixed by 4 screws. Finally, the implant was filled and covered with cancellous bone. Dogs had follow-up examinations at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Six months after surgery, cervical radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were performed. Although no intraoperative complications occurred, correct placement of the cage was technically challenging. Revision surgery was necessary in 2 dogs because of implant loosening and aggravation of vertebral tilting. All dogs improved after discharge from the hospital. In 1 dog, recurrence of clinical signs caused by articular facet proliferation at an adjacent intervertebral disk space occurred. Radiographs at 6 months demonstrated cage subsidence in 4 dogs. In all dogs, CT was suggestive for fusion of the bone graft with the vertebral body. Although results are promising, technical adaptations will be necessary to make this specific surgical technique, designed for humans, suitable for routine use in dogs.
    Veterinary Surgery 05/2011; 40(5):544-54. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the clinical signs, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of an intranasal meningoencephalocele in a dog. Case report. Female Border collie, 5 months old. A right intranasal meningoencephalocele was identified by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The lesion was approached by a modified transfrontal craniotomy. Surgical closure of the defect at the level of the cribriform plate and removal of extruded brain tissue resulted in regression of lacrimation and coincided with absence of seizuring. Treatment with phenobarbital was gradually reduced and stopped at 7 months after surgery. At 28 months the dog remained free of seizures. Meningoencephalocele, although rare, can cause seizures in dogs and can be treated surgically. A transfrontal craniotomy with excision of the meningoencephalocele and closure of the defect can be an effective treatment for an intranasal meningoencephalocele in dogs.
    Veterinary Surgery 07/2009; 38(4):515-9. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relationships between onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), together with the electroencephalographic parameters bispectral analysis index (BIS) and the autoregressive model with exogenous input (ARX)-derived auditory evoked potential index (AAI) were explored during different sedative and hypnotic drug combinations in six dogs. TMS was performed under sedation with acepromazine/methadone or medetomidine and after a single bolus injection of propofol or etomidate. Data for BIS and AAI were continuously collected during the periods of treatment with the hypnotic drugs. Changes in BIS and AAI during both periods were not statistically correlated with changes in onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of MMEP after TMS. Therefore, both electroencephalographic techniques are of limited use in titrating sedation and anaesthesia during TMS in the dog.
    The Veterinary Journal 09/2008; 181(2):163-70. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brachial plexus trauma is a common clinical entity in small animal practice and prognostic indicators are essential early in the course of the disease. Magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve and consequent recording of the magnetic motor evoked potential (MMEP) was examined in 36 dogs and 17 cats with unilateral brachial plexus trauma. Absence of deep pain perception (DPP), ipsilateral loss of panniculus reflex, partial Horner's syndrome and a poor response to MMEP were related to the clinical outcome in 29 of the dogs and 13 of the cats. For all animals, a significant difference was found in MMEP between the normal and the affected limb. Absence of DPP and unilateral loss of the panniculus reflex were indicative of an unsuccessful outcome in dogs. Additionally, the inability to evoke a MMEP was associated with an unsuccessful outcome in all animals. It was concluded that magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve in dogs and cats with brachial plexus trauma may provide an additional diagnostic and prognostic tool.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2008; 182(1):108-13. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • M. TSHAMALA, Y. MOENS
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    ABSTRACT: A case of a true dermoid cyst in a Rhodesian ridgeback is described. The mass was located in the dorsal cervical midline at the level of the first cervical vertebra, and was resected surgically. In contrast to other types of dermoid sinus described in the literature, the mass did not have a tract connecting it to, nor an opening on to, the surface of the skin. A diagnosis of true dermoid cyst was made.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 06/2008; 41(8):352 - 353. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous progesterone and synthetic progestins may induce hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) of mammary origin, hyperplastic ductular changes in the mammary gland, and the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in dogs. It was investigated whether progestin-induced mammary GH plays a role in the pathogenesis of CEH in the bitch. During 1 year, bitches with surgically excised mammary glands and healthy control bitches received medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Before and after MPA treatment, uterine and mammary tissues were collected for histological, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR examination. After MPA administration, the mammary tissue in the control dogs had differentiated into lobulo-alveolar structures and CEH was present in all uteri of both dog groups. In the MPA-exposed mammary tissue of the control dogs, GH could only be demonstrated immunohistochemically in proliferating epithelium. After treatment with MPA the dogs of both groups had immunohistochemically demonstrable GH in the cytoplasm of hyperplastic glandular uterine epithelial cells. RT-PCR analysis of the mammary gland tissue after MPA administration demonstrated a significant higher GH gene, and lower GHR gene expression than before treatment. In the uterus, the expression of the gene encoding for GH was significantly increased in the mastectomized dogs, whereas in the control dogs the expression of the gene encoding for insulin-like growth factor-I had significantly increased with MPA administration. MPA treatment significantly down regulated PR gene expression in the uterus in both dog groups. These results indicate that progestin-induced GH of mammary origin is not an essential component in the development of CEH in the bitch.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 11/2007; 33(3):294-312. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous progesterone and synthetic progestins may induce hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) of mammary origin, hyperplastic ductular changes in the mammary gland, and the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in dogs. It was investigated whether progestin-induced mammary GH plays a role in the pathogenesis of CEH in the bitch. During 1 year, bitches with surgically excised mammary glands and healthy control bitches received medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Before and after MPA treatment, uterine and mammary tissues were collected for histological, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR examination.After MPA administration, the mammary tissue in the control dogs had differentiated into lobulo-alveolar structures and CEH was present in all uteri of both dog groups. In the MPA-exposed mammary tissue of the control dogs, GH could only be demonstrated immunohistochemically in proliferating epithelium. After treatment with MPA the dogs of both groups had immunohistochemically demonstrable GH in the cytoplasm of hyperplastic glandular uterine epithelial cells. RT-PCR analysis of the mammary gland tissue after MPA administration demonstrated a significant higher GH gene, and lower GHR gene expression than before treatment. In the uterus, the expression of the gene encoding for GH was significantly increased in the mastectomized dogs, whereas in the control dogs the expression of the gene encoding for insulin-like growth factor-I had significantly increased with MPA administration. MPA treatment significantly down regulated PR gene expression in the uterus in both dog groups. These results indicate that progestin-induced GH of mammary origin is not an essential component in the development of CEH in the bitch.
    01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of sufentanil long acting (SLA) in sevoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. Randomized prospective study. Animals Forty female dogs (beagles) aged 1-2 years, weighing 11.97 +/- 1.40 kg. The dogs were divided into five groups of eight. Two control groups were used: group A received intramuscular (IM), SLA (50 microg kg(-1)) alone, while group B received the SLA vehicle followed by sevoflurane anaesthesia for 90 minutes. In the other groups, SLA (50 microg kg(-1) IM) was given immediately before (group C(0)), 15 minutes before (group D(15)) or 30 minutes (group E(30)) before induction [with intravenous (IV) thiopental] of sevoflurane anaesthesia lasting for 90 minutes. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate (f(r)), arterial oxygen haemoglobin saturation and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Fe'SEVO) were measured every 10 minutes during anaesthesia and at 2, 4 and 24 hours after induction (not Fe'SEVO). Acid-base and blood gas analyses were performed. Sufentanil LA reduced heart rate and increased arterial CO(2) tensions during anaesthesia. Respiratory depression was least in group E(30) compared with groups C(0) and D(15). Bradycardia was present for at least 24 hours. Respiratory rate was least in group B although arterial O(2) and CO(2) tension values were acceptable up to 24 hours after anaesthesia. Pre-anaesthetic medication with SLA moderately aggravated the cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane. In spite of a moderate depressant effect on cardiorespiratory parameters, SLA may be of use as pre-anaesthetic medication before sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation may occasionally be necessary.
    Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 04/2006; 33(2):111-21. · 1.34 Impact Factor
  • M Tshamala, H van Bree
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    ABSTRACT: The osteogenic potential of red bone marrow was first reported more than 100 years ago. Since then, studies have reported controversial results that do not confirm nor disprove the capacity of fresh red bone marrow to produce bone. Researches have been focused on techniques that improve the efficiency of the bone marrow, including: the increase of the concentration of the mesenchymal stem cells in the aspirated bone marrow, the combination with a 'carrier' that helps to maintain the mesenchymal stem cells and guides and supports the vascular ingrowth in the defect, or the combination with bone growth factors that stimulate the marrow stromal cells to differentiate into bone forming cells. Each of these techniques has its drawbacks and increases the expenses of an operation. On the other hand, the synergistic effect observed with these combinations does not resolve the problem of the osteogenic capacity of pure bone marrow, which still remains questionable.
    Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 02/2006; 19(3):133-41. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 07/2005; 46(6):295-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective time interval between the administration of sufentanil long acting (LA) and the induction of sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. The occurrence of sedation, analgesia and other marked side-effects were evaluated in addition to the possible dosage-reducing effect of sufentanil on sevoflurane in dogs. Forty clinically normal beagles aged 1-2 years and weighing between 8.4 and 13.6 kg were included. Two control groups were used: one group of dogs (A) received sufentanil LA (50 microg/kg i.m.) and a second group (B) the sufentanil vehicle followed by standard inhalation anaesthesia of 90 min. After premedication with sufentanil LA immediately before (C0), 15 min (D15) or 30 min (E30) prior to induction with thiopental (i.v.) the dogs were anaesthetized for 90 min with sevoflurane in oxygen. Pain and sedation scores were evaluated every 10 min during sevoflurane anaesthesia and at 2 (T120), 4 (T240) and 24 h (T1440) after initiation of anaesthesia. The occurrence of adverse reactions such as hypothermia, lateral recumbency, ataxia, noise sensitivity, vomiting, defaecation, salivation, nystagmus and excitation was observed at the same time-points. During the recovery period pain scores were lower and sedation scores higher in the sufentanil LA groups. In many dogs acceptable pain and sedation scores persisted during 24 h. Several dogs showed ataxia, lateral recumbency, arousal on auditory stimulation, defaecation, salivation and excitation at several time-points after sufentanil LA administration. Sufentanil LA in addition to sevoflurane anaesthesia offered beneficial dosage-reducing analgesic effects up to 69.8% for thiopental and 78.3% for sevoflurane; although several typical opioid side-effects occurred. To achieve this advantageous dosage-reducing effect 15 min should be respected between sufentanil LA administration and induction of sevoflurane anaesthesia.
    Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 07/2004; 51(5):242-8. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of the suboccipital craniectomy and dorsal laminectomy of C1 with durotomy and placement of a dural graft for treatment of syringohydromyelia (SHM) because of cerebellar tonsil herniation in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS). This technique is used with great success in human medicine. Four CKCS diagnosed by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of SHM because of cerebellar tonsil herniation and not responsive to medical therapy underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and dorsal laminectomy of C1 (2 dogs) and of C1 and partial C2 (2 dogs) with durotomy and placement of a dural graft. Three dogs were evaluated neurologically 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively and evaluations were compared with preoperative neurological examination. Repeat MRI took place 3 months postoperatively. Neurological examinations showed neither improvement nor progression of clinical signs 3 months postoperatively. MRI showed no regression of syrinx size 3 months postoperatively. Improvement was not seen. Given the progressive nature of the disorder, evaluation over a longer period of time is necessary to detect if progression has stopped. Some modification to the surgical technique is needed to accomplish the same results as in human medicine. A study of a larger population is needed to attain more reliable information. Suboccipital craniectomy and dorsal laminectomy of C1 with durotomy and placement of a dural graft is a feasible technique in CKCS, but needs some modification to accomplish the same results as in human medicine.
    Veterinary Surgery 01/2004; 33(4):355-60. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aetiology and pathogenesis of spontaneous cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the bitch is not yet completely understood. Recent research based on the expression of uterine sex hormone receptors in spontaneous cases of CEH suggested that a temporary progesterone deficiency during late oestrus-early metoestrus may be responsible for the onset of CEH development. In the present study a temporary progesterone deficiency during late oestrus-early metoestrus was experimentally created using an inhibitor of progesterone synthesis, epostane. At day 49 of metoestrus, there was a significant reduction in the size of the uterine wall, mainly due to endometrial atrophy, and there was also a significant increase in the mucus-filled uterine lumen in the bitches that had been treated with epostane compared to the control bitches. No significant differences in the expression of sex hormone receptors was observed between the two groups. As no CEH developed in the epostane-treated bitches, an additional oestrogenic stimulus may be required to stimulate endometrial proliferation. Therefore, it is suggested that deficient luteinization of the corpus luteum may be the trigger in the pathogenesis of CEH, as the secretion of varying amounts of sex steroids depends on the degree of luteinization.
    Veterinary Research Communications 11/2003; 27(7):527-38. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyometra was induced in five bitches by the intraluminal inoculation of a ligated uterine horn in metoestrus with an Escherichia coli suspension, the other horn serving as an uninoculated control. Histologically, the inoculated horns resembled those with naturally occurring pyometra, while the uninoculated horns had an inactive appearance instead of the normal metoestrus appearance. Immunohistochemically, the expression of sex hormone receptors in the inoculated horns corresponded with that in natural cases of pyometra. In the uninoculated horns, virtually no expression of sex hormone receptors was observed, in contrast to such expression in normal metoestrus. Bacteria-associated ovario-uterine interactions may have been responsible for the hyperplastic (inoculated horn) and inactive (uninoculated horn) uterine changes observed in this experiment.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 01/2003; 128(2-3):99-106. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of lesions and the changes in sex hormone receptors were studied in the uteri of bitches under progesterone treatment. Twelve weeks after the onset of treatment, there was atrophy of the endometrium and increased thickness of the myometrium, without cystic dilatation of endometrial glands. This was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in estrogen-alpha and progesterone receptors in all cell types of the uterine wall. By 24 weeks after the onset of treatment, however, the endometrium was thickened due to the development of cysts of endometrial glands, while the myometrium thickness had returned to normal. The estrogen-alpha and progesterone receptors in most cell types of the uterine wall were again within the normal range. These results clarify and reconcile some apparent contradictions in the literature. They show that sex hormone receptors in most cell types of the uterine wall, especially endometrial gland cells and stromal cells, escape progestin (down) regulation after prolonged exogenous administration of progesterone.
    Theriogenology 11/2002; 58(6):1209-17. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CONTENTS: Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) was experimentally reproduced by the intraluminal insertion of a silk wire in the uterus of metestral bitches to obtain a model for the study of spontaneously occurring CEH in the bitch. This mechanically reproduced CEH corresponded histologically very well to spontaneously occurring CEH. With respect to sex hormone receptor expressions, however, there was no similarity. In the mechanically induced CEH, progesterone receptor expression was reduced in the epithelial cells (surface epithelium and endometrial glands) and slightly increased in the stromal fibroblasts and myometrium as compared with the normal metestrus uterus. The oestrogen receptor expression in mechanically induced CEH was reduced in the epithelial cells (surface epithelium and endometrial glands) and more or less unchanged in the stromal fibroblast and myometrium as compared with the normal metestrus uterus. This is in contrast to the increased sex hormone receptor expressions in all uterine cell types, observed in spontaneously occurring CEH. The mechanically induced CEH model corresponds immunohistochemically more to early placentation and to pyometra in the bitch. Thus this experimental CEH model is not suitable for pathogenic studies of spontaneously occurring CEH in the bitch.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 07/2002; 37(3):152-7. · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • M Tshamala, Y Moens
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    ABSTRACT: A case of a true dermoid cyst in a Rhodesian ridgeback is described. The mass was located in the dorsal cervical midline at the level of the first cervical vertebra, and was resected surgically. In contrast to other types of dermoid sinus described in the literature, the mass did not have a tract connecting it to, nor an opening on to, the surface of the skin. A diagnosis of true dermoid cyst was made.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 09/2000; 41(8):352-3. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were to determine the antigenicity of cortical bone allografts and the effect of ethylene oxide-sterilization (EO-sterilization). Cortical bone allografts from one donor dog were implanted in a muscle pouch in four groups of four dogs each. The grafts were either fresh, EO-sterilized, demineralized or demineralized and EO-sterilized. The immune response against the grafts was determined by measuring the antibody response against surface antigens of donor cells and by the mixed lymphocyte reaction. Dogs receiving EO-sterilized grafts or bone matrix did not demonstrate an immune response. Only two of the four dogs with fresh cortical bone grafts showed a very weak immune response. This suggests a priming of the host by the fresh bone grafts. However, implanting skin grafts from the donor dog subdermally, in one dog of each of the groups, four months after implanting the bone grafts did not induce a secondary immune response. Macroscopic and histologic examination of the bone grafts five months after their implantation consistently revealed graft resorption (activity of osteoclasts) and vascularization of the fresh bone grafts, but not of EO-sterilized fresh grafts. For most EO-sterilized grafts, a strong inflammatory reaction was present in the tissues surrounding the graft and this was not apparent around the non-sterilized grafts. The absence of resorption and the presence of the inflammation seemed to be unwanted effects of the EO-sterilization. The EO-sterilisation did not affect osteoinduction since osteocytes were observed in the EO-sterilized demineralized grafts. Results indicate that cortical bone allografts used in the present study are very weak antigens and that the EO-sterilization procedure used has no effect on osteoinduction, but decreases bone resorption.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 08/1999; 69(1):47-59. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A central axonopathy in 2 male and 1 female Scottish Terrier puppies from 3 different but related litters is reported. Clinical signs consisting of severe whole-body tremors and ataxia were first detected at the age of 10 to 12 weeks. They worsened with activity and excitement and diminished during rest or sleep. Two dogs also had paraparesis. In 1 dog the neurological deficits progressed over several months. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread axonal changes, vacuolation, and gliosis in the white matter of the central nervous system.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/1994; 8(4):290-2. · 2.06 Impact Factor