[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study was to characterize ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated in children. That included the investigation of virulence factors and the analysis of the types of β-lactamases at the molecular genetic level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 77 ESBL-producing E. coli strains were recovered from urine samples of febrile children with significant bacteriuria hospitalized at one Croatian hospital. Susceptibility of isolates to bactericidal serum activity was tested by Shiller and Hatch method, while adhesin expression was determined by agglutination methods. Characterization of ESBLs was performed by PCR with specific primers for ESBLs and by sequencing of bla (ESBL) genes. Genotyping of the E. coli isolates was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Twenty-seven (35.1 %) and 50 (64.9 %) ESBL-producing UPEC strains were isolated in neonates and infants, respectively. Of 70 strains investigated for the presence of virulence factors, adhesins were detected in 48.6 % strains (8.6 % in the neonate and 40 % in the infants group) giving a statistically significant difference in adhesin expression between the two groups (p < 0.01). Hemolysin was produced by 84.3 %, whereas 70 % of strains were serum-resistant. The bla (TEM) gene was detected in 22 (28 %) and bla (SHV) gene in 57 strains (74 %), whereas bla (CTX-M) gene was detected in only two isolates (2.5%). In ten isolates, bla (TEM) and bla (SHV) were simultaneously detected. Sequencing of bla (SHV) genes revealed that SHV-5 β-lactamase was by far the most prevalent and was found in 51 strains (66 %). The strains were clonally related as demonstrated by PFGE and assigned into ten clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Infection control measures should be employed and the consumption of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the hospital should be restricted.
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 08/2012; 124(15-16):504-515. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing reports of Acinetobacter infections that cause pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and bacteriaemia underline the clinical importance of this pathogen. Members of the genus Acinetobacter, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii, are now recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens, particularly for the subset of critically-ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units. A. baumannii has itself a quite high level of naturally-occurring antibiotic resistance. The organism can survive for long periods in the hospital environment including dry and humid areas. One of the most worrying antibiotic resistance problems in A. baumannii is the increasing trend of carbapenem resistance, present also in few Croatian hospitals. Infections caused by this Gram-negative bacillus are common in the intensive care units anticipated by colonized patients. The increasing trend of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii could be mediated from metallo-beta-lactamases (VIM, IMP, and SIM), carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases (OXA), porin modifications for influx of carbapenems (33-kDa CarO protein) and/or often combined mechanisms of resistance. The investigation of the background of carbapenem resistance in relevant clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Split University Hospital confirmed present of carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases OXA-107 representing a more recent evolutionary adaptation OXA-51-like enzyme to antibiotic challenge with carbapenems.
Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 10/2009; 63(4):285-96.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis with the incidence 28-29/100000 residents still presents a major public health problem in Croatia. Miliary tuberculosis is uncommon cause of fever of unknown origin. Intestinal tuberculosis pose as diagnostic problem that can be identified by colonoscopy and/or explorative laparatomy involving histopathology and microbiology. A case is reported of a 40-year-old HIV negative patient admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases after two weeks of fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss. Biochemistry testing showed mild elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased serum aminotransferases. On admission, chest x-ray was normal and tuberculin skin test was negative. Crohn's disease was suspected. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed solid infiltrative mass located retroperitoneally, along with enlarged lymph nodes. Explorative laparoscopy was necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Intraoperative specimens were referred for histopathologic and microbiologic examination, which proved the existence of granulomatous inflammation of the areas with caseous necrosis. Direct microscopy of the periappendicular abscess and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of a lymph node specimen confirmed the presence of an acidoresistant bacillus. The specimen culture on solid egg based agar (Löwenstein Jensen) and liquid broth (MGIT) showed the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Then the causative agent was cultured from all specimens: sputum, stool and urine. Repeat cheast x-ray, performed on day 30 of hospitalization, showed miliary dissemination to the lungs. The patient was treated with four antituberculotics (streptomycin, isoniazide, rifampin, ethambutol) and methylprednisolone for one month, then with isoniazide, rifampin and for 11 months ethambutol. Therapy led to a decrease of abdominal lymph nodes and absence of miliary lesions on chest radiography after two months of treatment. Intestinal tuberculosis has been almost forgotten in Croatia. The latest published cases referred to HIV infected patients. In less than 50% of patients with intestinal tuberculosis the lungs are also affected, which poses a diagnostic problem. Crohn's disease is the most common diagnostic problem. Histopathology of a specimen obtained on colonoscopy and/or explorative laparoscopy can often solve the dilemma, as also confirmed in our patient. Of diagnostic studies, computed tomography has the advantage of evaluating intestinal wall involvement, which is important for the early diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis. Enteroclysis and irrigography provide diagnostic information in the advanced stage of intestinal tuberculosis. In a patient with fever, abdominal disorders and parameters which implicate granulomatosis hepatitis or Crohn's disease, the existence of abdominal tuberculosis is also possible. Computed tomography and biopsy obtained on colonoscopy for microbiology can help in making the diagnosis and initiating appropriate treatment.
Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 01/2007; 60(5):505-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacillus Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in the environment. Listeria monocytogenes most often causes infection in the neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunosuppressed persons. We report on a case of fatal sepsis and meningitis in a 59-year-old woman receiving cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoid therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis over a 10-year period. Listeriosis should be suspected in case of sepsis and/or meningitis in patients who receive immunosuppressive agents. Since meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes is not distinguishable clinically from other types of bacterial meningitis, antibiotics against Listeria monocytogenes should be included in the initial empirical therapy of bacterial meningitis in immunosuppressed patients, antibiotics against Listeria monocytogenes should be included.
Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 01/2007; 60(5):501-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of antibodies reactive with Toxoplasma gondii in the population of the Split-Dalmatia county (southern Croatia) was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of a total of 1464 serum samples collected from persons aged 2-84 years 36.4% reacted with Toxoplasma gondii. The frequency of positive sera increased significantly with age (p < 0.001). Prevalence of specific antibodies to T. gondii does not vary significantly according to gender, except, among children younger than 10 years (boys 14.0%; girls 28.2%; p < 0.01). Of a total of 398 pregnant women tested 31.4% were seropositive. According to increase in seroprevalence among the pregnant women of different age the theoretical incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was calculated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of IgG antibodies reactive with Toxoplasma gondii in the female population of the County of Split Dalmatia was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 1109 serum samples collected from female subjects, 423 (38.1%) reacted with T. gondii. The frequency of positive sera increased with age. Theoretical incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was calculated from the annual increase in cumulative prevalence of antibodies between different age groups among the women of childbearing age. The estimated theoretical incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was 1.4 per 100 pregnancies of adolescents (16-20 years) and decreased to 0.1% in seronegative pregnant women aged 41-45.
European Journal of Epidemiology 02/2000; 16(9):875-7. · 5.12 Impact Factor