Marija Tonkic

University of Split, Spalato, Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia

Are you Marija Tonkic?

Claim your profile

Publications (34)47.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trichosporon asahii is a rare but emerging fungal pathogen that causes severe and life-threatening infections with high mortality rate, mostly in immunocompromised patients. It could be easily misdiagnosed due to lack of awareness, especially when invasive or deep-seated infections occur in non-immunocompromised patients, and inadequately treated since the clinical failures and high minimum inhibitory concentrations to some antifungal agents have been described. We present a case of T. asahii catheter-related infection in 66-year-old comatose patient with polytrauma, who was not immunodeficient, but was receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics for a long period. Due to prompt diagnosis and treatment which included catheter replacement and voriconazole, the patient successfully recovered from this infection. The aims of this case report were to highlight the importance of recognizing this otherwise colonizing yeast as potentially dangerous pathogen in non-immunocompromised patients with a long-term antibiotic therapy, and to emphasize the importance of the right therapeutic choice due to its resistance to certain antifungal agents.
    Mycopathologia. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical background and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the University Hospital Centre Split were investigated from January 2010 to December 2011. In total, 54 patients with first episode of CDI were consecutively included in the study based on the positive EIA test specific for A and B toxins. Demographic and clinical data were prospectively analyzed from medical records. CDI incidence rate was 0.6 per 10 000 patient-days. Thirty six cases (70.6%) were healthcare-associated, twelve cases (23.5%) were community-associated and three (5.9%) were indeterminate. Six patients (11.7%) had suffered one or more recurrences and 37 patients (72.5%) showed severe CDI. Prior therapy with third generation cephalosporin was significantly associated with severe CDI (P<0.021). Fifty four toxigenic C. difficile strains were isolated and 50 of them were available for PCR-ribotyping. Sixteen different PCR-ribotypes were identified. The most prevalent were PCR-ribotype 001 (27.8%) and 014/020 (24.1%). Twenty three strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Among resistant strains, three (13.0%) - all PCR-ribotype 001- were multi-resistant. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in strains that caused infection after previous use of fluoroquinolones (P=0.04).
    Anaerobe 07/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has become a substantial global health problem. The aim of this study was to analyze carbapenem-resistant isolates of Enterobacter cloacae that have emerged for the first time in the intensive care unit (ICU) at the University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia. The strains were selected in the period between June and August 2012, according to their susceptibility patterns to carbapenems. Resistant isolates were screened for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production with the use of the imipenem-EDTA disk synergy test, and positive findings were confirmed by PCR. The type of VIM β-lactamase gene was determined by sequencing of PCR products. The genetic relatedness was evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The demographic and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from medical records. Five patients were infected and one patient was colonized with a single clone of multidrug-resistant VIM-1-producing E. cloacae susceptible only to colistin. Three cases of lower respiratory tract infections, one case of bacteremia, and one case of intra-abdominal infection were identified. All cases were hospital-acquired after prolonged stay in ICU. All patients had serious underlying diseases and received a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Four patients died and two had unimprovable medical condition at the time of discharge from the hospital. MBL-producing E. cloacae can cause fatal infection in severely ill patients. Monoclonal outbreak highlights the need for continuous surveillance and good infection control practices to prevent further spread since the antibiotic therapy options for infections caused by such strains are strongly limited.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 04/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane databases were searched on epidemiology and diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2011-March 2012. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is decreasing in adults and children in many countries. Various diagnostic tests are available, and most of them have high sensitivity and specificity. The Maastricht IV/Florence consensus report states that the urea breath test using (13) C urea remains the best test to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the stool antigen tests, the ELISA monoclonal antibody test is recommended. All these tests were used, either as a single diagnostic test or in combination, to investigate H. pylori infection among different populations throughout the world. Of particular interest, current improvements in high-resolution endoscopic technologies enable increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of H. pylori infection, but none of these techniques, at present, are specific enough for obtaining a real-time diagnosis of H. pylori infection.
    Helicobacter 09/2012; 17 Suppl 1:1-8. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study was to characterize ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated in children. That included the investigation of virulence factors and the analysis of the types of β-lactamases at the molecular genetic level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 77 ESBL-producing E. coli strains were recovered from urine samples of febrile children with significant bacteriuria hospitalized at one Croatian hospital. Susceptibility of isolates to bactericidal serum activity was tested by Shiller and Hatch method, while adhesin expression was determined by agglutination methods. Characterization of ESBLs was performed by PCR with specific primers for ESBLs and by sequencing of bla (ESBL) genes. Genotyping of the E. coli isolates was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Twenty-seven (35.1 %) and 50 (64.9 %) ESBL-producing UPEC strains were isolated in neonates and infants, respectively. Of 70 strains investigated for the presence of virulence factors, adhesins were detected in 48.6 % strains (8.6 % in the neonate and 40 % in the infants group) giving a statistically significant difference in adhesin expression between the two groups (p < 0.01). Hemolysin was produced by 84.3 %, whereas 70 % of strains were serum-resistant. The bla (TEM) gene was detected in 22 (28 %) and bla (SHV) gene in 57 strains (74 %), whereas bla (CTX-M) gene was detected in only two isolates (2.5%). In ten isolates, bla (TEM) and bla (SHV) were simultaneously detected. Sequencing of bla (SHV) genes revealed that SHV-5 β-lactamase was by far the most prevalent and was found in 51 strains (66 %). The strains were clonally related as demonstrated by PFGE and assigned into ten clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Infection control measures should be employed and the consumption of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the hospital should be restricted.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 08/2012; 124(15-16):504-515. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 06/2012; 24(3):182-4. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of hospital infection 02/2011; 77(4):368-9. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although most ingested foreign bodies usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract asymptomatically, toothpick injury to the gastrointestinal tract is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Toothpick perforation of the gastrointestinal tract is frequently reported but, to the best of our knowledge, bacteremia caused by an impacted toothpick within the gastric mucosa has not yet been described. Here, we report the case of bacteremia caused by an accidentally swallowed toothpick. The toothpick was impacted deeply in the gastric mucosa and was first seen and localized on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). CT scan is a very useful imaging technique in such situations since we lack typical and relevant physical findings or laboratory studies that go with accidentally swallowed objects, in this case a toothpick. Flexible endoscopy was successful in extracting the whole toothpick. In cases without free perforation, flexible endoscopy is the treatment of choice in toothpick removal from the upper gastrointestinal tract.
    Case Reports in Gastroenterology 01/2011; 5(1):227-31.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from inpatients at the Split University Hospital (southern Croatia) during a survey performed between 2005 and 2008. A total of 2152 consecutive isolates of P. mirabilis were isolated. The prevalence was 0.5 % in 2005 and increased significantly to 20.9 % by 2008. Strains were most frequently isolated from urine (36.5 %) and bronchial aspirates and wound swabs (11.3 %). ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolates showed very high resistance rates to the majority of non-β-lactam antibiotics and were susceptible to a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor and carbapenems. The isolates were genotyped and their ESBLs were molecularly characterized. Strains originating from the intensive care unit and the surgery and neurosurgery wards were clonally related. All P. mirabilis isolates produced the TEM-52 type of ESBL. To the best of our knowledge, our work detailed here and summarized in an earlier communication is the first report of such isolates from southern Croatia. Increased monitoring and screening for ESBL production in this species at our hospital is mandatory.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2010; 59(Pt 10):1185-90. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The meropenem yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) programme is a global, longitudinal resistance surveillance network that monitors the activity of meropenem and compares its activity with other broadspectrum antimicrobial agents. We now report the antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem compared to other broad-spectrum agents within the selective Gram-negative pathogen groups from two Croatian Hospitals investigated between 2002-2007. A total of 1510 Gram-negative pathogens were tested and the minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI.There was no resistance to either imipenem or meropenem observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in both medical centers. High resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime (18%), cefepime (17%) and gentamicin (39%) are raising concern. Acinetobacter baumannii turned out to be the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria with 81% resistant to ceftazidime, 73% to cefepime, 69% to gentamicin and 71% to ciprofloxacin. Almost 20% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem, 13% to meropenem, 69% to gentamicin and 38% to ciprofloxacin.The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli was 10% and in K. pneumoniae 49%. PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of SHV-5 in nine E. coli strains and additional tem-1 beta-lactamase five strains. Five K. pneumoniae strains were positive for bla(SHV-5 )gene. Eight ESBL positive Enterobacter spp. strains were found to produce tem and CtX-m beta-lactamases. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were not found among K. pneumoniae, E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Three A. baumannii strains from Zagreb University Center were identified by multiplex PCR as OXA-58 like producers. Six A. baumannii strains from Split University Center were found to possess an ISAba1 insertion sequence upstream of bla(OXA-51 )gene. According to our results meropenem remains an appropriate antibiotic for the treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. These data indicate that despite continued use of meropenem, carbapenem resistance is not increasing among species tested, except for A. Baumannii, in the two study hospitals and suggest that clinicians can still administer carbapenems as a reliable and effective choice in managing serious nosocomial infections.
    Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 06/2010; 22(3):147-52. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While the antimicrobial effectiveness of wine is well documented, relative contributions of the wine components to its antimicrobial activity is controversial. To separate the role of wine phenolics, ethanol, and pH from other wine constituents, the antimicrobial effects of intact wine were compared to that of phenols-stripped wine, dealcoholized wine, ethanol, and low pH applied separately and in combination, against 2 common foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli. All samples were biochemically characterized with respect to their total phenolics and resveratrol content, antioxidant capacity, ethanol content, and pH. Antioxidative activity of the samples corresponded to their total phenolics content. Except for respective controls, pH and ethanol content were similar in all samples. The order of antibacterial activity of the samples was: intact wine > phenols-stripped wine > dealcoholized wine > combination of ethanol and low pH > low pH > ethanol. Separate application of ethanol or low pH showed negligible antibacterial activity while their combination showed synergistic effect. Antibacterial activity of the samples could not be related to their total phenolics and resveratrol content, antioxidant capacity, ethanol content, or pH. Our study indicates that antimicrobial activity of complex solutions such as intact wine cannot be exclusively attributed to its phenolic or nonphenolic constituents, nor can the antimicrobial activity of wine be predicted on the basis of its particular components.
    Journal of Food Science 06/2010; 75(5):M322-6. · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are chronic diseases that rarely occur concomitantly. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in involved tissues. Tuberculosis is infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis characterized by granulomas with caseous necrosis. We present a case of 43-year-old female refugee from Kosovo with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary and skin sarcoidosis at the same time. Three weeks after corticosteroid therapy for pulmonary sarcoidosis was introduced, positive finding of mycobacterium culture of bronchial aspirate was observed. Based on these results, corticosteroid therapy was excluded and antituberculous therapy was introduced for six months. In the meantime, new nodes on face and nose appeared and skin sarcoidosis was diagnosed. The patient was given corticosteroids and colchicine according to the skin and pulmonary sarcoidosis therapy recommendation. The authors of this study suggest that in cases when there is a dilemma in diagnosis between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis we should advance with corticosteroid therapy until we have microbiological confirmation of mycobacterium culture. This case is remarkable because this is a third described case of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis together (the first reported in Asia, the second in South Africa), and to authors knowledge, this is a first case report in Europe.
    Cases Journal 01/2010; 3:24.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cooking with wine and consumption of wine as a warm beverage is widespread, antibacterial effects of thermally treated wine have not been studied.We examined in vitro antibacterial activity of wine heated at 75 and 125 °C for 45 min against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli. Their effects were compared with intact red wine, dealcoholized wine (DW) and dealcoholized wine reconstituted (RDW) with water to the initial volume. Samples were also analysed for their phenolics content, antioxidant capacity, resveratrol and ethanol content and pH.Total phenolics concentration and related antioxidative activity followed changes in samples volume, regardless of treatment type, while pH of all samples remained stable and ranged from 3.09 to 3.24.The order of the antibacterial activity of wine samples was: intact wine > heated at 75 °C > heated at 125 °C > DW > RDW.Antibacterial activity of the samples could not be related to their content of resveratrol as a single phenolics compound, antioxidative capacity or pH.Thermally treated wine under conditions applicable to food processing in everyday life, may be effective antibacterials in spite of significant heat-induced changes in their physical–chemical composition.
    Food Control. 01/2010;
  • A Tonkić, M Tonkić, D Brnić
    Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 11/2009; 21(5):598-9. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Ivana Goić-Barisić, Marija Tonkić
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing reports of Acinetobacter infections that cause pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and bacteriaemia underline the clinical importance of this pathogen. Members of the genus Acinetobacter, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii, are now recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens, particularly for the subset of critically-ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units. A. baumannii has itself a quite high level of naturally-occurring antibiotic resistance. The organism can survive for long periods in the hospital environment including dry and humid areas. One of the most worrying antibiotic resistance problems in A. baumannii is the increasing trend of carbapenem resistance, present also in few Croatian hospitals. Infections caused by this Gram-negative bacillus are common in the intensive care units anticipated by colonized patients. The increasing trend of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii could be mediated from metallo-beta-lactamases (VIM, IMP, and SIM), carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases (OXA), porin modifications for influx of carbapenems (33-kDa CarO protein) and/or often combined mechanisms of resistance. The investigation of the background of carbapenem resistance in relevant clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Split University Hospital confirmed present of carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases OXA-107 representing a more recent evolutionary adaptation OXA-51-like enzyme to antibiotic challenge with carbapenems.
    Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 10/2009; 63(4):285-96.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from intensive care units at Split University Hospital, Split, Croatia, were studied. Most (100 of 106) had ISAba1 inserted upstream of a bla(OXA-107) gene, encoding an unusual OXA-51-type oxacillinase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the isolates formed three clusters belonging to the sequence group 2 (European clone 1) lineage.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2009; 47(10):3348-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from three Croatian hospitals were analyzed. All bla(CTX-M-15) genes and one bla(CTX-M-3a) gene resided in widely spread ISEcp1 transposition modules, but other bla(CTX-M-3a) genes were in a new configuration with two IS26 copies, indicating a new event of gene mobilization from a Kluyvera ascorbata genome. The study confirmed the role of the E. coli ST131 clonal group with IncFII-type plasmids in the spread of bla(CTX-M-15) and of IncL/M pCTX-M3-type plasmids in the dissemination of bla(CTX-M-3a).
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2009; 53(4):1630-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors report and discuss a rare case of the long-term course and treatment of cutaneous BCG infection in an HIV-negative, healthy nurse. Over 5 years we cured the wrist and lower leg cutaneous tuberculosis infection caused by an accident at work. Persistent antituberculous therapy and surgical procedure were applied, but after detection of an encapsulated abscess in the wrist followed by needle aspiration, antituberculous therapy was sufficient and our patient was cured. Failing the addition of local applications, antituberculous therapy with radical surgical treatment remains the recommended treatment in cutaneous infections.
    Journal of Dermatological Treatment 06/2008; 19(6):333-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 09/2007; 19(4):462-4. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of six different beta-lactam antibiotics using five phenotypical tests for detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) based on synergism of beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanate. Experiments were performed on a set of 80 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and 105 Escherichia coli strains with previously characterized ESBLs (SHV, TEM and CTX-M). ESBLs were detected by five different phenotypical methods: MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) determination of beta-lactam antibiotics with and without clavulanate, double-disk synergy test (DDST), inhibitor-potentiated disk-diffusion test (IPDDT), CLSI-Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institution (former NCCLS) combined-disk-test, and modified MAST-disk-diffusion test (MAST-DD-test). Seven antibiotics were tested as indicators of ESBL production: ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, ceftibuten, cefpodoxime and cefepime. Ceftazidime and aztreonam were the best indicators for SHV-5, SHV-12 and TEM beta-lactamases whereas cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were the most sensitive in detection of SHV-2 and CTX-M beta-lactamases in DDST, IPDDT and CLSI test. MIC determination of beta-lactam antibiotics with and without clavulanate was the most sensitive method. DDST was the least sensitive test. Double-disk synergy test, which is the most frequently used test for detection of ESBLs in routine laboratories, was the least sensitive independently of the indicator antibiotic. Since MIC determination is a very laborious and time consuming method, we would recommend the NCCLS combined disk test or IPDD test for detection of ESBLs in routine laboratories with 5 mm zone augmentation breakpoint.
    Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 05/2007; 19(2):127-39. · 0.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

136 Citations
47.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Split
      Spalato, Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Split-School of Medicine
      Spalato, Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia
  • 2009
    • Sisters of Charity Hospital Zagreb
      Zagreb - Centar, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
    • University of Zagreb
      • School of Medicine (MEF)
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia