Bruno Bonetti

University of Verona, Verona, Veneto, Italy

Are you Bruno Bonetti?

Claim your profile

Publications (66)298.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Here we assessed whether polymers of GlcNAc have any pathogenetic role in AD. First, by using specific dyes we found deposits of polymers of GlcNAc in sporadic, but not in familial AD. We found that neurons and microglia exposed to GlcNAc and UDP-GlcNAc are able to form GlcNAc polymers, which display a significant neurotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, the exposure of organotypic hippocampal cultures to the same compounds led to synaptic impairment with decreased levels of syntaxin and synaptophysin. In addition, acute hippocampal slices treated with GlcNAc/UDP-GlcNAc showed a clear reduction of long-term potentiation of excitatory synapses. Finally, we demonstrated that microglial cells are able to phagocytose chitin particles and, when exposed to GlcNAc/UDP-GlcNAc, show cellular activation and intracellular deposition of GlcNAc polymers which are eventually released in the extracellular space. Taken together, our results indicate that both microglia and neurons produce GlcNAc polymers, which trigger neurotoxicity both directly and through microglia activation. GlcNAc polymer-driven neurotoxicity offers novel pathogenic insights in sporadic AD and new therapeutic options.
    Neurobiology of Aging. 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal dysarthria-ataxia is a rare neurological condition due to ephaptic transmission, generally appearing in multiple sclerosis patients characterized by stereotyped attacks of slurred speech usually accompanied by ataxia, appearing many times a day. Here we describe a patient with an unusual remitting-relapsing form of Bickerstaff's-like brainstem encephalitis who manifested PDA after a relapse with the involvement of a peculiar region below the red nuclei and benefited from lamotrigine.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 04/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: mTOR pathway hyperactivation occurs in nearly 90% of glioblastomas, but the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has failed in the clinic. Here we examine the efficacy of the newly discovered ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors CC214-1 and CC214-2 in glioblastoma, identifying molecular determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance, and develop a pharmacological strategy to overcome it. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies in glioblastoma cell lines and an intracranial model to: determine the potential efficacy of the recently reported mTOR kinase inhibitors CC214-1 (in vitro use) and CC214-2 (in vivo use) at inhibiting rapamycin resistant signaling and blocking GBM growth and a novel single cell technology, DNA Encoded Antibody Libraries, was used to identify mechanisms of resistance. Here we demonstrate that CC214-1 and CC214-2 suppress rapamycin-resistant mTORC1 signaling; block mTORC2 signaling and significantly inhibit the growth of glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss enhance sensitivity to CC214 compounds, consistent with enhanced efficacy in strongly mTOR-activated tumors. Importantly, CC214 compounds potently induce autophagy, preventing tumor cell death. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy greatly sensitizes GBM cells and orthotopic xenografts to CC214-1 and CC214-2 induced cell death. These results identify CC214-1 and CC214-2 as potentially efficacious mTOR kinase inhibitors in GBM and suggest a strategy for identifying patients most likely to benefit from mTOR inhibition. This study also demonstrates a central role for autophagy in preventing mTOR-kinase inhibitor-mediated tumor cell death, and suggests a pharmacological strategy for overcoming it.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2013; · 8.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Object The use of allografts from cadaveric donors has attracted renewed interest in recent years, and pretreatment with cryopreservation and immunosuppression methods has been investigated to maximize axonal regrowth and minimize allograft rejection. The authors wanted to assess the outcome of treatments of brachial plexus stretch injuries with cryopreserved allografts from cadaveric donors in nonimmunosuppressed patients. Methods Ten patients with brachial plexus lesions were submitted to electromyography (EMG) testing 1 and 3 months after a traumatic event and 1 week before surgery to localize and identify the type of lesion. Intraoperative EMG recordings were performed for intraoperative monitoring to select the best surgical strategy, and postoperative EMG was used to follow up patients and determine surgical outcomes. If nerve action potentials (NAPs) were present intraoperatively, neurolysis was performed, whereas muscular/nerve neurotization was performed if NAPs were absent. Cryopreserved allografts obtained from selected cadaveric donors and provided by the tissue bank of Treviso were used for nerve reconstruction in patients who were not treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Results The surgical strategy was selected according to the type and site of the nerve lesion and on the basis of IOM results: 14 cryopreserved allografts were used for 7 muscular neurotizations and for 7 nerve neurotizations, and 5 neurolysis procedures were performed. All of the patients had regained motor function at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Conclusions Some variables may affect functional recovery after allograft surgery, and the outcome of peripheral nerve reconstruction is more favorable when patients are carefully evaluated and selected for the surgery. The authors demonstrated that using cryopreserved allografts from cadaveric donors is a valid surgical strategy to restore function of the damaged nerve without the need for any immunosuppressive treatments. This approach offers new perspectives on procedures for extensive reconstruction of brachial and lumbosacral plexuses.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 07/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic strategies for the fatal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are actually minimally effective on patients' survival and quality of life. Although stem cell therapy has raised great expectations, information on the involved molecular mechanisms is still limited. Here we assessed the efficacy of the systemic administration of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), a previously untested stem cell population, in superoxide-dismutase1 (SOD1)-mutant transgenic mice, the animal model of familial ALS. The administration of ASC to SOD1-mutant mice at the clinical onset significantly delayed motor deterioration for 4-6 weeks, as shown by clinical and neurophysiological tests. Neuropathological examination of ASC-treated SOD1-mutant mice at day 100 (i. e. the time of their best motor performance) revealed a higher number of lumbar motorneurons than in PBS-treated SOD1-mutant mice and a restricted number of undifferentiated GFP-labeled ASC in the spinal cord. By examining in spinal cord tissue factors that may prolong neuronal survival, we found a significant up-regulation of levels of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) after ASC treatment. Considering that ASC produce bFGF but not GDNF, these findings indicate that ASC may promote neuroprotection either directly and/or by modulating the secretome of local glial cells toward a neuroprotective phenotype. Such neuroprotection resulted in a strong and long-lasting effect on motor performance and encourages the use of ASC in human pathologies, in which current therapies are not able to maintain a satisfying neurological functional status.
    Neuroscience 05/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic approach in nerve tissue engineering. To date, the local implantation of MSC in injured nerves has been the only route of administration used. In case of multiple sites of injury, the systemic administration of cells capable of reaching damaged nerves would be advisable. In this regard, we found that an intravenous administration of adipose-derived MSC (ASC) 1 week after sciatic nerve crush injury, a murine model of acute axonal damage, significantly accelerated the functional recovery. Sciatic nerves from ASC-treated mice showed the presence of a restricted number of undifferentiated ASC together with a significant improvement in fiber sprouting and the reduction of inflammatory infiltrates for up to 3 weeks. Besides the immune modulatory effect, our results show that ASC may contribute to peripheral nerve regeneration because of their ability to produce in culture neuroprotective factors such as insulin-like growth factor I, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or basic fibroblast growth factor. In addition to this production in vitro, we interestingly found that the concentration of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was significantly increased in the sciatic nerves in mice treated with ASC. Since no detectable levels of GDNF were observed in ASC cultures, we hypothesize that ASC induced the local production of GDNF by Schwann cells. In conclusion, we show that systemically injected ASC have a clear therapeutic potential in an acute model of axonal damage. Among the possible mechanisms promoting nerve regeneration, our results rule out a process of trans-differentiation and rather suggest the relevance of a bystander effect, including the production of in situ molecules, which, directly or indirectly through a cross-talk with local glial cells, may modulate the local environment with the down-regulation of inflammation and the promotion of axonal regeneration.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 02/2012; 18(11-12):1264-72. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 2D-immunomics may be useful in the identification of autoantigens in neurological autoimmune diseases, but its application may be limited by denaturation of target proteins. Here we compared the capacity of a single or multiple antigens to elicit autoantibodies targeting multiple neural autoantigens by ELISA and 2D-immunomics. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with MBP peptide(89-104), total MBP or spinal cord homogenate. Both techniques showed anti-MBP IgG only after immunization with total MBP. In addition, 2D-immunomics revealed the presence in EAE mice of autoantibodies targeting other neural proteins, some displaying partial sequence homology with MBP. The present finding by 2D-immunomics of multiple neural proteins targeted by autoantibodies generated by a single antigen may help to explain the complex autoimmune response observed in multiple sclerosis.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 11/2010; 232(1-2):63-7. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic approach for neurological autoimmune diseases; previous studies have shown that treatment with bone marrow-derived MSCs induces immune modulation and reduces disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Here we show that intravenous administration of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) before disease onset significantly reduces the severity of EAE by immune modulation and decreases spinal cord inflammation and demyelination. ASCs preferentially home into lymphoid organs but also migrates inside the central nervous system (CNS). Most importantly, administration of ASCs in chronic established EAE significantly ameliorates the disease course and reduces both demyelination and axonal loss, and induces a Th2-type cytokine shift in T cells. Interestingly, a relevant subset of ASCs expresses activated alpha 4 integrins and adheres to inflamed brain venules in intravital microscopy experiments. Bioluminescence imaging shows that alpha 4 integrins control ASC accumulation in inflamed CNS. Importantly, we found that ASC cultures produce basic fibroblast growth factor, brain-derived growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Moreover, ASC infiltration within demyelinated areas is accompanied by increased number of endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitors. In conclusion, we show that ASCs have clear therapeutic potential by a bimodal mechanism, by suppressing the autoimmune response in early phases of disease as well as by inducing local neuroregeneration by endogenous progenitors in animals with established disease. Overall, our data suggest that ASCs represent a valuable tool for stem cell-based therapy in chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS.
    Stem Cells 09/2009; 27(10):2624-35. · 7.70 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 09/2009; 13. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cells capable of generating neural differentiated cells are recognized by the expression of nestin and reside in specific regions of the brain, namely, hippocampus, subventricular zone and olfactory bulb. For other brain structures, such as leptomeninges, which contribute to the correct cortex development and functions, there is no evidence so far that they may contain stem/precursor cells. In this work, we show for the first time that nestin-positive cells are present in rat leptomeninges during development up to adulthood. The newly identified nestin-positive cells can be extracted and expanded in vitro both as neurospheres, displaying high similarity with subventricular zone-derived neural stem cells, and as homogeneous cell population with stem cell features. In vitro expanded stem cell population can differentiate with high efficiency into excitable cells with neuronal phenotype and morphology. Once injected into the adult brain, these cells survive and differentiate into neurons, thus showing that their neuronal differentiation potential is operational also in vivo. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that a specific population of immature cells endowed of neuronal differentiation potential is resident in the leptomeninges throughout the life. As leptomeninges cover the entire central nervous system, these findings could have relevant implications for studies on cortical development and for regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 03/2009; 13(9B):3195-208. · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A prospective study of patients with glioma was carried out. Special attention was paid to the first seizure, to the histology, and to the efficacy and prophylactic role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Prognostic factors were analyzed. Between February 1st 2004 and April 1st 2006 patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Neurosurgery Department of Bolzano for primary or recurrent glioma were prospectively followed until April 1st 2007. Seizures at onset occurring in the absence of interictal epileptiform abnormalities were regarded as remote symptomatic seizures and not treated. Sixty-four individuals were registered in the study; epilepsy diagnosis was made in 27 cases and in 24 of these seizures were the onset symptom. The correlation with histological grading showed that seizures were more frequent in low-grade glioma and in secondary glioblastoma. Although epilepsy was less frequent in high-grade glioma, in these patients seizures were more difficult to control. Poor seizure control was associated with motor and sensitive focal seizures and presence of neurological deficit. Patients without epilepsy and not taking AEDs never developed seizures during the follow-up. Our study clearly shows that epilepsy is more frequent in low-grade gliomas but seizures are more difficult to control in high-grade gliomas. In both cases seizures are a quite exclusive symptom at the onset that never appears during the stable course of the disease. Amongst glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), epilepsy is more frequent in GBM developing through progression from low-grade astrocitoma. Moreover, our study strongly indicates that the prophylactic use of AEDs in glioma is not justified.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2009; 93(3):395-400. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis addressed by this study is that a glutamine synthetase (GS) deficiency in neoplastic astrocytes is a possible molecular basis associated with seizure generation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Quantitative Western blot analysis of GS was performed in 20 individuals operated for malignant glioma. The levels of GS in patients with GBM and epilepsy were significantly lower (range 0.04-1.15; mean 0.35 +/- 0.36; median 0.25) than in non-epileptic GBM individuals (range 0.78-3.97; mean 1.64 +/- 0.99; median 1.25; P = 0.002). No relationship has been found between histological features (i.e. necrosis, gliosis, stroma, inflammatory cells, giant cells, and haemosiderine) and GS expression or epilepsy. Even though the epileptogenesis in glioma is multifactorial, it is conceivable that a down-regulation of GS may have an important pro-epileptogenic role in GBM, through the slowing of glutamate-glutamine cycle. This study suggests that seizures in GBM are coupled with a highly localized enzyme deficiency. The manipulation of GS activity might constitute a novel principle for inhibiting seizures in patients with glioma epilepsy.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2009; 93(3):319-24. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neuroimmunology 12/2008; 205(1):160-160. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of autoantibodies in multiple sclerosis (MuS) is well known, but their target antigens have not been clearly identified. In the present study, IgG autoreactivity to neural antigens of normal human white matter separated by bidimensional electrophoresis was assessed in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 18 MuS and 20 control patients. Broad IgG autoreactivity was detected by two-dimensional immunoblotting in all cases to neural antigens, most of which were identified by mass spectrometry. The comparative analysis of MuS and non-MuS reactive spots showed that a restricted number of neural protein isoforms were specifically recognized by MuS IgG. Almost all MuS patients had cerebrospinal fluid IgG directed to isoforms of one of the oligodendroglial molecules, transketolase, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase type I, collapsin response mediator protein 2, and tubulin beta 4. Interestingly 50% of MuS IgG recognized transketolase, which was mostly localized on oligodendrocytes in human white matter from normal and MuS samples. IgG autoreactivity to cytoskeletal proteins (radixin, sirtuin 2, and actin-interacting protein 1) was prevalent in secondary progressive MuS patients. Among the proteins recognized by serum IgG, almost all MuS patients specifically recognized a restricted number of neuronal/cytoskeletal proteins, whereas 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase type I was the oligodendroglial antigen most frequently recognized (44%) by MuS seric IgG. Our immunomics approach shed new light on the autoimmune repertoire present in MuS patients revealing novel oligodendroglial and/or neuronal putative autoantigens with potential important pathogenic and diagnostic implications.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 08/2008; 7(12):2337-49. · 7.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chitin is an insoluble N-acetyl-glucosamine polymer coating fungi cell wall and several human parasites. It is hydrolysed by chitotriosidase (Chit); however, as chitin is absent in humans, the significance of human Chit activity is unknown. The level of plasma Chit activity positively correlates with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent study revealed the presence of potentially detrimental chitin-like substances in AD brain by Calcofluor histochemistry, whilst its search in MS brains has never been described to date. Through a comparative immunohistochemical analysis we confirm the presence of abundant chitin-like deposition in AD brains but fail to demonstrate it in MS brains. Interestingly, co-localization of beta-amyloid, Calcofluor and the nuclear marker DAPI was observed. Therefore, Chit production in MS patients is induced by mechanisms other than those operating in AD. Microglia-derived Chit activity in MS may counterbalance the naturally occurring glucosamine aggregation, protecting the brain from the chitin-like substance deposition.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 08/2008; 197(1):70-3. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adult mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (A-MSC) have the capacity to differentiate in vitro into mesenchymal as well as endodermal and ectodermal cell lineages. We investigated the neuronal differentiation potential of human A-MSC with a protocol which included sphere formation and sequential culture in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and retinoic acid (RA). After 30 days, about 57% A-MSC showed morphological, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence of initial neuronal differentiation. In fact, A-MSC displayed elongated shape with protrusion of two or three cellular processes, selectively expressed nestin and neuronal molecules (including GABA receptor and tyroxine hydroxilase) in the absence of glial phenotypic markers. Differentiated cells showed negative membrane potential (-60 mV), delayed rectifier potassium currents and TTX-sensitive sodium currents. Such changes were stable for at least 7 days after removal of differentiation medium. In view of these results and the easy availability of adipose tissue, A-MSC may be a ready source of adult MSC with neuronal differentiation potential, an useful tool to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
    Stem cells and development 07/2008; 17(5):909-16. · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify the target of IgG autoimmune response in Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE), we studied the binding of IgG present in serum and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) from six patients with HE and 15 controls to human central nervous system (CNS) white matter antigens by 2D-PAGE and immunoblotting and by immunohistochemistry. We found that CSF IgG from HE patients specifically recognized 3 spots, which were identified as dimethylargininase-I (DDAHI) and aldehyde reductase-I (AKRIAI). DDAHI was present in two isoforms recognized respectively by five and four HE patients; immunohistochemistry with anti-DDAHI antiserum depicted endothelial cells in normal human CNS. AKRIAI was recognized by three HE CSF and this enzyme was widely distributed on neurons and endothelia by immunohistochemistry. IgG from HE CSF immunostained both neuronal and endothelial cells in mouse CNS. The presence of these autoantibodies selectively in the CSF of HE patients may have important diagnostic and pathogenetic implications, since the autoimmune response to these enzymes may lead to vascular and/or neuronal damage, two major mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HE.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 06/2008; 196(1-2):153-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We show here that human and mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained not only from bone marrow (BM), but also from adult spleen and thymus. In vitro, both human and mouse spleen- and thymus-derived MSCs exhibit immunophenotypic characteristics and differentiation potential completely comparable to BM-MSCs. In addition, they can inhibit immune responses mediated by activated T lymphocytes with efficiency comparable to BM-MSCs. In vivo, mouse MSCs from BM, spleen, and thymus, if injected together with a genetically modified tumor cell vaccine, can equally prevent the onset of an anti-tumor memory immune response, thus leading to tumor growth in normally resistant mice. Our data suggest that not only do spleen and thymus have a stem cell reservoir to build up their stromal architecture, but also contain microenviromental immunoregulatory cells with the same properties of BM-MSCs.
    Stem Cells and Development 11/2007; 16(5):797-810. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow (BM) and sub-cutaneous fat are known to differentiate into neural cells under appropriate stimuli. We describe here the neural-like differentiation of human MSCs obtained from spleen and thymus, induced either with chemical factors or with co-culture with human Schwann cells (Sc). Under the effect of neural differentiation medium, most MSCs from BM, fat, spleen and thymus acquired morphological changes suggestive of cells of astrocytic/neuronal and oligodendroglial lineages with general up-regulation of neural molecules not correlated with morphological changes. The process was transient and reversible, as MSCs recovered basal morphology and phenotype, as well as their multilineage differentiation potential. Thus, we hypothesized that chemical factors may prime MSCs for neural differentiation, by inducing initial and poorly specific changes. By contrast, co-cultures of MSCs of different origin with Sc induced long-lasting and Sc differentiation, i.e., the expression of Sc myelin proteins for up to 12 days. Our results show that a MSC reservoir is present in tissues other than BM and fat, and that MSCs of different origin have similar neural differentiation potential. This evidence provides new insights into BM-like tissue plasticity and may have important implications for future therapeutic interventions in chronic neuropathies.
    Bone 03/2007; 40(2):382-90. · 4.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
298.39 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2014
    • University of Verona
      • • Section of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurological and Visual Sciences
      • • Section of Urology
      • • Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 2009
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2008
    • Università degli Studi di Sassari
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche
      Sassari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 1997–1999
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      New York City, New York, United States