[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease, which is associated with increasing mortality and morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to clearly define the COPD pathogenic mechanism and to explore effective therapies. Previous studies indicated that cigarette smoke (CS) induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung epithelial (LE) cells. Excessive ELANE/HNE (elastase, neutrophil elastase), a factor involved in protease-antiprotease imbalance and the pathogenesis of COPD, causes LE cell apoptosis and upregulates the expression of several stimulus-responsive genes. However, whether or not elastase induces autophagy in LE cell remains unknown. The level of PGF (placental growth factor) is higher in COPD patients than non-COPD controls. We hypothesize that elastase induces PGF expression and causes autophagy in LE cells. In this study, we demonstrated that porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induced PGF expression and secretion in LE cells in vitro and in vivo. The activation of MAPK8/JNK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) and MAPK14/p38alpha MAPK signaling pathways was involved in the PGF mediated regulation of the TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) pathway and autophagy in LE cells. Notably, PGF-induced MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways mediated the inactivation of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), the upregulation of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β) and the increase of autophagosome formation in mice. Furthermore, the PPE-induced autophagy promotes further apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In summary, elastase-induced autophagy promotes LE cell apoptosis and pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PGF. PGF and its downstream MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of emphysema and COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut (AN) chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Methods. Egr-1 protein expression in OSF was examined using antibody to Egr-1. Arecoline-induced Egr-1 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Results. Elevated Egr-1 staining was observed in epithelial cells, fibroblast and inflammatory cells in 7 of 10 OSF cases. Arecoline, a main alkaloid found in AN, stimulated Egr-1 synthesis in BMFs. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly reduced arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis and collagen gel contraction in a dose-responsive manner. Conclusion. Constitutive Egr-1 expression during AN chewing may play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. EGCG could be a good candidate for prevention or treatment of OSF. Head Neck, 2014.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methacrylate resin-based materials could release components into adjacent environment even after polymerization. The major components leached include triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). TEGDMA has been shown to induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying TEGDMA-induced COX-2 in 2 oral cell types, the primary culture of human dental pulp (HDP) cells and the human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) pre-osteoblasts, and to propose potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate the TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues.
TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in HDP and HEPM cells. The inhibition of TEGDMA-induced COX-2 protein expression using various dietary phytochemicals was investigated.
COX-2 protein expression was increased after exposure to TEGDMA at concentrations as low as 5 μmol/L. TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression was associated with reaction oxygen species, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in HDP and HEPM cells. The activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was directly associated with reactive oxygen species. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppressed TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2.
Cells exposed to low concentrations of TEGDMA may induce inflammatory responses of the adjacent tissues, and this should be taken into consideration during common dental practice. Green tea, which has a long history of safe beverage consumption, may be a useful agent for the prevention or treatment of TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues.
Journal of endodontics 11/2013; 39(11):1407-12. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key mechanism in both embryonic development and cancer metastasis. The EMT introduces stem-like properties to cancer cells. However, during somatic cell reprogramming, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), the reverse process of EMT, is a crucial step toward pluripotency. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a multi-functional secreted protein that acts as either an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor among different cancers. Here, we demonstrate that in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), CTGF promotes the MET and reduces invasiveness. Moreover, we found that CTGF enhances the stem-like properties of HNSCC cells and increases the expression of multiple pluripotency genes. Mechanistic studies showed that CTGF induces c-Jun expression through αvβ3 integrin and that c-Jun directly activates the transcription of the pluripotency genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1. Knockdown of CTGF in TW2.6 cells was shown to reduce tumor formation and attenuate E-cadherin expression in xenotransplanted tumors. In HNSCC patient samples, CTGF expression was positively correlated with the levels of CDH1, NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1. Co-expression of CTGF and the pluripotency genes was found to be associated with a worse prognosis. These findings are valuable in elucidating the interplay between epithelial plasticity and stem-like properties during cancer progression and provide useful information for developing a novel classification system and therapeutic strategies for HNSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) mRNA is shown to correlate with the progression and prognosis of several human cancers. In this study, we assessed whether the PlGF mRNA level in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue could be used to predict the progression and prognosis of OSCCs in Taiwan.
This study used quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (quantitative RT-PCR) to detect the PlGF mRNA levels in 63 paired OSCC and adjacent normal-looking oral mucosa (non-OSCC) tissues. Threshold cycle (CT) was defined as the PCR cycle number needed to generate a pre-determined amount of DNA (threshold). For a chosen threshold, a smaller starting copy number of mRNA results in a higher CT value. In this study, the relative expression level of tissue PlGF mRNA in each OSCC patients was expressed as -ΔCT = -(OSCC CT - non-OSCC CT). Thus, the higher the -ΔCT, the greater the copy number of PlGF mRNA in tissues.
We found that the higher mean PlGF mRNA -ΔCT value was significantly associated with OSCCs with larger tumor size (p = 0.03), positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), more advanced clinical stages (p = 0.013) or the presence of loco-regional recurrence (p = 0.039). Positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019) and PlGF mRNA -ΔCT value >2 (p = 0.016) were identified as two independent unfavorable prognosis factors by multivariate analyses with Cox regression model. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curve showed that OSCC patients with a PlGF mRNA -ΔCT value >2 had a significantly poorer recurrence-free survival than those with a PlGF mRNA -ΔCT value ≤2 (log-rank test, p = 0.017).
The OSCC tissue PlGF mRNA level can be used to predict the progression and prognosis of OSCCs in Taiwan.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 05/2013; 112(5):253-8. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for>90% oral cancer which is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Early diagnosis may well offer an opportunity to increase survival to this neoplasm. Micro(mi)RNA-interfered cancer progression is crucial, yet its migration machinery of OSCC is still unknown. To access whether the possible miRNA prognostic markers and underlying mechanisms, we developed a highly migratory TW2.6 MS-10 cells from TW2.6 cells to investigate the issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA profiling was performed on TW2.6 and TW2.6 MS-10. Target miRNA was correlated to pathological status in OSCC patients by real-time RT-PCR. A downstream effector was identified using a bioinformatics analysis, and a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) reporter assay was used. RESULTS: An miRNA cluster, miR-17-92, including miR-17, miR-19b, miR-20a, and miR-92a, was found to be significantly down-regulated in TW2.6 MS-10 compared to TW2.6 cells. Overexpression of this cluster decreased the migratory ability of OSCC cell lines. We further demonstrated that miR-17 and miR-20a are the main miRNAs of miR-17-92 cluster which modulate OSCC migration. Clinically, miR-17/20a showed negative correlation with TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis. Through a bioinformatics screening analysis and 3'UTR reporter assay, we confirmed the integrin (ITG) β8 as a direct target of miR-17/20a, and knockdown of ITGβ8 reduced cell migratory capability of OSCC. CONCLUSIONS: miR-17/20a acts as a prognostic predictor of OSCC patients' outcome and a tumor migration suppressor miRNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Expression of Gα12 is found to be associated with cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis. METHODS: This study used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of Gα12 protein in 100 specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 45 specimens of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and 36 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM). RESULTS: The mean Gα12 labeling indices (LIs, defined as the percentage of positive cells in total cells) increased significantly from NOM (7 ± 11%) through OED (21 ± 20%) to OSCC samples (53 ± 33%, P < 0.001). The higher mean Gα12 LI was significantly associated with OSCCs with larger tumor size (P = 0.003), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), or more advanced clinical stages (P = 0.003). Positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.039) and Gα12 LI > 50% (P = 0.009) were identified as independent unfavorable prognosis factors by multivariate analyses with Cox regression model. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curve showed that OSCC patients with a Gα12 LI > 50% had a significantly poorer cumulative survival than those with a Gα12 LI ≤ 50% (log-rank test, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a stepwise and significant elevation in Gα12 protein expression from NOM through OED to OSCCs, suggesting that overexpression of Gα12 protein may be an early event in oral carcinogenesis and may play a pivotal role in oral cancer development. Moreover, the Gα12 protein can be a biomarker for prediction of the progression of OSCCs and the prognosis of patients with OSCC in Taiwan.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 02/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) has been suggested as the main trigger for the increased collagen production and decreased matrix degradation pathways in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to overexpress in OSF. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the TGFβ-induced CCN2 expressions in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) to identify the potential targets for drug intervention or chemoprevention of OSF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TGFβ-induced CCN2 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in BMFs. RESULTS: TGFβ1 stimulated CCN2 synthesis in BMFs. Pretreatment with c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580, and activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) inhibitor SB431542 significantly reduced TGFβ1-induced CCN2 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) completely blocked TGFβ1-induced CCN2 synthesis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) inhibited the TGFβ1-induced CCN2 synthesis in human fetal lung fibroblasts IMR90 but not in BMFs. CONCLUSIONS: The TGFβ1-induced CCN2 synthesis in BMFs could be mediated by the ALK5, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. EGCG blocks TGFβ1-induced CCN2 by suppressing JNK and p38 in BMFs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The exceptional signal transduction pathways of TGFβ1-induced CCN2 production in BMFs contribute to the resistance of PGE(2) downregulation of CCN2 expression; therefore, the CTGF/CCN2 levels are maintained in the OSF tissues in the presence of COX-2. EGCG may serve as a useful agent in controlling OSF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), associated with multiple human fibrotic diseases, is overexpressed in the tissue of gingival overgrowth. Although surgical excision is the current treatment modality for gingival overgrowth, the recurrent rate is high despite proper recall programs. Thrombin plays a key role in wound repair, remodeling, and fibrosis following injury, and exerts pro-fibrotic effects by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). Curcumin is a natural plant phenolic compound that possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. This study investigates the signaling pathway of thrombin-induced CCN2 expression, and curcumin's inhibition of CCN2 expression. Methods: The signaling pathway of thrombin-induced CCN2 expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was studied using Western blot analysis. The CCN2 mRNA level was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Thrombin induced CCN2 expression in HGFs by activating PAR1. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) inhibitor thioredoxin, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 significantly reduced thrombin-induced CCN2 expression in HGFs. Curcumin dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced CCN2 expression through JNK suppression in HGFs. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that thrombin-induced CCN2 expression may occur through PAR1, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ASK1, and JNK signaling in HGFs. Curcumin could effectively inhibit CCN2 expression through JNK suppression. These signaling events are important for wound healing and fibrosis. Further research, including animal studies, is required to confirm the inhibiting role of curcumin in the development of gingival overgrowth.
Journal of Periodontology 02/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently found that the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens is correlated with the progression and prognosis of OSCC. In this study, serum samples were obtained from 72 OSCC patients before and 3 months after surgical cancer excision and from 30 normal controls. Serum PlGF levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum PlGF levels were significantly higher in pre-surgery OSCC patients than in normal controls (19.1±10.7 vs. 10.1±4.5, P<0.001). Serum PlGF levels dropped to near the normal control levels after surgical cancer removal. Higher pre-surgery serum PlGF levels were significantly associated with larger tumor size (P=0.015), positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.001), more advanced clinical stages (P=0.002), and loco-regional recurrence (P=0.037). The serum PlGF level was identified as an independent unfavorable prognosis factor by multivariate Cox regression analyses (P=0.014). Kaplan-Meier curve showed that OSCC patients with a higher serum PlGF level had a significantly poorer cumulative recurrence-free survival than those with a lower serum PlGF level (log-rank test, P=0.009). When we used the serum PlGF level of 19.1 pg/ml (mean normal control value plus 2 standard deviations) as a cutoff point, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for tumor recurrence was 80%, 56% and 78%, respectively. We conclude that the serum PlGF level may be a valuable biomarker for prediction of therapeutic effect, progression, recurrence and prognosis of OSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles show promise as labels for cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the application of stem cell-based therapy. However, the unaddressed concerns about the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on stem cell attributes make the feasibility of SPIO labeling uncertain. Here, we show that the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with ferucarbotran can induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression. Labeled hMSCs with their overexpressed EGFR were attracted by tumorous EGF and more effectively migrated toward tumor than unlabeled cells, resulting in more potent intrinsic antitumor activity. Moreover, the captured binding of tumorous EGF by overexpressed EGFR of labeled hMSCs blocked EGF/EGFR signaling-derived tumor growth, tumorous angiogenesis, and tumorous VEGF expression also responsible for tumor progression and development. Our results show that the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on stem cell attributes is not necessarily harmful but can be cleverly used to be beneficial to stem cell-based therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Src protein overexpression correlates with progression and prognosis of a variety of human cancers.
This study used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of Src protein in 93 specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
We found a significant association of high expression of Src protein (labeling indices >50%) with larger tumor size (p = .017), positive lymph node metastasis (p = .030), more advanced clinical stages (p = .007), and recurrence (p < .001) of OSCC. High expression of Src protein was identified as an independent unfavorable prognosis factor by multivariate Cox regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that patients with OSCC with high expression of Src protein had a significantly poorer cumulative survival than those with low expression of Src protein (log-rank test, p = .00267).
The expression of Src protein is significantly associated with the progression, recurrence, and prognosis of OSCCs in Taiwan.
Head & Neck 11/2011; 34(9):1340-5. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is associated with many human fibrotic disorders and was found to overexpress in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). OSF is the result of persistent chemical irritation and microtrauma to oral mucosa from areca nut. Microtrauma could lead to the release of thrombin.
Thrombin-induced CCN2 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts.
Thrombin stimulated CCN2 synthesis in buccal mucosal fibroblasts via activation of protease-activated receptor-1. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibitor thioredoxin, and c-Jun NH(2) -terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125 significantly reduced thrombin-induced CCN2 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate completely inhibited thrombin-induced CCN2 synthesis.
Thrombin produced by microtrauma may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF by up-regulating CCN2 expression. This effect could be mediated by protease-activated receptor-1, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and c-Jun NH(2) -terminal kinase pathways and prevented by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
Head & Neck 09/2011; 34(8):1089-94. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells share plasticity in the expression of interleukin (IL)-17 and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), but their mutual presence in human diseases is unclear.
IL-17 and FOXP3 were analyzed by immunohistostaining and flow cytometry. The cytokine milieu was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Oral squamous cell carcinoma expresses high levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. A unique subset of FOXP3(+) IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells was consistently identified in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from advanced stages of cancer, but not in the circulation, at a frequency of 0.5% to 5.5 % of total CD4(+) T and positively correlated with the frequency of IL-17(+)FOXP3(-) T cells. The IL-17(+)FOXP3(+) T cells express CCR6 and suppress the proliferation of autologous CD4(+) CD25(-) responder T-cells in vitro.
The prevalence of IL-17-producing FOXP3(+) CD4(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Head & Neck 09/2011; 33(9):1301-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of adipose tissue, primarily due to increased lipolysis but also to an impairment of adipogenesis, is a key feature of weight loss in cancer cachexia. Because of the myriad pathogenic signaling pathways essential for atrophy of adipose tissue, effective therapeutic agents for cachectic adipose loss are lacking and urgently needed. The authors evaluated the effects of YC-1 on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, TNF-- and tumor-cell-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and cachectic weight loss in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-bearing mice because YC-1 has been shown to possess versatile pharmacological actions, including anticancer activity. It was found that YC-1 promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes through activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways as well as activation of several adipogenic mediators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-3 (IRS-3) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4). In the in vitro lipolysis models, YC-1 attenuates TNF--induced lipolysis of adipocytes by antagonizing TNF--mediated activation of ERK and downregulation of perilipin (PLIN). It was also found that YC-1 inhibits colon-26 adenocarcinoma cell-induced lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, YC-1 effectively rescues cachectic weight loss in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-bearing mice by blocking lipolysis, involving insulin. Taken together the results show that YC-1 with its anticancer and anticachexia talents is highly worth developing as a novel agent for cancer therapy.
International Journal of Cancer 08/2011; 129(9):2274 - 2283. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lovastatin exhibits higher thermal stability and lower degradation rate than simvastatin. However, the amount of research studying a lovastatin delivery device has been far less than similar research on simvastatin. As a consequence, a high lovastatin release rate system has not been developed. We hypothesized that highly efficient release of lovastatin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles in a short-term release (7 days) could provide an effective delivery system for bone repair. This study optimized the emulsion (o/w) technique in the fabrication process for PLGA nanoparticles, thereby producing the first recorded case of a high release rate (97%) of lovastatin. We also calculated the calibration curve of lovastatin using a UV spectrometer. The results demonstrated that the ALPase activity in human osteoblasts could be significantly stimulated by lovastatin carried in PLGA nanoparticles, but was prominently decreased by free lovastatin with the concentration higher than 4 µg/ml. Animal studies showed that the amount of lovastatin contained in 1 mg PLGA was the optimum dosage. These results suggest the new lovastatin-releasing PLGA delivery device exhibits potential for clinical treatment of bony defects.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 04/2011; 29(10):1504-10. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J Oral Pathol Med (2011) 40: 699–705Background: Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), an oncofetal RNA-binding protein, has been implicated in the enhancement of proliferation and invasion in various cancers. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and functional role of IGF2BP3 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).Methods: IGF2BP3 expression in 93 OSCC patients was investigated using immunohistochemical staining and correlated with clinical parameters and patients’ survival. The effect of IGF2BP3 on cell invasion ability was evaluated by RNA interference in OSCC cell line.Results: High expression of IGF2BP3 in OSCC was significantly correlated with large tumor size and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that oral cancer patients with high IGF2BP3 expression had a significantly lower 5-year survival (P = 0.0017). Multivariate analysis of clinical samples demonstrated IGF2BP3 to be an independent prognosis factor (P = 0.003). Moreover, the IGF2BP3 shRNA significantly suppressed the invasion ability of OSCC in vitro, and the knockdown of endogenous IGF2BP3 expression also inhibited tumor formation in vivo.Conclusions: IGF2BP3 enhances cell invasion ability and tumorigenicity in human OSCC in vitro and in vivo. IGF2BP3 is an independent prognostic factor in patients with OSCC. Targeting of IGF2BP3 could potentially suppress the tumor growth and metastasis to improve the outcome of patients with OSCC.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 02/2011; 40(9):699 - 705. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyr61 is associated with growth and progression of many types of tumors and is an independent poor prognostic indicator for oral cancer patients. Areca nut (AN) chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral cancer in India and many Southeast Asian countries. Yet, the molecular mechanisms involved in the AN-induced oral cancer remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that arecoline, a main alkaloid found in AN, stimulated Cyr61 synthesis in human gingival epithelial S-G cells. Constitutive overexpression of Cyr61 protein in oral epithelial cells during AN chewing may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. ERK inhibitor PD98059, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) selective inhibitor Y-27632 and a geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor reduced the arecoline-stimulated levels of Cyr61 protein by ∼31%, 47%, 65% and 100%, respectively. Lovastatin also completely inhibited arecoline-induced Cyr61 synthesis and the inhibition is dose-dependent. Decreased of geranylgeranylated proteins could be the mechanism that lovastatin regulates Cyr61 synthesis and lovastatin could serve as a useful agent in controlling AN-induced oral cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mercury is a well-known neurotoxin but the susceptibility of autonomic nerves to mercury poisoning in vivo has seldom been studied. Our previous studies have shown that the hypoglossal nerve in hamsters contains somatic motor and postganglionic sympathetic fibers. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the nervous system following intraneural injection of mercuric chloride into the hypoglossal nerve in hamsters.
Six adult hamsters were used in this study. After anesthesia, the digastric muscle on the right side was removed and the trunk of the hypoglossal nerve was exposed. Two microliters of mercuric chloride aqueous solution was injected into the main trunk of the hypoglossal nerve at the bifurcation. The contralateral hypoglossal nerve was kept intact and used as the normal control. Animals were allowed to survive for 1 or 3 days and were prepared for ammonium sulfide histochemistry and electron microscopy.
Three days after injection of mercuric chloride solution, almost all unmyelinated sympathetic fibers in the hypoglossal nerve trunk were lost, whereas myelinated somatic axons were spared. Although mercury deposition in the myelin sheaths of neuronal processes was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus, the neuronal somas were intact. By contrast, degenerated neuronal processes and mercury deposition in neuronal somas were frequently found in the superior cervical ganglia.
This study demonstrated an undue susceptibility of sympathetic fibers to mercury intoxication. The mechanisms that underlie the selective reaction of sympathetic fibers to mercury warrant further investigation.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 02/2011; 110(2):93-9. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) correlates with progression and prognosis of several human cancers. The main purposes of this study were to assess expression of VEGF in specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to evaluate the possible influence of VEGF on the progression and prognosis of OSCC in Taiwan.
An immunohistochemical technique was used to examine the expression of VEGF in 100 specimens of OSCC, 66 specimens of oral epithelial dysplasia, and 36 specimens of normal oral mucosa.
We found that the mean labeling indices (Lis) of VEGF increased significantly from normal oral mucosa (13 ± 6%), through mild (22 ± 8%), moderate (24 ± 13%), and severe oral epithelial dysplasia (32 ± 14%), to OSCC samples (50 ± 18%, p < 0.001). The higher mean VEGF LI was significantly related to OSCC with positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.022) and with more advanced clinical stages (p = 0.046). In addition, positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.008) and VEGF LI > 40% (p = 0.046) were identified as independent unfavorable prognosis factors for OSCC patients by multivariate analysis with the Cox regression model. Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier curve showed that OSCC patients with a VEGF LI > 40% had a significantly poorer cumulative survival than those with a VEGF LI ≤ 40% (log-rank test, p = 0.016).
We conclude that VEGF may be a biomarker for prediction of the progression and prognosis of OSCC in Taiwan.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 01/2011; 110(1):50-7. · 1.00 Impact Factor