Masahisa Saikawa

Chiba-East National Hospital, Tiba, Chiba, Japan

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Publications (65)61.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Examinations used to search for unknown primary tumors of squamous cell carcinomas of the neck include CT, MRI, laryngoscopy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, and positron-emission tomography (PET). Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy in which an optical color-separation filter is used to narrow the bandwidth of spectral transmittance is also used. Twenty-eight patients in whom primary squamous cell carcinomas could not be detected with conventional white light laryngoscopy underwent NBI endoscopy and PET. Primary lesions were detected with NBI endoscopy in 3 patients, but no primary lesions were detected with PET. However, PET was used to detect a lower gingival cancer and a palatine tonsillar cancer. Both PET and NBI endoscopy is effective for detecting unknown primary tumors of squamous cell carcinomas of the neck.
    Head & Neck 06/2012; 34(6):826-9. DOI:10.1002/hed.21825 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed clinicopathological factors affecting survival in patients with previously untreated T3 laryngeal cancer who underwent total laryngectomy. The subjects were 73 patients treated in our department from 1996 to 2008. The primary site was the glottic, supraglottic, and transglottic larynx in 26, 41, and 6 patients, respectively. The N stage was N0, N1, N2, and N3 in 44, 7, 21, and 1 patient, respectively. The clinical stage was III, IVA, IVB, and IVC in 50, 21, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. The overall 5-year survival rate was 45.3%, and the disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 55.6%. Thirty-six patients relapsed; the site of relapse was the neck alone in 21 patients, in the neck with distant metastases in 2 patients, and in distant metastatic site (s) alone in 13 patients. Univariate analysis showed that significant prognostic factors for overall survival rates were N stage, clinical stage, and cervical lymph node metastasis. We conclude that patients with pathologically diagnosed metastasis to cervical lymph nodes should receive adjuvant therapy to improve therapeutic outcomes.
    Japanese Journal of Head and Neck Cancer 01/2012; 38(3):318-322. DOI:10.5981/jjhnc.38.318

  • 01/2012; 22(2):233-240. DOI:10.5106/jjshns.22.233
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    ABSTRACT: In cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, the presence or absence of invasion into the circumferential organs is an important prognostic factor. Surgical procedures include circular resection of the trachea with end-to-end anastomosis and window resection with secondary closure. We have used window resection with secondary closure since 1993, and herein retrospectively analyze the treatment outcomes for this surgical procedure in order to determine the indications for procedure selection. Subjects comprised 41 cases of invasion by differentiated thyroid carcinoma into the trachea, for which surgery was performed at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of the National Cancer Center Hospital East from 1993 to 2007. The mean age was 65.7±7.9 years, and the median length of the observation period was 43 months. There were 17 cases (41.4%) cases of secondary relapse. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for this surgical procedure were 78.9% and 74.5%, respectively, while the 5-year and 10-year local control rates were 92.4% and 73.4%, respectively. The pathological resection stump was positive in 27 cases (65.8%), but no significant differences in treatment outcome were observed between the stump-positive group and the stump-negative group. There were 26 cases in which closure of the tracheal fistula was performed by the time of observation. When the tracheal defect had a diameter equivalent to 7 rings of the trachea or less and a circumference half that of the tracheal cartilage or smaller, including partial cricoid cartilage, it was possible to perform closure with only a local flap. For larger defects, reconstruction was performed using hard tissues or materials, such as hydroxyapatite, titanium mesh, and costal cartilage. There were 2 cases that required re-window because of dyspnea after closure. The treatment outcomes for this surgical procedure for invasive cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma into the trachea resulted in a low rate of local recurrence and similar survival rates as described in other reports. Even for cases of resection exceeding half the circumference of the trachea, closure of the tracheal fistula can be performed using hard tissues or materials; however, in such cases, we believe that closure should be attempted progressively in a two-stage reconstruction.
    Auris, nasus, larynx 04/2011; 38(2):271-5. DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2010.09.003 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After complete resection of carcinomas of the head and neck, including carcinoma of the cervical esophagus, the pattern of first failure is more often locoregional than distant metastasis. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of the combination of post-operative radiation and concurrent chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin for high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical esophagus. From 2005 through 2008, 34 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical esophagus underwent cervical esophagectomy with or without laryngectomy. Of these 34 patients, 11 with disease-positive lymph nodes in the upper mediastinum (M1 lymph/Stage IV) confirmed by pathologic examination were enrolled. Patients received radiotherapy (66 Gy in 33 fractions) and concurrent low-dose cisplatin. Nine patients completed the planned radiotherapy and two or more courses of chemotherapy. Grade 3 toxicities during chemoradiotherapy were leukopenia (36% of patients), neutropenia (18%) and mucositis (9%). At a median follow-up time of 39.5 months, the overall 1- and 3-year survival rates were 91 and 71%, respectively. The combination of post-operative radiation and concurrent chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin is well tolerated and has the potential to improve the rates of locoregional control and overall survival in patients with high-risk advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 41(4):508-13. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyr012 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of surgical treatment and to identify factors affecting the survival of patients undergoing pulmonary resection for tumors metastatic from head and neck carcinomas. Thirty-three patients who had undergone resection of pulmonary tumors metastatic from head and neck carcinomas, other than thyroid cancers and sarcomas of the head and neck, were reviewed. The operative morbidity rate was only 6%, no patients died within 30 days after resection and complete resection was achieved in 94% of patients. The overall 1- and 3-year survival rates were 76% and 43%, respectively, and the median survival time was 21 months. The factors found on univariate analysis to significantly affect survival were a disease-free interval of < or =2 years, tongue carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The factor found, on multivariate analysis, to most strongly affect survival was tongue carcinoma. The most frequent pattern of initial recurrence after pulmonary resection was distant metastasis (64%). The safety and effectiveness of surgical treatment for pulmonary tumors metastatic from head and neck carcinomas in adaptive criteria for resection are well demonstrated. The poor survival after surgical resection of pulmonary tumors metastatic from cancers of the tongue should be noted.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2010; 40(7):639-44. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyq023 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a multicenter longitudinal study using our neck dissection questionnaire (NDQ) and arm abduction test (AAT) to assess the impact of rehabilitation and surgical modification on postoperative quality of life (QOL). Patients who had undergone neck dissection for the treatment of head and neck cancer answered the NDQ and completed the AAT 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. All patients enrolled in this study underwent a rehabilitation program designed for neck dissection. The obtained data were statistically analyzed according to the types of neck dissection and compared with the data of patients who had undergone neck dissection but not rehabilitation. A total of 224 patients were enrolled in this study. Our findings revealed that resection of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and spinal accessory nerve (SAN) resulted in shoulder drop. Lowering the dissection level and preservation of the SAN and SCM significantly reduced various sensory symptoms of the neck, such as stiffness, pain, numbness, and constriction, and improved shoulder function. Postoperative rehabilitation had a significant effect on arm abduction ability, particularly when the SCM and SAN were resected. The study demonstrated that rehabilitation, in addition to modifications to radical neck dissection, contributed to the improvement of postoperative QOL after neck dissection.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 15(1):33-8. DOI:10.1007/s10147-009-0020-6 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Masahisa Saikawa ·

    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 15(1):2-4. DOI:10.1007/s10147-009-0018-0 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Masahisa Saikawa · Seiji Kishimoto ·
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    ABSTRACT: Because there are few exchanges of doctors and surgical techniques among leading Japanese hospitals, neck dissections in Japan have become so highly diverse that the uniformity and comparability of nonradical neck dissections have become questionable. The Japan Neck Dissection Study Group (JNDSG) was organized in 2002 and includes 22 leading Japanese hospitals as members. To enhance exchanges among member hospitals and standardize nonradical neck dissections, JNDSG planned and conducted a prospective study, in which surgeons from participating hospitals were directed to observe neck dissections conducted by surgeons in other hospitals. To standardize the observation method, JNDSG created a specialized form consisting of 79 questions regarding details of neck dissection. A total of 235 patients were enrolled between February 18, 2004 and November 22, 2006. Of the 79 questions, difference among participating hospitals was confirmed in 13 details and strongly suspected in 7 details. To standardize these 20 details, JNDSG established a manual, "Standard Surgical Maneuvers for Each Detail of Neck Dissection," based on the discussion about the optimal procedures concerning each detail. As the study proceeded from the first to the second stage, the intensity of difference among the hospitals decreased in 11 details and increased in 6 details. Because there were more details showing decreased intensity, this study was concluded to have contributed to some extent to the standardization of nonradical neck dissections in Japan. Although standardization of a surgical procedure in a multi-institutional setting is a very rare undertaking, this study achieved noteworthy success.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 15(1):13-22. DOI:10.1007/s10147-009-0016-2 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Yasuhisa Hasegawa · Masahisa Saikawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Terminology for neck dissection is quite complicated because a large number of nonradical neck dissections were created by different surgeons, each of whom named their operational method in their own words in an attempt to preserve functions that were usually lost by radical neck dissection. This complication is still causing serious confusion among head and neck surgeons throughout the world, although there have been many proposals for standardization. Japan Neck Dissection Study Group created in 2005 and updated in 2009 a new classification and nomenclature system that is easy to understand, compatible with Japanese classifications of other carcinomas, and easily interchangeable with other neck dissection terminology proposals. Based on the Classification of Regional Lymph Nodes in Japan, published by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology, our new system divides cervical lymph nodes into four basic regions and other regions. Each of the four basic regions is further divided into several subregions. Each region, subregion, or principal nonlymphatic structure has its own symbol consisting of one alphabetical letter, two alphabetical letters, or one alphabetical letter plus one numeral. Each neck dissection operation is designated by a combination of these symbols. Neck dissections are classified into two groups, total neck dissection and selective neck dissection, according to the extent of resection of the cervical lymph nodes. We simply hope that this new system will contribute to resolving the confusion over the terminology used for neck dissection, not only in Japan but throughout the world.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 15(1):5-12. DOI:10.1007/s10147-009-0019-z · 2.13 Impact Factor

  • Japanese Journal of Head and Neck Cancer 01/2010; 36(1):82-88. DOI:10.5981/jjhnc.36.82
  • Ryosuke Kamiyama · Masahisa Saikawa · Seiji Kishimoto ·
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the risk factors for metastasis to retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLNs) and the significance of dissection of RPLNs in hypopharyngeal cancer. Metastasis to the RPLNs is an important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer, especially in hypopharyngeal cancer. Study subjects were 129 cases who received primary treatment at nine leading medical facilities in the field of head and neck cancer management in Japan. Focusing on RPLNs, we compared prognosis in RPLN-metastasis-positive, RPLN-metastasis-negative, RPLN-dissected and RPLN-non-dissected cases. The 5-year survival rate for the entire study group was 41.1%. Metastasis to RPLNs occurred during the follow-up period in 13.2%. RPLN dissection was performed in 32 of the 129 cases at the time of primary treatment. In the RPLN-dissected group, the 5-year survival rate in the RPLN-metastasis-positive subgroup was 30.0%, whereas that in the RPLN-metastasis-negative subgroup was 41.2%, showing no statistically significant difference. Among 17 cases having RPLN metastasis, 30.0% in the RPLN-dissected group (n = 10) survived for 5 years versus none in the RPLN-non-dissected group (n = 7). The rate of RPLN metastasis was higher in primary hypopharyngeal cancer of the posterior wall/post-cricoid area (PC/PW) compared with that of the piriform sinus (P = 0.020). We recommend RPLN dissection at the time primary of treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer, especially in cases with cancer at subsites PC/PW, as RPLN dissection is expected to improve prognosis. The primary subsites PC/PW are associated with a risk of RPLN metastasis.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 39(10):632-7. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyp080 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • T. Shinozaki · R. Hayashi · M. Ebihara · M. Miyazaki · H. Daiko · M. Saikawa ·

    Oral Oncology Supplement 07/2009; 3(1):163-163. DOI:10.1016/j.oos.2009.06.409
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated patients with small oral tongue cancer suffering from recurrence, which develops in the intervening area between the primary site and the neck. Lesions in the area around the cornu of the hyoid bone ('para-hyoid' area) often involve the hypoglossal nerve and the root of the lingual artery, resulting in treatment failure and death. A 10-year retrospective chart review was conducted of 248 oral tongue cancer patients with small primary tumors (T1/2). No patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) were included. After excluding those who had local failure or developed new primary lesions, 6.3% of the patients were noted to have a para-hyoid lesion. A similar incidence was observed between the patients with and without previous neck dissection, 6.9% and 5.7%, respectively. All but one patient died due to uncontrolled neck disease. Recurrent para-hyoid lesions could occur, irrespective of a previous neck dissection. In other words, the para-hyoid area is beyond the limits of a neck dissection. Once a para-hyoid lesion becomes clinically evident, it seems difficult to salvage. Therefore, a careful inspection of the area should be included intraoperatively in any type of neck dissection (i.e. elective or therapeutic) for patients with oral tongue cancer. This may be the key to improving the regional control rate of patients with small oral tongue cancer. We believe that some patients will benefit from more aggressive treatment of the neck, although PORT seems unnecessary for the majority of the patients with limited neck disease.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2009; 39(4):231-6. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyp001 · 2.02 Impact Factor

  • Japanese Journal of Head and Neck Cancer 01/2008; 34(4):465-468. DOI:10.5981/jjhnc.34.465

  • Japanese Journal of Head and Neck Cancer 01/2008; 34(1):47-51. DOI:10.5981/jjhnc.34.47
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics, reconstruction methods after resection, and prognosis of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Seventy-four with squamous cell carcinomas of the cervical esophagus not previously treated who underwent cervical esophagectomy or total esophagectomy with or without laryngectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The operative morbidity and in-hospital mortality rates were 34% (25 patients) and 4% (3 patients), respectively. Alimentary continuity was achieved with free jejunal transfer (50 patients), gastric pull-up (19 patients), and other procedures (5 patients). The frequencies of postoperative complications and death did not differ between free jejunal transfer and gastric pull-up. The overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 42% and 33%, respectively. The significant clinicopathological factors affecting survival were patient gender, high T factor, lymph node involvement, palpable cervical lymph nodes, vocal cord paralysis, lymphatic invasion, and extracapsular invasion. The pattern of first failure was most often locoregional (82%, 36 patients). The choice of free jejunal transfer or gastric pull-up for reconstruction after surgical resection of cervical esophageal carcinoma depends on the degree of tumor extension. Adverse factors affecting survival should be considered when candidates for the surgery are selected.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2007; 96(2):166-72. DOI:10.1002/jso.20795 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Masahisa Saikawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: The main goals of today's cancer surgery are radical resection and the preservation of function. A better understanding of cancer spread and advances in surgical techniques have made possible various function-preserving operations. Their common characteristics are a smaller extent of resection and/or preservation of nerves, vessels, or other structures. Function-preserving surgery in its broader sense also includes reconstructive surgery.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2006; 11(5):337-8. DOI:10.1007/s10147-006-0612-3 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of modifications to radical neck dissection on postoperative quality of life. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered neck dissection questionnaire and an arm abduction test. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kobe University Hospital. Seventy-four patients who had undergone neck dissection for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Arm abduction test results and responses to questions on quality of life related to neck dissection. Forty-one patients underwent bilateral neck dissections, and 33 patients underwent unilateral neck dissection. Level V nodes were dissected in 74 necks. Among them, the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) was resected in 29 necks. Patients who had neck dissections that spared the SAN had better shoulder function. When the SAN was preserved, patients without dissection of level IV and V nodes had better scores on measures of pain and constriction of the neck. Sacrifice of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and/or the SAN had a significant effect on daily activities, work, and leisure. The arm abduction test scores and answers to questions regarding shoulder function were significantly correlated. Modifications to radical neck dissection contribute to improvements in the postoperative quality of life after neck dissection. A multicenter study using the arm abduction test and questionnaire used in this study is currently in progress to further evaluate the impact of modifications to radical neck dissection on quality of life after surgery.
    Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 07/2006; 132(6):662-6. DOI:10.1001/archotol.132.6.662 · 2.33 Impact Factor

  • 01/2006; 16(1):77-81. DOI:10.5106/jjshns.16.77