[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With intensified pediatric-like therapy and genetic disease dissection, the field of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has evolved recently. In this new context, we aimed to reassess the value of conventional risk factors with regard to new genetic alterations and early response to therapy, as assessed by Ig/TCR minimal residual disease (MRD) levels. The study was performed in 423 younger adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL in first remission (265 B-cell precursor [BCP] and 158 T-cell ALL), with cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) as primary endpoint. In addition to conventional risk factors, the most frequent currently available genetic alterations were included in the analysis. A higher specific hazard of relapse was independently associated with post-induction MRD level ≥ 10(-4) and unfavorable genetic characteristics (i.e. MLL gene rearrangement or focal IKZF1 gene deletion in BCP-ALL; and no NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutation and/or N/K-RAS mutation and/or PTEN gene alteration in T-ALL). These two factors allowed definition of a new risk classification, which is strongly associated with higher CIR and shorter relapse-free and overall survival. These results indicate that genetic abnormalities are important predictors of outcome in adult ALL, not fully recapitulated by early response to therapy. Patients included in this study were treated in the multicenter GRAALL-2003 and 2005 trials. Both trials were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (GRAALL-2003, NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005, NCT00327678).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Group for Research in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) recently reported a significantly better outcome in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) harboring NOTCH1 and/or FBXW7 (N/F) mutations compared with unmutated T-ALL. Despite this, one third of patients with N/F-mutated T-ALL experienced relapse.
In a series of 212 adult T-ALLs included in the multicenter randomized GRAALL-2003 and -2005 trials, we searched for additional N/K-RAS mutations and PTEN defects (mutations and gene deletion).
N/F mutations were identified in 143 (67%) of 212 patients, and lack of N/F mutation was confirmed to be associated with a poor prognosis. K-RAS, N-RAS, and PTEN mutations/deletions were identified in three (1.6%) of 191, 17 (8.9%) of 191, and 21 (12%) of 175 patients, respectively. The favorable prognostic significance of N/F mutations was restricted to patients without RAS/PTEN abnormalities. These observations led us to propose a new T-ALL oncogenetic classifier defining low-risk patients as those with N/F mutation but no RAS/PTEN mutation (97 of 189 patients; 51%) and all other patients (49%; including 13% with N/F and RAS/PTEN mutations) as high-risk patients. In multivariable analysis, this oncogenetic classifier remained the only significant prognostic covariate (event-free survival: hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.15; P < .001; and overall survival: HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.6; P < .001).
These data demonstrate that the presence of N/F mutations in the absence of RAS or PTEN abnormalities predicts good outcome in almost 50% of adult T-ALL. Conversely, the absence of N/F or presence of RAS/PTEN alterations identifies the remaining cohort of patients with poor prognosis.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for many hematological malignancies for which umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents an alternative source of HSC. In order to overcome the low cellularity of one UCB unit, double UCBT (dUCBT) has been developed in adults. We have analyzed the outcome of 136 patients who underwent dUCBT reported to the SFGM-TC registry between 2005 and 2007. Forty-six patients received myeloablative and 90 reduced intensity conditioning regimens. There were 84 leukemias, 17 NHL, 11 myelomas and 24 other hematological malignancies. At transplantation, 40 (29%) patients were in CR1. At day 60 after transplantation, the cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 91%. We observed one UCB unit domination in 88% of cases. The cumulative incidence of day 100 aGVHD, cGVHD, TRM and relapse at 2 years were 36%, 23%, 27% and 28% respectively. After a median follow-up of 49.5 months, the 3 years probabilities of overall and progression-free survival were 41% and 35% respectively with a significant OS advantage when male cord engrafted male recipients. We obtained a long term plateau among patients in CR1 which makes dUCBT a promising treatment strategy for these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the role of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in adult ALL patients with central nervous system involvement at diagnosis, we retrospectively analyzed 90 patients who underwent autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT group; n=27) or allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT group; n=63) and reported to the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire registry between 1994 and 2008. At the time of transplantation, 67 patients (74%) were in first CR, 15 (17%) in CR2 and 8 (9%) with progressive disease. The 5-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 52% and 46% for the allo-HSCT and 37% and 33% for the auto-HSCT groups, respectively (P=NS). The TRM at 5 years was 29.8% for the allo-HSCT group and 3.7% for the auto-HSCT group. Using univariate analysis, a time for transplantation of <12 months, the remission status at transplantation, the use of high-dose TBI and the number of the transplant were all determined to be prognostic factors for improved DFS and OS probabilities. Using multivariate analysis, we demonstrated that both the use of high-dose TBI and the remission status had a favorable impact on OS. Although the DFS and OS were better in the allo-HSCT group, the differences were not statistically significant.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 19 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.213.
Bone marrow transplantation 11/2012; · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells can experimentally dissociate GVL from graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Their role in human conventional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is unknown. Here, we analyzed the post-HSCT recovery of iNKT cells in 71 adult allografted patients. Results were compared with conventional T- and NK-cell recovery and correlated to the occurrence of GVHD, relapse, and survival. We observed that posttransplantation iNKT cells, likely of donor origin, recovered independently of T and NK cells in the first 90 days after HSCT and reached greater levels in recipient younger than 45 years (P = .003) and after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen (P = .03). Low posttransplantation iNKT/T ratios (ie, < 10(-3)) were an independent factor associated with the occurrence of acute GVHD (aGVHD; P = .001). Inversely, reaching iNKT/T ratios > 10(-3) before day 90 was associated with reduced nonrelapse mortality (P = .009) without increased risk of relapse and appeared as an independent predictive factor of an improved overall survival (P = .028). Furthermore, an iNKT/T ratio on day 15 > 0.58 × 10(-3) was associated with a 94% risk reduction of aGVHD. These findings provide a proof of concept that early postallogeneic HSCT iNKT cell recovery can predict the occurrence of aGVHD and an improved overall survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Despite therapeutic approach that combines rituximab-containing chemotherapy, followed or not by autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients experience relapses. Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIC-allo-SCT) at time of relapse may represent an attractive strategy. Patients and methods We report a multicenter retrospective analysis. Seventy MCL patients underwent RIC-allo-SCT in 12 centers. Results Median age at transplantation was 56 years and median time from diagnosis to transplantation was 44 months. The median number of previous therapies was 2 (range, 1-5) including autologous transplantation in 47 cases. At time of transplantation, 35 patients were in complete remission, 20 were in partial response and 15 in stable disease or progressive disease. The median follow-up for living patients was 24 months. The 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 50% and 53%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year transplant-related mortality rates were 22% and 32%, respectively. The statistical analysis demonstrated that disease status at transplantation was the only parameter influencing EFS and OS. Conclusions These results suggest that RIC-allo-SCT may be an effective therapy in MCL patients with a chemo-sensitive disease at time of transplantation, irrespective of the number of lines of prior therapy. Studies are warranted to investigate the best type of RIC regimen.
Annals of Oncology 03/2012; 23(10):2695-703. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent progress in the understanding of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) oncogenesis, few markers are sufficiently frequent in large subgroups to allow their use in therapeutic stratification. Low ERG and BAALC expression (E/B(low)) and NOTCH1/FBXW7 (N/F) mutations have been proposed as powerful prognostic markers in large cohorts of adult T-ALL. We therefore compared the predictive prognostic value of N/F mutations versus E/B(low) in 232 adult T-ALLs enrolled in the LALA-94 and Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocols. The outcome of T-ALLs treated in the pediatric-inspired GRAALL trials was significantly superior to the LALA-94 trial. Overall, 43% and 69% of adult T-ALL patients were classified as E/B(low) and N/F mutated, respectively. Strikingly, the good prognosis of N/F mutated patients was stronger in more intensively treated, pediatric-inspired GRAALL patients. The E/B expression level did not influence the prognosis in any subgroup. N/F mutation status and the GRAALL trial were the only 2 independent factors that correlated with longer overall survival by multivariate analysis. This study demonstrates that the N/F mutational status and treatment protocol are major outcome determinants for adults with T-ALL, the benefit of pediatric inspired protocols being essentially restricted to the N/F mutated subgroup.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective multicenter report assessed the outcome of 600 patients with hematologic diseases older than 60 years who received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), with the specific aim to compare outcomes of patients between 60 and 65 years old (N = 493) with those older than 65 years (N = 107). Except for donor age, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding patients, diseases, and allo-HSCT characteristics. At time of RIC allo-HSCT, 276 patients (46%) were in complete remission. With a median follow-up of 22.8 and 23.7 months in the younger and the older groups, respectively, 2-year relapse, nonrelapse mortality, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were similar in both groups (29.6% vs. 20.4%; 29.9% vs. 34.6%; 40.6% vs. 46.7%; 49.2% vs. 50.2%, respectively; P = NS for all comparisons). In a Cox multivariate analysis, after adjustment for disease and transplant factors, age per se was not an adverse factor for survival (relative risk = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.44, P = .62). We conclude that in selected patients, RIC allo-HSCT could be offered to patients over 65 years old.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2011; 18(2):289-94. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to describe the outcome of patients who underwent double allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning regimens (RIC). Forty-five patients who received double RIC-AHSCT between 1997 and 2006 were retrospectively studied. The predominant diagnosis was acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 17). Other diagnoses were aplasic anemia (AA) (n = 5), myelodysplasic disorder (n = 5), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n = 4), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CML) (n = 3), myeloma (n = 3), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (n = 3), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n = 2), Hodgkin's disease (HD) (n = 2), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1). Main indications for RIC-AHSCT 2 were relapse (n = 25, 56%) and early (n = 8, 18%) or late (n = 12, 26%) graft failure. Median delays to reach a neutrophil count of 0.5 × 10(9)/L and platelet counts of 50 × 10(9)/L were significantly smaller after the second AHSCT. Among 25 patients who relapsed after RIC-AHSCT 1, 14 patients (56%) presented a response improvement after RIC-AHSCT 2. In this group, 9 patients sustained a complete response and 5 patients a partial response. Moreover, among the 20 patients who had early or late graft failure following RIC-AHSCT 1, 9 (45%) finally reached an engraftment. Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly improved after RIC-AHSCT 2. Thirteen patients (28%) died of transplant-related mortality (TRM) at a median delay of 69 days (range: 0-451) after RIC-AHSCT 2. Double RIC-AHSCT is a feasible procedure that allows a response or engraftment not observed after RIC-AHSCT 1. The main indication is relapse. However, TRM remains high.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2011; 18(2):250-6. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation has not been clearly defined. This study examines whether allogeneic stem cell transplantation could be of benefit for myeloma patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities.
This is a retrospective multicenter analysis of the registry of the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire, including 143 myeloma patients transplanted between 1999 and 2008.
The incidences of cytogenetic abnormalities were 59% for del(13q), 25% for t(4;14), 25% for del(17p) and 4% for t(14;16). When comparing the population carrying an abnormality to that without the same abnormality, no significant difference was found in progression-free survival, overall survival or progression rate. Patients were grouped according to the presence of any of the poor prognosis cytogenetic abnormalities t(4;14), del(17p) or t(14;16) (n=53) or their absence (n=32). No difference in outcomes was observed between these two groups: the 3-year progression-free survival, overall survival and progression rates were 30% versus 17% (P=0.9), 45% versus 39% (P=0.8) and 53% versus 75% (P=0.9), respectively.
These data indicate that allogeneic stem cell transplantation could potentially be of benefit to high-risk myeloma patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited experience is available on the feasibility and efficacy of autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) beyond 65 years.
We analysed 712 patients with MCL treated with ASCT from 2000 to 2007 and reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. Patients>65 years were compared with patients<65 years for the end points non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse incidence, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).
Seventy-nine patients were ≥65 years old. Median time from diagnosis to ASCT was longer in the elderly patients (11 versus 9 months, P=0.005); they had more commonly received at least two treatment lines (62.0% versus 47.9%, P=0.02) and were less commonly in first complete remission at ASCT (35.4% versus 51.2%, P=0.002). Median follow-up after ASCT was 19 and 25 months, respectively. NRM was comparable at 3 months (3.8% versus 2.5%) and at 5 years (5.6% versus 5.0%). There were no differences in relapse rate (66% versus 55% at 5 years), PFS (29% versus 40%) and OS (61% versus 67%) between both populations of patients.
ASCT beyond 65 years of age is feasible in selected patients with MCL and results in similar disease control and survival as in younger patients.
Annals of Oncology 04/2011; 23(1):166-71. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the outcome, including nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) relapsed after an autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) and treated with an allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT).
The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database was scanned for a first allo-SCT in relapsed DLBCL after a previous ASCT between 1997 and 2006. Other inclusion criteria were age at allo-SCT ≥ 18 years and availability of an HLA-identical sibling or a matched unrelated donor. A total of 101 patients (57 males; median age, 46 years) were included. Median follow-up for survivors was 36 months.
Myeloablative conditioning regimen was used in 37 patients and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was used in 64 patients. Three-year NRM was 28.2% (95% CI, 20% to 39%), RR was 30.1% (95% CI, 22% to 41%), PFS was 41.7% (95% CI, 32% to 52%), and OS was 53.8% (95% CI, 44% to 64%). NRM was significantly increased in patients ≥ 45 years (P = .01) and in those with an early relapse (< 12 months) after ASCT (P = .01). RR was significantly higher in refractory patients (P = .03). A time interval to relapse after ASCT of < 12 months was associated with lower PFS (P = .03). The use of RIC regimens was followed by a trend to a lower NRM (P = .1) and a trend to a higher RR (P = .1), with no differences in PFS and OS. No differences were seen between HLA-identical siblings and matched unrelated donors.
Allo-SCT in relapsed DLBCL after ASCT is a promising therapeutic modality. Patients with a long remission after ASCT and with sensitive disease at allo-SCT are the best candidates for this approach.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 29(10):1342-8. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for myelofibrosis. We report an analysis of the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC) registry including patients with myelofibrosis transplanted between 1997 and 2008. Potential risk factors affecting engraftment, non-relapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analysed. One hundred and forty-seven patients, aged 20-68 (median 53) years, diagnosed with primary (53%) or secondary myelofibrosis underwent HSCT; 59% of patients were transplanted from a matched sibling donor. The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in 31% of patients. Ninety percent of the patients engrafted. Factors affecting favourably engraftment were splenectomy before HSCT, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched sibling donor, peripheral stem cell use as source of stem cells and absence of pre-transplant thrombocytopenia. Four-year OS, PFS and NRM survival were 39% (95%confidence interval [CI]: 31-50), 32% (95%CI: 24-43) and 39% (95%CI 30-48), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that HLA-identical sibling donor, chronic phase disease and splenectomy in men had favourable impact on OS.
British Journal of Haematology 02/2011; 152(3):331-9. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective report assessed the impact of rabbit antithymocyte globulins (ATG), incorporated within a standard myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) using human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donors (HLA-MUD), on the incidence of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). In this series of leukemia patients, 120 patients (70%) did not receive ATG ('no-ATG' group), whereas 51 patients received ATG ('ATG' group). With a median follow-up of 30.3 months, the cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD was 36% in the no-ATG group and 20% in the ATG group (P = 0.11). The cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was significantly lower in the ATG group as compared to the no-ATG group (4 vs 32%, respectively; P = 0.0017). In multivariate analysis, the absence of use of ATG was the strongest parameter associated with an increased risk of extensive chronic GVHD (relative risk) = 7.14, 95% CI: 1.7-33.3, P = 0.008). At 2 years, the probability of nonrelapse mortality, relapse, overall and leukemia-free survivals was not significantly different between the no-ATG and ATG groups. We conclude that the addition of ATG to GVHD prophylaxis resulted in decreased incidence of extensive chronic GVHD without an increase in relapse or nonrelapse mortality, and without compromising survival after myeloablative allo-SCT from HLA-MUD.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 09/2010; 24(11):1867-74. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donor T cells play a pivotal role in the graft-versus-tumor effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Regulatory T cells (T(reg)s) may reduce alloreactivity, the major component of the graft-versus-tumor effect. In the setting of donor lymphocyte infusion after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we postulated that T(reg) depletion could improve alloreactivity and likewise the graft-versus-tumor effect of donor T cells. The safety and efficacy of T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion was studied in 17 adult patients with malignancy relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All but one had previously failed to respond to at least one standard donor lymphocyte infusion, and none had experienced graft-versus-host disease. Two of the 17 patients developed graft-versus-host disease after their first T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion and experienced a long-term remission of their malignancy. Four of the 15 patients who did not respond after a first T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion received a second T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion combined with lymphodepleting chemotherapy aimed to also eliminate recipient T(reg)s. All four developed acute-like graft-versus-host disease that was associated with a partial or complete and durable remission. In the whole cohort, graft-versus-host disease induction through T(reg) depletion was associated with improved survival. These results suggest that T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion is a safe, feasible approach that induces graft-versus-host or graft-versus-tumor effects in alloreactivity-resistant patients. In patients not responding to this approach, the combination of chemotherapy-induced lymphodepletion of the recipient synergizes with the effect of T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion. These findings offer a rational therapeutic approach for cancer cellular immunotherapy.
Science translational medicine 07/2010; 2(41):41ra52. · 14.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of seizure prophylaxis on busulfan (Bu) plasma exposure. Twenty-four adult patients received an intravenous Bu-cyclophoshamide conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation. Busilvex (0.8 mg/kg) was administered every six hours during four consecutive days. Clonazepam (0.025 to 0.03 mg/kg/day as a continuous 12-h i.v. infusion) was administered at least 12 hours prior to i.v. Bu dosing and continued until 24 hours after the last dose. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data were compared with those previously collected in patients (n=127) treated with phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis. Through population PK analysis, a 10% average increase (coefficient of variation, RSE=5.35%) in total clearance of Bu was quantified when Bu was associated with clonazepam as compared to phenytoin, which was considered as not being clinically relevant. The suspected induction on Bu metabolism by phenytoin should have resulted in the opposite effect. The patient efficacy and safety profiles were comparable between the two cohorts.
Anticancer research 07/2010; 30(7):2977-84. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human retrovirus HTLV-1 causes Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), a malignant lymphoproliferative disease of CD4+ T cells of dismal prognosis, in 3-5% of the 20 million infected individuals (Proietti et al.(1) and Bazarbachi et al.(2)). Infection with HTLV-1 represents a prototypical model of virus-mediated oncogenesis by virtue of the viral transactivator Tax, a potent oncogenic protein that exerts pleiotropic effects through its ability to deregulate the transcription of various cellular genes and signal transduction pathways and inhibit DNA repair enzymes, which are critical for T-cell homeostasis and genetic stability (Matsuoka and Jeang(3)) (et Boxus Retrovirology 2009). However, the oncogenic potential of Tax remains a conundrum. Tax protein expression is undetectable using conventional methods in freshly harvested ATLL cells and in non-malignant infected CD4+ T cells (Furukawa et al.(4)) but is up regulated after only a few hours of culture in vitro (Hanon et al.(5)). These observations strongly suggest that a host-derived mechanism is able to either actively repress the transcription of viral proteins in vivo or refrain the emergence of Tax-expressing cells, which would have a growth advantage. We report herein a unique case of CD4+ T-cell leukemia highly expressing Tax following rejection of an allogenic peripheral blood stem cell graft for an HTLV-1 associated lymphoma.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 12/2009; 46(4):378-80. · 3.12 Impact Factor