In Sook Kim

Hanyang University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (80)194.27 Total impact

  • Hye Hyun Yoo · In Sook Kim · Dae-Hyeong Yoo · Dong-Hyun Kim ·

    Journal of Hypertension 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000773 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, use of novel synthetic cannabinoids has increased greatly despite worldwide efforts to regulate these drugs. XLR-11 ((1-[5'-fluoropentyl]indol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone), a fluorinated synthetic cannabinoid with a tetramethylcyclopropyl moiety, has been frequently abused since 2012. XLR-11 produces a number of metabolites in common with its non-fluorinated parent analogue, UR-144 ((1-pentylindol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone). Therefore, it is essential to develop effective urinary markers to distinguish between these drugs. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profile of authentic human urine specimens from suspected users of XLR-11 using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we quantified four potential XLR-11 metabolites by using commercially available reference standards. In vitro metabolism of XLR-11 and UR-144 using human liver microsomes was also investigated to compare patterns of production of hydroxypentyl metabolites. Urine samples were prepared with and without enzymatic hydrolysis, and subjected to solid-phase extraction. We identified 19 metabolites generated by oxidative defluorination, hydroxylation, carboxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, and combinations of these reactions. Among the identified metabolites, 12 were generated from a cyclopropyl ring-opened XLR-11 degradation product formed during smoking. The XLR-11 metabolite with a hydroxylated 2,4-dimethylpent-1-ene moiety was detected in most specimens after hydrolysis and could be utilized as a specific marker for XLR-11 intake. Quantitative results showed that the concentration ratio of 5- and 4-hydroxypentyl metabolites should also be considered as a useful marker for differentiating between the abuse of XLR-11 and UR-144.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-9116-1 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous method to quantify 10 bioactive compounds in Rhus verniciflua extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column under gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase solvents. The analytes were detected in the negative-ion mode using multiple-reaction monitoring detection with an electrospray ionization interface. The calibration curves for all the analytes showed good linearity (r(2) >0.997) over the concentration range of 1-1,000 ng/mL. The recovery values were within 89.53-110.14%, and the intra- and interday coefficients of variation were <4.86% for all the tested compounds. The developed method was successfully applied to a quality assessment of the R. verniciflua extract samples.
    Journal of chromatographic science 10/2015; DOI:10.1093/chromsci/bmv152 · 1.36 Impact Factor

  • European Food Research and Technology 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00217-015-2519-6 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae) is a popular folk medicine that has traditionally been used in Southeast Asia as an antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial and in antipyretic remedies. This study evaluates the effects of Eurycoma longifolia extract on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism to predict the potential for herb-drug interactions. Methanolic extract of E. longifolia root was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 µg/mL in human liver microsomes or individual recombinant CYP isozymes. The CYP inhibitory activity was measured using the cocktail probe assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. E. longifolia showed weak, concentration-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2C19. The inhibitory effects on these CYP isozymes were further tested using individual recombinant CYP isozymes, showing IC50 values of 324.9, 797.1, and 562.9 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, E. longifolia slightly inhibited the metabolic activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2C19 but this issue requires careful attention in taking herbal medicines or dietary supplements containing E. longifolia extracts.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2015; 2015(5):631329. DOI:10.1155/2015/631329 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, accurate and reproducible reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for qualitative and quantitative determination of four bioactive flavonoids (ampelopsin, taxifolin, myricetin and quercetin) from the fruit-stalk extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.5 µm) with mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid and 100% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analysis was performed using a diode array detector at 365 nm. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. Good linearity was observed over the investigated concentration range (10-500 μg/mL), with correlation coefficient values greater than 0.99. The intra- and inter-day precisions over the concentration range were <3.91% (relative standard deviation), and the accuracy was between 91.57 and 106.66%. The mean recovery for all the analytes was 100.87%. This method was successfully applied in the quality assessment of bioactive flavonoids in the fruit-stalk extract of H. dulcis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of chromatographic science 08/2015; DOI:10.1093/chromsci/bmv114 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum) is a medicinal tree popularly used in Asian countries such as China, Japan and Korea as a food additive or herbal medicine because of its beneficial effects. R. verniciflua extract (RVE) contains diverse phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, as its major biological active constituents. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of eight phenolic compounds were investigated following oral administration of RVE to rats. The eight phenolic compounds were 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, fisetin, fustin, butin, sulfuretin, taxifolin, and garbanzol. The plasma concentrations of the eight compounds were determined by using a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer before and after treatment with β-glucuronidase. When 1.5 g/kg RVE was administered, the eight compounds were all detected in plasma, mainly as conjugated forms. These pharmacokinetic data would be useful for understanding the pharmacological effects of RVE.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2015; 63(22). DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01724 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical data show that estrogen levels are inversely associated with the production of sclerostin, a Wnt antagonist that recently attracted great attention over the use of its antibody in the anabolic treatment of osteoporotic conditions. However, the molecular link between sclerostin expression and estrogen signaling is not yet known. We investigated the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates sclerostin (SOST) gene expression at the cellular level in human osteoblast cells in association with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 signaling, given that BMP2 is a potential inducer of SOST in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). 17β-estradiol (E2) alone had no effect on SOST expression, which was significantly induced by treatment with BMP2 in hMSCs and osteoblasts derived from the mandibles of female donors. However, E2 suppressed the induction of SOST and other BMP2 target genes by BMP2 in hMSCs. E2 signaling was independent of the Smad pathway, which plays a critical role in SOST induction mediated by BMP2. Instead, E2 increased the transcriptional expression of β-catenin and levels of its activated form. Silencing of the gene encoding estrogen receptor (ER)α decreased E2 activity in β-catenin activation and the suppression of SOST induction by BMP2 but had no influence on BMP2-mediated SOST induction in the same conditions. Similar results were obtained after treatment with ERα antagonist as a Wnt inhibitor. In human osteoblasts, the effect of E2 on SOST expression was either suppressive or absent, depending on the cell donor. Interestingly, the SOST expression pattern after treatment with BMP2 or BMP2/E2 in human osteoblasts showing a pattern of E2-suppression on SOST induction by BMP2 correlated with the ratio of RANKL to OPG expression. These results demonstrate that estrogen signaling in osteoblasts negatively regulates SOST expression in an indirect manner through interaction with BMP2 signaling and that this regulation involves the Wnt/ERα and β-catenin pathway. This study highlights several interactions between estrogen and BMP cascades in osteoblasts that may provide a basis for therapeutic intervention for the modification of bone mass density.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 04/2015; 21(13-14). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0585 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α,(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data was used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Separation Science 04/2015; 38(13). DOI:10.1002/jssc.201500207 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Shaheed Ur Rehman · In Sook Kim · Ki Sung Kang · Hye Hyun Yoo ·
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    ABSTRACT: An optimized, sensitive and validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection is described for simultaneous determination of esculin and its aglycone, esculetin, in rat plasma. After addition of internal standard (chrysin), plasma samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction and introduced into the HPLC system. Analytes were separated on a RP C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.075% acetic acid in water (solvent A) and 90% acetonitrile in solvent A (solvent B) using gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelength for UV detection was set at 338 nm. Calibration curves for esculin and esculetin were constructed over a range of 10-1,000 ng/mL. The developed method was found to be specific, precise and accurate. The method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of esculin and esculetin in rats. After oral administration of 120 mg/kg, the mean Cmax values were 340.3 and 316.5 ng/mL and the AUClast values were 377.3 and 1276.5 h ng/mL for esculin and esculetin, respectively. The bioavailability of esculin was calculated to be 0.62%. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of chromatographic science 02/2015; 53(8). DOI:10.1093/chromsci/bmv014 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the red ginseng-specific bioactive ginsenosides Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were selectively enriched in ginseng prepared using a steaming and drying process. To achieve a selective increase in ginsenoside Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 content, white ginsengs were steamed in a hermetically sealed container at 98 °C for 30 h, dried, and then further processed by steaming for another 30–45 h, and dried once more. The ginsenoside content of the resultant ginseng was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light scattering detector. In steamed ginsengs, polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rg1, were not present or could only be detected in negligible amounts, whereas ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were newly generated; their dry weight contents were up to 23.98, 15.01, 11.36, and 17.56 mg/g, respectively, in 75 h (30 + 45 h) steaming condition. These results indicate that the preparation method developed in the present study can selectively increase the content of the ginsenosides Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5, and therefore would be very useful for selective preparation of red ginseng-specific minor ginsenosides.
    European Food Research and Technology 01/2015; 240(1). DOI:10.1007/s00217-014-2370-1 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Physical activity (PA) tends to decline throughout the college years, and close friends’ influence is known to be an important factor in maintaining PA. This study examined the actor effect and partner effect between an individual and his/her friend regarding the influence of self-efficacy and social support on PA among Korean college students.Design and SampleCross-sectional survey data from 108 pairs of individual students and friends were analyzed.MeasuresThe survey questionnaire measured PA, self-efficacy toward exercise, social support for PA, anxiety and depression, community environments, and perceived health status. Structural equation modeling with path analysis was conducted to test Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) explaining close relationships on PA.ResultsOne-sided partner effect that friends' perceived friend support was directly related to individual's PA (β = 0.20, p < .05) was revealed. Regarding actor effects, self-efficacy was directly related to higher levels of PA for individual and friend. Perceived health status was related to higher level of individuals’ PA.Conclusions These results suggest a role for public health nurses in developing interventions for college-aged young adults that promotes friend support for PA as well as individual self-efficacy toward PA, to engage young adults in establishing lifelong health-promoting PA.
    Public Health Nursing 12/2014; 32(5). DOI:10.1111/phn.12176 · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Ming Ji Jin · In Sook Kim · Dong-Hyun Kim · Hye Hyun Yoo ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of intestinal microbiota on the metabolism of geniposide by using a rat model treated with a mixture of antibiotics. The plasma concentration of geniposide was determined after oral administration in control and antibiotics-treated rats by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of geniposide in control and antibiotics-treated rats were 0.91 ± 0.26 and 1.01 ± 0.04 μg/mL, respectively, and the area under the curve (AUC) values were 7.34 ± 3.32 and 11.9 ± 2.1 μg·h/mL (p < 0.05), respectively. The levels of geniposide in rat feces were 0.64 and 15.6 mg, respectively, in the control and antibiotics-treated groups. Thus, the systemic exposure of geniposide was greater in the antibiotics-treated rats. This may be due to the antibiotic-induced suppression of the metabolic activities of the intestinal microbiota. These results suggest that the gut microbiota may have an impact on the bioavailability of geniposide.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2014; 62(40). DOI:10.1021/jf502557f · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orally-administered drugs may be metabolized by intestinal microbial enzymes before absorption into the blood. Accordingly, co-administration of drugs affecting the metabolic activities of gut microbes (e.g. antibiotics) may lead to drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this study, gut microbiota-mediated DDI were investigated by studying the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in antibiotic-treated rats. Incubation of lovastatin with human and rat fecalase preparations produced four metabolites, M1 (demethylbutyryl metabolite), M4 (hydroxylated metabolite), M8 (the active hydroxy acid metabolite), and M9 (hydroxylated M8) indicating involvement of the gut microbiota in lovastatin metabolism. The plasma concentration-time profiles of M8 were compared after oral administration of lovastatin to control rats or those treated with either ampicillin (100 mg/kg), or an antibiotic mixture consisting of cefadroxil (150 mg/kg), oxytetracycline (300 mg/kg), and erythromycin (300 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that systemic exposure to M8 was significantly lower in antibiotic-treated rats, as compared with controls. In addition, fecal M8 formation decreased by 58.3% and 59.9% in the ampicillin- and antibiotic mixture-treated rats, respectively. These results suggested that antibiotic intake may reduce the biotransformation of orally-administered drugs by gut microbiota and that the subsequent decrease of drug absorption could induce pharmacokinetic drug interactions.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 06/2014; 42(9). DOI:10.1124/dmd.114.058354 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, gemigliptin, were examined following single oral administration of (14)C-labeled gemigliptin to rats. 2. The (14)C-labeled gemigliptin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and its bioavailability was 95.2% (by total radioactivity). Distribution to specific tissues other than the digestive organs was not observed. Within 7 days after oral administration, 43.6% of the administered dose was excreted via urine and 41.2% was excreted via feces. Biliary excretion of the radioactivity was about 17.7% for the first 24 h. After oral administration of gemigliptin to rats, the in vivo metabolism of gemigliptin was investigated with bile, urine, feces, plasma and liver samples. 3. The major metabolic pathway was hydroxylation, and the major circulating metabolites were a dehydrated metabolite (LC15-0516) and hydroxylated metabolites (LC15-0635 and LC15-0636).
    Xenobiotica 04/2014; 44(7). DOI:10.3109/00498254.2013.873156 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Myeong Hyeon Park · In Sook Kim · Mi-Sook Dong · Hye Hyun Yoo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Aromatase (CYP 19A1) is a key steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgen to estrogen. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for aromatase inhibitor screening was developed and validated. The substrate androstenedione was incubated with human CYP 19A1 supersomes in the presence of NADPH for 30 min, and estrone formation was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Cortisone was used as internal standard. The incubation mixture was extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction method with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column (3.0 × 50 mm, 2.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1 % formic acid/acetonitrile adopting gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive electrospray ionization mode. The precursor-product ion pairs used for multiple reaction monitoring were m/z 287→97 (androstenedione), m/z 271 → 159 (estrone), and m/z 361 → 163 (IS, cortisone). The developed method met the required criteria for the validation of bioanalytical methods. The validated method was successfully applied to evaluate aromatase inhibitory activity of plants extracts of Simaroubaceae.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 04/2014; 406(14). DOI:10.1007/s00216-014-7764-1 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • Soon Jung Hwang · Tae Hyung Cho · In Sook Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: Functional activation of stem cells after transplantation is a main concern in stem cell therapy. For local transplantation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are usually administered via scaffolds, either by direct implantation or after pre-culturing of cells, and it is unclear which is better for the activation of transplanted cells. In this study, we investigated the in vivo gene expression activity of human MSCs (hMSCs) transplanted into calvarial defects either directly post-seeding on collagen sponges (Group 1) or after overnight in vitro culturing post-seeding (Group 2). Real-time RT-PCR at days 7 and 14 after transplantation identified a time-dependent, rapid decrease in gene expression by the hMSCs, which in Group 1 was slightly more attenuated than in Group 2. Both groups exhibited a limited range of human-specific gene expression, which involved type I collagen (ColI), fibronectin, SDF-1 and osteoprotegerin. Among these, ColI expression was the most efficient, with higher levels in Group 1 than Group 2. There was a lack of evidence for the expression of osteoblast differentiation-related markers or trophic factors, while resident cells showed clear expression of those genes. Rat-specific β-actin expression in Group 2 was least among the scaffold control, Group 1 and Group 2, and this pattern was repeated in the expression of other rat osteogenic genes. Group 1 transplants positively influenced the osteogenic process of the defect tissue in part, and rat IGF-1 expression was significantly increased in Group 1. This tendency of gene expression by hMSCs in a rat model was very similar to what was observed in transplantations using immunodeficient mice. The current study showed that a main gene expressed by transplanted hMSCs during the initial weeks following transplantation is ColI, with a lack of differentiation-related markers or growth factor expression by hMSCs. Our data suggest that direct transplantation of hMSCs loaded on a collagen sponge is more efficient for gene activation in transplanted hMSCs, and more favorable to the local host tissue than transplantation after pre-culturing of cells.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 02/2014; 20(17-18). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0507 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhus verniciflua Stokes has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In this study, the effect of R. verniciflua extract on human aromatase (cytochrome P450 19, CYP19) activity was investigated to elucidate the mechanism for the effect of R. verniciflua extract on androgen hormone levels. Androstenedione was used as a substrate and incubated with R. verniciflua extract in cDNA-expressed CYP19 supersomes in the presence of NADPH, and estrone formation was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. R. verniciflua extract was assessed at concentrations of 10-1000μg/mL. The resulting data showed that R. verniciflua extract inhibited CYP19-mediated estrone formation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 136μg/mL. Subsequently, polyphenolic compounds from R. verniciflua extract were tested to identify the ingredients responsible for the aromatase inhibitory effects by R. verniciflua extract. As a result, butin showed aromatase inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.6μM, whereas the inhibition by other compounds was negligible. These results suggest that R. verniciflua extract could modulate androgen hormone levels via the inhibition of CYP19 activity and butin is a major ingredient responsible for this activity.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 02/2014; 24(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.02.039 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study was conducted in order to examine the level of physical activity and influencing factors in female college students. Method: Cross-sectional survey data including physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, social influences on physical activity, and perceived health status were collected from 213 subjects. Data from 204 subjects were analyzed. Results: The mean level of physical activity was 2,750.97 MET-min/week. Physical activity showed a positive association with exercise self-efficacy as well as social influences, and a negative association with age. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that physical activity among female college students was predicted by type of leisure activity, relative health status, social influences, and age. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a program for improvement of physical activity in female college students should include interesting and dynamic leisure activities and strategies for performing together with friends should be developed.
    12/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.5932/JKPHN.2013.27.3.466
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, sensitive, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of 4 bioactive phenolic compounds (gallic acid, fustin, fisetin, and sulfuretin) from the stem extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 column (150×4.6mm, 3μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and 90% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1mL/min. Quantitation was performed using a UV-vis detector at 260nm. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and recovery. Excellent linear behavior was observed over the investigated concentration range (10-500μg/mL for gallic acid, fustin, and fisetin; 0.5-100μg/mL for sulfuretin) with correlation coefficient (r(2)) values >0.99. The intra- and inter-day precision over the concentration range of compounds was less than 6.65% (relative standard deviation) and the accuracy was between 92.42% and 103.62%. The mean recoveries for all the analytes were more than 92.18%. This method was successfully applied for the analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds in the R. verniciflua extracts.
    Food Chemistry 12/2013; 141(4):3813-9. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.068 · 3.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

748 Citations
194.27 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • Hanyang University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Bioscience and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chosun University
      • Department of Nursing
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2007-2014
    • Yonsei University
      • College of Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006-2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Dental Research Institute
      • • College of Dentistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • National Institute of Health, Korea
      Seishō-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Doping Control Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Seoul National University Dental Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Chonnam National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2004-2005
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • University of Ulsan
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea