[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii raises a big therapeutic challenge in our hospital. Tigecycline, a new glycylcycline with expanded broad spectrum of activity against multi-drug resistant organisms was recently licensed in South Africa.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of tigecycline against carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex.
Consecutive clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex were collected between February and July 2010. Species identification and susceptibility testing was performed by Vitek-2 colorimetric compact system with Advanced Expert System (AES). Strains were tested for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.
A total of 232 carbapenem resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii complex were collected over the six months study period; 217 (93.5%) of these were modified Hodge test positive. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and 174 (78%) susceptible to amikacin whilst 20 (9%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. For tigecycline 169 (75.8%) were fully susceptible, 37 (16.6%) intermediately resistant and only 17 (7.6%) were fully resistant. None of the carbapenem resistant isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavullanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, cefoxitin, cefepime or nitrofurantoin.
All carbapenem resistant isolates were found to be fully susceptible to colistin; amikacin and tigecycline susceptibility was 78% and 76% respectively. Treatment options for infections due to carbapenem and multi-drug resistant A. baumannii organisms are limited and hence tigecycline and amikacin may be considered. The properties of tigecycline i.e. stability, safety, low toxicity, non cross-resistance with other antibiotics and its efficacy against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii isolates make it a good choice. However, ongoing monitoring of A. baumannii susceptibility to tigecycline is needed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunohistochemistry using an antibody to the secreted mycobacterial antigen MPT64, specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms, on formalin-fixed biopsies from patients with pleural tuberculosis (TB) from a high TB and HIV endemic area.
Pleural biopsies from 25 TB cases and 11 non-TB cases were studied. Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli and immunohistochemistry with anti-MPT64 and anti-Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) antibodies was performed. Nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) for IS6110 was performed for comparison. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in only 2 cases and 3 biopsies showed granulomas with caseous necrosis. Immunostaining with anti-MPT64, anti-BCG, and N-PCR were positive in 20 (80%), 12 (48%), and 16 (64%) of the cases, and 0, 3 (27%), and 2 (18%) of the non-TB controls, respectively. The diagnostic validity of immunohistochemistry was calculated by comparison with N-PCR-positive TB cases and N-PCR-negative non-TB controls. The sensitivity of immunohistochemistry with anti-MPT64 and anti-BCG were 81% and 56% respectively, and the corresponding specificities were 100% and 78%.
Detection of the MPT64 antigen by immunohistochemistry improves the diagnosis of TB pleuritis caused by M. tuberculosis complex organisms in patients living in HIV-endemic areas with atypical histology and negative staining for acid-fast bacilli.
Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 09/2008; 16(6):554-61. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to improve the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) based on formalin-fixed biopsies from patients living in high TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic areas. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay targeting a segment of the gene for mycobacterial 65-kd heat shock protein was developed and evaluated on pleural biopsies from 25 patients clinically diagnosed as having TB, on the basis of the good response to treatment, and from 11 controls. A nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) assay for the repetitive genetic sequence insert IS6110, common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms, was performed for comparison. When compared with N-PCR, the real-time PCR assay gave a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. When compared with clinical diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR (68% and 73%, respectively) was comparable with the sensitivity and specificity of the N-PCR assay (64% and 82%, respectively). There were no major differences in the diagnostic validity for the confirmed TB/HIV coinfected patients compared with the results from the whole TB group. In conclusion, the overall accuracy of the real-time PCR assay was comparable with that of the N-PCR and both were equally useful as diagnostic tools in the setting of a HIV coinfection. The real-time PCR has the additional advantage of a short turn-around time, low risk of sample contamination, and offers the possibility to quantify bacterial load, making it a powerful tool for the rapid diagnosis of TB pleuritis.
Diagnostic molecular pathology: the American journal of surgical pathology, part B 07/2008; 17(2):112-7. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine Deaminase Activity (ADA) is a commonly used marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. There has been concern about its usefulness in immunocompromised patients, especially HIV positive patients with very low CD4 counts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of ADA in pleural fluid in patients with low CD4 counts.
This was a retrospective case control study. Medical files of patients with tuberculous pleuritis and non-tuberculous pleuritis were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, CD4 cell counts in blood and biochemical markers in pleural fluid, including ADA were recorded.
One ninety seven tuberculous pleuritis and 40 non-tuberculous pleuritis patients were evaluated. Using the cut-off value of 30 U/L, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of ADA was 94%, 95%, 19, and 0.06 respectively. The mean CD4 cell counts among TB pleuritis patients was 29 and 153 cells/microL in patients with CD4 <50 cells/microL and >50 cells/microL, (p<0.05) respectively. The corresponding mean ADA values for these patients were 76 U/L and 72 U/L respectively (p>0.5). There was no correlation between ADA values and CD4 cell counts (r = -0.120, p = 0.369).
ADA analysis is a sensitive marker of tuberculous pleuritis even in HIV patients with very low CD4 counts in a high TB endemic region. The ADA assay is inexpensive, rapid, and simple to perform and is of great value for the immediate diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis while waiting for culture result and this has a positive impact on patient outcome.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(7):e2788. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleuritis is difficult and better diagnostic tools are needed. New blood based interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) tests are promising, but sensitivity could be low in HIV positive patients. The IFN-gamma tests have not yet been validated for use in pleural fluid, a compartment with higher level of immune activation than in blood.
The QuantiFERON TB-Gold (QFT-TB) test was analysed in blood and pleural fluid from 34 patients presenting with clinically suspected pleural TB. Clinical data, HIV status and CD4 cell counts were recorded. Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) analysis and TB culture were performed on pleural fluid.
The patients were categorised as 'confirmed TB' (n = 12), 'probable TB' (n = 16) and 'non-TB' pleuritis (n = 6) based on TB culture results and clinical and biochemical criteria. The majority of the TB patients were HIV infected (82%). The QFT-TB in pleural fluid was positive in 27% and 56% of the 'confirmed TB' and 'probable TB' cases, respectively, whereas the corresponding sensitivities in blood were 58% and 83%. Indeterminate results in blood (25%) were caused by low phytohemagglutinin (PHA = positive control) IFN-gamma responses, significantly lower in the TB patients as compared to the 'non-TB' cases (p = 0.02). Blood PHA responses correlated with CD4 cell count (r = 0.600, p = 0.028). In contrast, in pleural fluid indeterminate results (52%) were caused by high Nil (negative control) IFN-gamma responses in both TB groups. Still, the Nil IFN-gamma responses were lower than the TB antigen responses (p < 0.01), offering a conclusive test for half of the patients. We did not find any correlation between blood CD4 cell count and IFN-gamma responses in pleural fluid.
The QFT-TB test in blood could contribute to the diagnosis of TB pleuritis in the HIV positive population. Still, the number of inconclusive results is too high to recommend the commercial QFT-TB test for routine use in pleural fluid in a TB/HIV endemic resource-limited setting.