Richard J Bende

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (40)311.9 Total impact

  • Leukemia. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia in adults, is a clonal expansion of CD5+CD19+ B lymphocytes. Two types of CLLs are being distinguished as carrying either unmutated or somatically mutated immunoglobulins (Igs), which are associated with unfavorable and favorable prognoses, respectively. More than 30% of CLLs can be grouped based on their expression of stereotypic B cell receptors (BCRs), strongly suggesting that distinctive antigens are involved in the development of CLL. Unmutated CLLs, carrying Ig heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes in germline configuration, express low-affinity, poly-, and self-reactive BCRs. However, the antigenic specificity of CLLs with mutated IGHV-genes (M-CLL) remained elusive. In this study, we describe a new subset of M-CLL, expressing stereotypic BCRs highly specific for β-(1,6)-glucan, a major antigenic determinant of yeasts and filamentous fungi. β-(1,6)-glucan binding depended on both the stereotypic Ig heavy and light chains, as well as on a distinct amino acid in the IGHV-CDR3. Reversion of IGHV mutations to germline configuration reduced the affinity for β-(1,6)-glucan, indicating that these BCRs are indeed affinity-selected for their cognate antigen. Moreover, CLL cells expressing these stereotypic receptors proliferate in response to β-(1,6)-glucan. This study establishes a class of common pathogens as functional ligands for a subset of somatically mutated human B cell lymphomas.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2013; 210(1):59-70. · 13.21 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2012; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular adnexal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (OAMZLs) arise in the connective tissues of the orbit or in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the conjunctiva. Here, we present the immunological and genetic analyses of 20 primary Chlamydia psittaci (Cp)-negative OAMZLs. Analysis of the immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgV(H)) gene usage demonstrated a significant preference for V(H)4-34. A combined analysis across all previously published OAMZLs confirmed that this is a general feature of OAMZL, in particular of the Cp-negative group. Our series of OAMZLs did not express the characteristic rheumatoid factor V(H)DJ(H) rearrangements that were previously found in salivary gland- and gastric-marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs). We did not detect the MZBCL-specific chromosomal translocations, t(11;18) API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue1) and t(14;18) IgH/MALT1. Two cases contained a premature stop codon in the A20 gene (TNFAIP3) and one case harbored the activating MYD88 hotspot mutation L265P. Variable nuclear expression of BCL10, NFκB1 (p50) and NFκB2 (p52) suggests that other additional genetic abnormalities affecting the NFκB pathway exist within this group of lymphomas. OAMZL showed variable expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrin α4β7 by the tumor B cells, and low interferon-γ and interlukin-4 mRNA levels in the tissue, indicative of an inflammatory environment with features in between those previously found in cutaneous and other extranodal MZBCL. The strongly biased usage of V(H)4-34 in Cp-negative OAMZLs suggests involvement of a particular stimulatory (auto-) antigen in their development.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 02/2012; 26(7):1647-53. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • Blood 09/2010; 116(10):1818-9; author reply 1819-20. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, conflicting results were reported on the hypermutation activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) splice variants. With the generation of single point mutations, we studied the structure-function relationship of the amino acids that are commonly absent from all described splice variants. The results from this analysis pointed to several amino acids that are required for class switch recombination (CSR), without perturbing cellular localization or nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. A defect in deaminase activity was found to underlie this CSR deficiency. Interestingly, the most debilitating mutations concentrated on hydrophobic amino acids, suggesting a structural role for this part of the protein. Indeed, by generating homologous amino acid replacements, CSR activity could be restored. These results are in agreement with recent reports on the protein structure of the AID homolog APOBEC3G, suggesting a similar protein composition. In addition, the findings underscore that AID splice variants are unlikely to have preservation of catalytic activity.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2010; 184(5):2487-91. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD20 was the first B cell differentiation antigen identified, and CD20-specific mAbs are commonly used for the treatment of B cell malignancies and autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Despite this the role of CD20 in human B cell physiology has remained elusive. We describe here a juvenile patient with CD20 deficiency due to a homozygous mutation in a splice junction of the CD20 gene (also known as MS4A1) that results in "cryptic" splicing and nonfunctional mRNA species. Analysis of this patient has led us to conclude that CD20 has a central role in the generation of T cell-independent (TI) antibody responses. Key evidence to support this conclusion was provided by the observation that although antigen-independent B cells developed normally in the absence of CD20 expression, antibody formation, particularly after vaccination with TI antigens, was strongly impaired in the patient. Consistent with this, TI antipolysaccharide B cell responses were severely impeded in CD20-deficient mice. Our study therefore identifies what we believe to be a novel type of humoral immunodeficiency caused by CD20 deficiency and characterized by normal development of antigen-independent B cells, along with a reduced capacity to mount proper antibody responses.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2010; 120(1):214-22. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic autoimmune or pathogen-induced immune reactions resulting in lymphoid neogenesis are associated with development of malignant lymphomas, mostly extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs). In this review we address (i) chemokines and adhesion molecules involved in lymphoid neogenesis; (ii) the autoimmune diseases and pathogens which are associated with development of B-cell lymphomas; (iii) the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of MZBCL; and (iv) 'potential' mouse models for MZBCL.
    Haematologica 09/2009; 94(8):1109-23. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    Blood 03/2009; 113(8):1862-4; author reply 1864. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs) arise on a background of chronic inflammation resulting from organ-specific autoimmunity, infection, or by unknown causes. Well-known examples are salivary gland MZBCL in Sjögren's sialadenitis and gastric MZBCL in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. MZBCLs express CXCR3, a receptor for interferon-gamma-induced chemokines highly expressed in the chronic inflammatory environment. The immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy/light chain (IgV(H)/IgV(L)) gene repertoire of salivary gland and gastric MZBCL appears restricted and frequently encodes B-cell receptors with rheumatoid factor reactivity. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (PCMZLs) are regarded as the skin-involving counterparts of extranodal MZBCLs. Although PCMZLs have been associated with Borrelia burgdorferi dermatitis, PCMZLs generally arise because of unknown causes. We studied an extensive panel of PCMZLs and show that PCMZLs do not conform to the general profile of extranodal MZBCL. Whereas most noncutaneous MZBCLs express IgM, PCMZLs in majority express IgG, IgA, and IgE and do not show an obvious immunoglobulin repertoire bias. Furthermore, the isotype-switched PCMZLs lack CXCR3 and seem to arise in a different inflammatory environment, compared with other extranodal MZBCLs.
    Blood 09/2008; 112(8):3355-61. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignant disorder characterized by the presence of neoplastic mononucleated Hodgkin and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells. Here, we show that both the interleukin (IL)-21 receptor as well as IL-21 are expressed by HL cells. IL-21 activates signal transducer of activation and transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT5 in HL cell lines and activated human B cells. Ectopic expression of constitutively active STAT5 in primary human B cells resulted in immortalized B cells that have lost the B-cell phenotype and strongly resembled HL cells, which could partially be rescued by ectopic expression of the B cell-determining transcription factor E47. Data from experiments using reporter assays and overexpression of constitutively active IKK2 support the hypothesis that the STAT5 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathways collaborate in HL genesis.
    Blood 06/2008; 111(9):4706-15. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three patients with graft-versus-host-like enterocolonopathy are reported. Their history was remarkable for thymoma and other autoimmune manifestations such as thrombocytopenia, red cell aplasia, interface dermatitis, Sjogren sialadenits, vanishing bile ducts and rheumatoid arthritis. In all patients, microsatellite analysis showed the autologous nature of the lymphocytes in the affected organs ruling out GVHD. In search for mechanisms that could mediate loss of tolerance to self-antigens we found in a panel of thymomas, including those of the three patients, a complete lack of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) and minimal expression of the transcription factor FOXP3 in the intra-tumoral T cells. AIRE is a recently discovered transcription factor which plays a key role in the maintenance of central tolerance and is mutated in the autosomal recessive autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome APS-1. Our observations indicate that thymoma-related autoimmunity can potentially be elicited by an incomplete deletion of 'self'-specific T cells in concert with an insufficient formation of natural Tregs.
    Immunology Letters 12/2007; 114(1):31-7. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal migration trails of antigen-responsive B cells in lymphoid tissue, we analyzed immunoglobulin (Ig)M-V(H) and IgG-V(H) transcripts of germinal center (GC) samples microdissected from three reactive human lymph nodes. Single B cell clones were found in multiple GCs, one clone even in as many as 19 GCs. In several GCs, IgM and IgG variants of the same clonal origin were identified. The offspring of individual hypermutated IgG memory clones were traced in multiple GCs, indicating repeated engagement of memory B cells in GC reactions. These findings imply that recurring somatic hypermutation progressively drives the Ig repertoire of memory B cells to higher affinities and infer that transforming genetic hits in non-Ig genes during lymphomagenesis do not have to arise during a single GC passage, but can be collected during successive recall responses.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2007; 204(11):2655-65. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The initiating genetic event found in approximately 90% of FL is the t(14;18), causing constitutive expression of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 protein. The exact secondary alterations leading to full FL development are still poorly defined. In this review, we address (i) the genetic pathways associated with tumorigenesis and progression of FL, (ii) the role of micro-environmental factors with emphasis on B-cell receptor ligands and (iii) lymphoma models in mice and what they teach us about lymphomagenesis in man.
    Leukemia 02/2007; 21(1):18-29. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin genes in B cells. It has been proposed that aberrant targeting of the somatic hypermutation machinery is instrumental in initiation and progression of B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphomas. In this study, we investigated the B-cell receptor and the role of the somatic hypermutation machinery in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLL) prior to and after transformation to a lymphoma of a higher malignancy grade (Richter's transformation). We investigated the activity of the somatic hypermutation machinery in nine B-CLL and secondary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas by measuring the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, in combination with mutation analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and non-Ig genes. Furthermore, the structure of the antigen receptors of B-CLL known to have developed a Richter's syndrome (RS B-CLL) was analyzed by comparing the most variable region of the Ig, the CDR3 region, to CDR3 sequences present in GenBank. Ig variable heavy chain (IgV(H)) gene studies revealed that Richter's transformation occurs almost exclusively in unmutated B-CLL. Furthermore, activated-induced cytidine deaminase expression and somatic hypermutation activity of most RS B-CLL were found to be higher than those of control (non-transforming) B-CLL. Finally, comparison of the IgVH-CDR3 regions showed a remarkable amino acid sequence homology between two RS B-CLL of our panel and two RS B-CLL described in the literature. The combined findings suggest a role for the Ig gene diversification apparatus during Richter's transformation and show that distinct RS-B-CLL may recognize recurrent antigenic epitopes.
    Haematologica 08/2006; 91(7):903-11. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ag-specific B cell differentiation, the process that gives rise to plasma cells and memory B cells, involves the formation of germinal centers (GC). Within the GC microenvironment, multiple steps of B cell proliferation, selection, and maturation take place, which are controlled by the BCR in concert with cytokines and contact-dependent signals from follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and T cells. Signaling by the multifunctional cytokine hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor MET has been shown to induce integrin-mediated adhesion of B cells to VCAM-1, which is expressed by FDCs. In the present study we have examined the expression of regulatory components of the HGF/MET pathway, including HGF activator (HGFA), within the secondary lymphoid organ microenvironment. We show that MET is expressed by both centroblasts and plasma cells, and that HGFA is expressed by plasma cells. Because we have shown that HGF is a potent growth and survival factor for malignant plasma cells, HGF may also serve as a survival factor for normal plasma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FDCs are the major source for HGF and its activator within the GC microenvironment. Both HGF and HGFA are expressed by FDCs in the GC dark zone (CD21high/CD23low), but not in the light zone (CD21high/CD23high). These findings suggest that HGF and HGFA provided by dark zone FDCs help to regulate the proliferation, survival, and/or adhesion of MET-positive centroblasts.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2005; 175(5):2807-13. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Blood 05/2005; 105(7):2997-8; discussion 2998-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the structure of antigen receptors of a comprehensive panel of mature B non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) by comparing, at the amino acid level, their immunoglobulin (Ig)V(H)-CDR3s with CDR3 sequences present in GenBank. Follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Burkitt's lymphomas, and myelomas expressed a CDR3 repertoire comparable to that of normal B cells. Mantle cell lymphomas and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLLs) expressed clearly restricted albeit different CDR3 repertoires. Lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs) were unique as 8 out of 45 (18%) of gastric- and 13 out of 32 (41%) of salivary gland-MALT lymphomas expressed B cell antigen receptors with strong CDR3 homology to rheumatoid factors (RFs). Of note, the RF-CDR3 homology without exception included N-region-encoded residues in the hypermutated IgV(H) genes, indicating that they were stringently selected for reactivity with auto-IgG. By in vitro binding studies with 10 MALT lymphoma-derived antibodies, we showed that seven of these cases, of which four with RF-CDR3 homology, indeed possessed strong RF reactivity. Of one MALT lymphoma, functional proof for selection of subclones with high RF affinity was obtained. Interestingly, RF-CDR3 homology and t(11;18) appeared to be mutually exclusive features and RF-CDR3 homology was not encountered in any of the 19 pulmonary MALT lymphomas studied.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 05/2005; 201(8):1229-41. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin (IG) genes in B cells. It has recently been proposed that AID, as the newly identified DNA mutator in man, may be instrumental in initiation and progression of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL). We quantitatively measured, by real-time reverse-transcription PCR, expression of AID and of the error-prone DNA polymerase iota in normal B cells and a comprehensive panel of B-NHL entities. In pre- and postgerminal center (GC)-type B-NHLs like in normal naive and memory cells, AID did not exceed background levels. However, half of Burkitt lymphomas tested were found to express AID, at most at levels comparable with those found in normal GC B cells. Thirty percent of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas also transcribed AID, some at supraphysiological levels. Of follicular lymphoma cases, only 25% expressed significant amounts of AID. Moreover, within the group of GC-type B-NHLs, a statistically significant correlation between AID and polymerase iota expression was found. By contrast, we observed no correlation between AID expression and mutation load neither with the degree of intraclonal diversity of IG variable heavy chain genes. Interestingly, in two of seven follicular lymphomas with clinical and histological progression, selective outgrowth of AID-expressing clones occurred, suggestive for a role of the somatic diversification machinery in lymphoma transformation.
    Cancer Research 08/2003; 63(14):3894-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of multiple myeloma (MM) depends on complex signals from the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, supporting the proliferation and survival of malignant plasma cells. An interesting candidate signal is hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF), since its receptor Met is expressed on MM cells, while HGF is produced by BM stromal cells and by some MM cell lines, enabling para- or autocrine interaction. To explore this hypothesis, we studied the biological effects of HGF stimulation on MM cell lines and on primary MMs. We observed that Met is expressed by the majority of MM cell lines and by approximately half of the primary plasma cell neoplasms tested. Stimulation of MM cells with HGF led to the activation of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/PKB) pathways, signaling routes that have been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Indeed, functional studies demonstrated that HGF has strong proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on both MM cell lines and primary MM cells. Furthermore, by applying specific signal-transduction inhibitors, we demonstrated that MEK is required for HGF-induced proliferation, whereas activation of PI3K is required for both HGF-induced proliferation and for rescue of MM cells from apoptosis. Taken together, our data indicate that HGF is a potent myeloma growth and survival factor and suggest that the HGF/Met pathway is a potential therapeutic target in MM.
    Leukemia 05/2003; 17(4):764-74. · 10.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
311.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Pathology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1998–2008
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Pathology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Immunology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands