[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beneficial cardiac effects of some Ca(2+) channel blockers have been attributed to blood pressure reduction, but these pleiotropic effects require further investigation. We compared the effects of benidipine, which has beneficial cardiac effects, and nitrendipine, which does not, in an animal model of hypertensive diastolic heart failure (DHF).
Male Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet from age 7 weeks to induce hypertension and were either vehicle or orally administered benidipine (3 mg/kg daily) or nitrendipine (10 mg/kg daily) from age 10 to 18 weeks. Control rats were maintained on a low-salt diet. In vehicle-treated rats, left-ventricular (LV) fractional shortening was preserved but LV end-diastolic pressure was increased, indicative of DHF. Benidipine and nitrendipine had similar antihypertensive effects and reduced both LV weight and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Benidipine reduced LV diastolic stiffness and mortality to a greater extent than did nitrendipine. Benidipine, but not nitrendipine, also reduced lung weight. The extent of interstitial fibrosis and the abundance of mRNAs for prohypertrophic, profibrotic, or proinflammatory genes in the left ventricle were reduced by benidipine and nitrendipine. Benidipine, but not nitrendipine, increased capillary density and restored the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the left ventricle.
Benidipine reduced LV diastolic stiffness and increased survival, effects likely attributable predominantly to promotion of coronary angiogenesis rather than to attenuation of interstitial fibrosis. Benidipine may thus be more effective than purely L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers in preventing hypertensive DHF.
Journal of hypertension 07/2010; 28(7):1515-26. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function are common echocardiographic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it is difficult to differentiate nonobstructive HCM from hypertensive LV hypertrophy (H-LVH).
Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were performed in 14 patients with HCM, 16 patients with H-LVH, and 21 control subjects. Endomyocardial radial strain, systolic strain rate (SR), and the early diastolic SR at the posterior and septal segments of the LV short axis were calculated. Endomyocardial peak strain (epsilon) and the absolute value of peak early diastolic SR at the posterior segment were significantly smaller in patients with HCM than in those with H-LVH, whereas the thickness of the LV posterior wall did not differ between these 2 groups. Multivariate analysis of discrimination, including the ratio of interventricular septal thickness and posterior wall thickness (IVST/PWT), epsilon, and SR parameters, between HCM and H-LVH patients revealed that epsilon at the LV posterior segment was the highest discriminant parameter (discriminant coefficient: -14.6, P=0.012). The epsilon at the posterior segment significantly correlated with early diastolic mitral annular velocity.
Endomyocardial radial strain imaging may prove informative for discriminating between HCM and H-LVH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistin is a cytokine derived from adipose tissue and is implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Polymorphisms of the resistin gene (RETN) have been shown to affect the plasma resistin concentration. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms of RETN that influence plasma resistin concentration and to clarify the relation between plasma resistin level and metabolic disorders in an aged Japanese cohort.
The study participants comprised 3133 individuals recruited to a population-based prospective cohort study (KING study). Plasma resistin concentration, BMI, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations, HbA(1c) content and serum lipid profile were measured in all participants. The HOMA index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Eleven polymorphisms of RETN were genotyped.
A combination of ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis in screening and large-scale subsets of the study population revealed that plasma resistin concentration was significantly associated with rs34861192 and rs3745368 polymorphisms of RETN. Multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex also showed that the plasma resistin level was significantly associated with serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and insulin, as well as with BMI.
Our results implicate the rs34861192 and rs3745368 polymorphisms of RETN as robust and independent determinants of plasma resistin concentration in the study population. In addition, plasma resistin level was associated with dyslipidaemia, serum insulin concentration and obesity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00262691.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine has been reported to reduce the rate of new overt heart failure. We investigated the effects of nifedipine on left ventricular remodeling, oxidative stress, and gene expression in the failing heart of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. DS rats fed a high-salt diet from 7 weeks of age were treated with a non-antihypertensive (1 mg/kg per day, Nif-L) or mild-antihypertensive dose of nifedipine (3 mg/kg per day, Nif-H) or with vehicle (Vehicle) from 12 to 19 weeks. Marked left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis were apparent and the ratio of collagen type I to type III mRNA levels and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and its mRNA expression in the myocardium were increased in Vehicle at 19 weeks in comparison with Control. Load-induced left ventricular hypertrophy was reduced in Nif-H, but not in Nif-L, relative to that in Vehicle. Treatment with either dose of nifedipine reduced the extent of fibrosis, the collagen type I to type III mRNA ratio, and MMP-2 activity and its mRNA expression compared with those in Vehicle. The decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione and the increase in NADPH oxidase activity apparent in the left ventricle of Vehicle were also inhibited by nifedipine at both doses. Nifedipine thus inhibited the development of left ventricular fibrosis and diastolic heart failure in DS rats, independently of its antihypertensive effect. The overall protective action of nifedipine is likely attributable to its antioxidant effect as well as to its antihypertensive action.
European journal of pharmacology 09/2009; 615(1-3):163-70. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loop diuretics could adversely influence prognosis due to activation of neurohumoral mechanism in the long term. Previous study showed torasemide, a loop diuretic with anti-aldosteronergic properties, was associated with lower mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We evaluated the effects of torasemide, in comparison with azosemide, in patients with CHF. Patients received oral diuretic therapy with torasemide (8 mg/d, n = 15) or azosemide (60 mg/d, n = 15) for 3 months. Torasemide and azosemide were then switched, and the patients were treated for another 3 months. Torasemide treatment induced significant decreases in left ventricular (LV) systolic wall stress (from 259 ± 95 to 232 ± 80 kdyn/cm2) and the plasma level of aldosterone (from 133 ± 61 to 95 ± 50 pg/mL) and was not associated with a change in the plasma level of norepinephrine. In contrast, the plasma level of norepinephrine was significantly increased (from 370 ± 170 to 481 ± 247 pg/mL), whereas LV systolic wall stress was unchanged after azosemide treatment. This study indicates that torasemide treatment reduced LV systolic wall stress without activation of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CHF. The anti-aldosteronergic properties of torasemide may contribute to its favorable effects.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 05/2009; 53(6):468-473. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical efficacy of exercise training in individuals with heart failure is well established, but the mechanism underlying such efficacy has remained unclear. An imbalance between cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis is implicated in the transition to heart failure. We investigated the effects of exercise training on cardiac pathophysiology in hypertensive rats. Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet from 6 weeks of age were assigned to sedentary or exercise (swimming)-trained groups at 9 weeks. Exercise training attenuated the development of heart failure and increased survival, without affecting blood pressure, at 18 weeks. It also attenuated left ventricular concentricity without a reduction in left ventricular mass or impairment of cardiac function. Interstitial fibrosis was increased and myocardial capillary density was decreased in the heart of sedentary rats, and these effects were attenuated by exercise. Exercise potentiated increases in the phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin observed in the heart of sedentary rats, whereas it inhibited the downregulation of proangiogenic gene expression apparent in these animals. The abundance of the p110alpha isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was decreased, whereas those of the p110gamma isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were increased, in the heart of sedentary rats, and all of these effects were prevented by exercise. Thus, exercise training had a beneficial effect on cardiac remodeling and attenuated heart failure in hypertensive rats, with these effects likely being attributable to the attenuation of left ventricular concentricity and restoration of coronary angiogenesis through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(p110alpha)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed dobutamine stress testing for evaluation of myocardial contractile reserve in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Catecholamine sensitivity is reduced in failing hearts as a result of myocardial abnormalities in the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway. However, little is known about adrenergic myocardial contractile reserve in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with DCM.
The maximal first derivative of left ventricular pressure (LV dP/dt(max)) was determined during infusion of dobutamine (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) in 46 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (New York Heart Association functional class I or II) patients with DCM. The expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for contractile regulatory proteins in endomyocardial biopsy specimens was quantified by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Plasma norepinephrine levels were measured in all patients and [(123)I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy performed.
Patients were classified into 3 groups based on the percentage increase in LV dP/dt(max) induced by dobutamine (DeltaLV dP/dt(max)) and on LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline: group I (n = 18): DeltaLV dP/dt(max) >100% and LVEF >25%; group IIa (n = 17): DeltaLV dP/dt(max) <or=100% and LVEF > 25%; and group IIb (n = 11): DeltaLV dP/dt(max) <or=100% and LVEF <or=25%. The amounts of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, and phospholamban mRNA were significantly smaller in groups IIa and IIb than in group I. The plasma norepinephrine level was increased and the delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio in MIBG scintigraphy was decreased in both groups IIa and IIb.
Dobutamine stress testing is a useful diagnostic tool for identifying reduced adrenergic myocardial contractile reserve related to altered myocardial expression of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, and phospholamban genes even in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with DCM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Cardiac hypertrophy is common in diabetes and an independent risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality. We investigated the effects of pioglitazone on cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic signaling in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.
Methods: Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet from 7 weeks of age and treated with pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg per day) or vehicle from 7 to 11 weeks.
Results: The vehicle-treated rats developed left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The serum level of adiponectin and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the myocardium did not differ between the vehicle-treated rats and control rats maintained on a normal diet. The phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, and p70S6 kinase as well as the total protein content were increased in the heart of vehicle-treated rats compared with control rats, and these changes were blocked by treatment with pioglitazone. Pioglitazone treatment also ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, improved diastolic function, and increased both the serum adiponectin concentration and the level of AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the heart.
Conclusions: Long-term administration of pioglitazone attenuated left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as inhibited phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6 kinase in the heart of hypertensive rats. The beneficial cardiac effects of pioglitazone are likely attributable, at least partly, both to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling through stimulation of adiponectin secretion and to the inhibition of Akt signaling.
Journal of Hypertension 07/2008; 26(8):1669-1676. · 3.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elastolytic activity of cathepsins in the myocardium is implicated in hypertensive heart failure (HF). Given that reactive oxygen species are also implicated in protease activation associated with cardiac remodeling, we examined the role of the reactive oxygen species-induced cathepsin activation system in cardiac remodeling during the development of hypertensive HF. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats maintained on a high-salt diet were treated with vehicle, the cathepsin inhibitor E64d, or the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan from 12 to 19 weeks of age. Cathepsin expression and activity were increased in the left ventricle of HF rats; olmesartan inhibited these effects, restored the balance between elastin and collagen in the left ventricle, and suppressed degradation of the elastic lamina of coronary arteries of HF rats. Furthermore, olmesartan inhibited up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunits and activity as well as superoxide generation. These effects of olmesartan were mimicked by E64d and were accompanied by amelioration of cardiac fibrosis. Finally, olmesartan and apocynin reduced angiotensin II-induced increases in cathepsin mRNA and protein levels in cultured rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. These data suggest that cathepsins likely trigger and promote cardiac remodeling and that blocking the angiotensin II type 1 receptor attenuates cathepsin expression and activity by inhibiting the production of superoxide by NADPH oxidase, thereby attenuating cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2008; 173(2):358-69. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of OSAS severity and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on daytime baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were investigated in OSAS patients. Fifty-one consecutive males with OSAS and 29 age-matched healthy men underwent the Valsalva test and standard polysomnography. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >or=20 episodes per hour were randomized to receive CPAP treatment for 3 months (n=14) or no such treatment (n=19). The BRS index measured from the overshoot phase (phase IV) of the Valsalva maneuver and plasma NO concentration were significantly lower, whereas the AHI, oxygen desaturation time, arousal index, percentage of sleep stage 1, and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater, in patients with an AHI of >or=20/h than in those with an AHI of <20/h or in controls. The 24-h urinary excretion of norepinephrine was significantly reduced and the plasma NO concentration was significantly increased after one night of CPAP. The BRS index for phase IV and the Valsalva ratio were significantly increased in the CPAP group after the 3-month treatment period but remained unchanged in the non-CPAP group of OSAS patients. The daytime BRS index and NO production were thus inversely related to the severity of OSAS, and successful CPAP treatment improved these parameters in patients with moderate to severe OSAS. CPAP may therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications due to endothelial dysfunction or increased sympathetic activity.
Hypertension Research 08/2007; 30(8):669-76. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both enhanced sympathetic drive and altered autonomic control are involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which chronically enhanced sympathetic drive, in the absence of heart failure, alters reflex autonomic control in conscious, transgenic (TG) rabbits with overexpressed cardiac Gsalpha. Nine TG rabbits and seven wild-type (WT) littermates were instrumented with a left ventricular (LV) pressure micromanometer and arterial catheters and studied in the conscious state. Compared with WT rabbits, LV function was enhanced in TG rabbits, as reflected by increased levels of LV dP/dt (5,600 +/- 413 vs. 3,933 +/- 161 mmHg/s). Baseline heart rate was also higher (P < 0.05) in conscious TG (247 +/- 10 beats/min) than in WT (207 +/- 10 beats/min) rabbits and was higher in TG after muscarinic blockade (281 +/- 9 vs. 259 +/- 8 beats/min) or combined beta-adrenergic receptor and muscarinic blockade (251 +/- 6 vs. 225 +/- 9 beats/min). Bradycardia was blunted (P < 0.05), whether induced by intravenous phenylephrine (arterial baroreflex), by cigarette smoke inhalation (nasopharyngeal reflex), or by veratrine administration (Bezold-Jarisch reflex). With veratrine administration, the bradycardia was enhanced in TG for any given decrease in arterial pressure. Thus the chronically enhanced sympathetic drive in TG rabbits with overexpressed cardiac Gsalpha resulted in enhanced LV function and heart rate and impaired reflex autonomic control. The impaired reflex control was generalized, not only affecting the high-pressure arterial baroreflex but also the low-pressure Bezold-Jarisch reflex and the nasopharyngeal reflex.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although dilated cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2) with mutation of the delta-sarcoglycan gene exhibit histological features of muscular dystrophy, it remains to be elucidated whether both myocardium and skeletal muscle are injured in a similar manner.
The progression of myolysis in both myocardium and skeletal muscle were assessed biochemically and pathologically in TO-2 and F1B control hamsters. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Both the plasma concentration of cardiac troponin T and the plasma activity of alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) peaked at 8 weeks of age, and thereafter reduced greatly in TO-2 hamsters. Activity of creatine kinase (CK) in TO-2 hamsters was significantly greater than in controls throughout the observation period. Pathological findings of both nuclear chain and central nuclei in skeletal muscles were observed in TO-2 hamsters throughout the observation period, suggesting regeneration. LV dysfunction was first evident at 8 weeks of age and deteriorated thereafter in TO-2 hamsters. Treatment of TO-2 hamsters with diltiazem from 5 to 8 weeks of age could avert the LV functional deterioration and the increment in alpha-HBD activity, but CK activity was unchanged.
Despite myolysis in skeletal muscle occurring consistently throughout the observation period, cardiac myolysis occurred predominantly in the early phase. These initial cardiac events might involve coronary spasm and/or calcium overload in the myocardium.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statin therapy may be associated with lower mortality in patients with heart failure, but the underlying mechanism of such an association is unknown. We have evaluated the effects of pitavastatin on cardiac function and survival in a rat model of hypertensive heart failure and investigated the molecular mechanism of the observed effects. Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed with high-salt diet from 7 weeks of age developed compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy at 12 weeks and heart failure at 19 weeks. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were treated with either vehicle or pitavastatin (0.3 mg/kg per day) from 7 or 12 weeks. Both early-onset and late-onset pitavastatin treatment reduced left ventricular fibrosis, improved cardiac function, and increased the survival rate apparent at 19 weeks. The increases in the expression levels of hypertrophic, profibrotic, and metalloproteinase genes as well as in gelatinase activities in the heart induced by the high-salt diet were suppressed by pitavastatin treatment. Furthermore, the level of cardiac endothelin-1 was increased in association with the development of heart failure in a manner sensitive to treatment with pitavastatin. Both early and late pitavastatin treatment thus improved cardiac function and survival, with modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling and endothelin-1 signaling possibly contributing to these beneficial effects.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 07/2006; 47(6):770-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We overexpressed cardiac Gsalpha in rabbits using the beta-myosin heavy chain promoter. Gsalpha protein levels in the heart were increased 3-fold by Western blotting in both juvenile (3-4 months), adult (8-10 months), and older (11-16 months) rabbits, compared with wild type (WT) littermates. In transgenic (TG) rabbits, baseline levels of heart rate were elevated, P<0.05 (268+/-17 vs. 209+/-15 beats/min), as well as left ventricular (LV) contractility (LV dP/dt 5475+/-482 vs. 3740+/-246 mm Hg/s). These values and LV ejection fraction remained significantly elevated in older TG rabbits (11-16 months). However, maximal levels of LV dP/dt and heart rate with a high dose of isoproterenol (0.4 microg/kg/min) were similar in adult TG and WT rabbits. In isolated myocytes from the LV of adult rabbits, baseline percent contraction was increased, P<0.05, in TG (11.2+/-0.5%) compared to WT (9.3+/-0.5%), while maximal responses to isoproterenol (100 nM) were similar in adult TG (16.2+/-0.5%) and WT myocytes (15.6+/-0.4%). Although TG mice with overexpressed cardiac Gsalpha develop cardiomyopathy at 8-12 months of age, even at 16 months of age, there was no evidence of cardiomyopathy either in terms of LV function or histology in TG rabbits. In addition, Gialpha was elevated in the LV of adult (8-10 months old) TG rabbits compared to WT, but not in juvenile (3-5 months old) TG rabbits. Although both TG mice and rabbits with overexpressed cardiac Gsalpha exhibited enhanced heart rate and contractility, the TG rabbit does not develop cardiomyopathy, potentially due to a compensatory increase in Gialpha.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2006; 41(1):44-50. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between the occurrence of pacing-induced mechanical alternans and prognosis in patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) in sinus rhythm was investigated prospectively. The myocardial expression of genes for Ca2+-handling proteins in such patients was also examined.
Mechanical alternans occurs in some patients with severe heart failure, but the relation between the occurrence of mechanical alternans and prognosis in patients with IDCM has remained unknown.
Left ventricular (LV) pressure was measured during atrial pacing, and LV endomyocardial biopsy specimens were collected in 36 IDCM patients and 8 controls. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients were divided into two groups consisting of 22 individuals who did not develop mechanical alternans at heart rates up to 140 beats/min (group A) and of 14 individuals who did (group B). The patients were followed up for a mean of 3.7 years.
There was no significant difference in LV ejection fraction or the plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide between groups A and B. The myocardial abundance of ryanodine receptor 2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was significantly lower in groups A and B than in controls, whereas that of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase mRNA was significantly lower in group B than in group A or controls. Stepwise multivariate analysis identified pacing-induced mechanical alternans as the strongest predictor of cardiac events. Event-free survival in group A was significantly greater than that in group B.
The occurrence of pacing-induced mechanical alternans is a potentially useful indicator of poor prognosis in patients with mild-to-moderate IDCM in sinus rhythm.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2006; 47(7):1382-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) findings and myocardial contractile reserve in patients with mild to moderate dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Little is known regarding the relationship between cardiac sympathetic nervous function and myocardial contractile reserve in DCM.
Twenty-four DCM patients who showed sinus rhythm underwent echocardiography, biventricular catheterization, and myocardial 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) pressures were measured using a micromanometer-tipped catheter. The myocardial contractile function (LV dP/dt(max)) was determined at rest and during atrial pacing. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions of intracellular Ca2+-regulatory proteins were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Myocardial 123I-MIBG accumulation was quantified as a heart-mediastinum ratio (HMR).
A significant correlation was observed between the delayed 123I-MIBG HMR and the percentage change in LV dP/dt(max) from the baseline to the peak or critical heart rate (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). The delayed 123I-MIBG HMR was significantly lower in patients showing a worsening change in LV dP/dt(max) than in those showing a favorable change (p < 0.005). The maximum LV dP/dt(max) during pacing and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) mRNA levels were significantly more reduced in patients with a delayed HMR < or =1.8 than in those with a delayed HMR >1.8 (p < 0.05, respectively).
Abnormal myocardial 123I-MIBG accumulation is related to an impaired myocardial contractile reserve and down-regulation of SERCA2 mRNA in DCM. Myocardial 123I-MIBG scintigraphy can be useful in noninvasively evaluating myocardial contractile reserve in patients with mild to moderate DCM.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2005; 46(11):2061-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relation between left ventricular (LV) functional reserve in response to exercise and cardiac sympathetic nervous function in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We investigated whether an assessment of cardiac sympathetic nervous function by myocardial (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy might provide a sign of an abnormal LV functional reserve in response to exercise-induced beta-adrenergic stimulation in patients with HCM.
Thirty HCM patients underwent (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and echocardiography at rest and subsequent biventricular cardiac catheterization at rest and during dynamic exercise. LV pressures were measured using a micromanometer-tipped catheter system. The early and delayed (123)I-MIBG images were quantified as a heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M). The plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and norepinephrine (NE) were also measured.
Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the delayed (123)I-MIBG H/M: group I consisted of 12 patients with a delayed H/M of < or =1.8 and group II had 18 patients with a delayed H/M of >1.8. Both the percentage increase from rest to exercise in LV isovolumic contraction (LV dP/dt(max)) and the percentage shortening of LV pressure half-time (T(1/2)) as an index of isovolumic relaxation were significantly less in group I than in group II (P < 0.05, respectively). A significant linear correlation was observed between the percentage increase in LV dP/dt(max) and (123)I-MIBG H/Ms (early H/M: r = 0.49, P < 0.01; delayed H/M: r = 0.54, P < 0.005, respectively). A significant linear correlation was also observed between the percentage shortening in T(1/2) and (123)I-MIBG H/Ms (early H/M: r = 0.58, P < 0.001; delayed H/M: r = 0.64, P < 0.0005, respectively). The plasma NE levels were significantly higher in group I than in group II (P < 0.01), whereas the plasma BNP levels were comparable in the 2 HCM groups.
beta-Adrenergic enhancement of LV function during exercise may depend on the extent of cardiac sympathetic nervous innervation in HCM patients. Resting myocardial (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy can noninvasively evaluate LV functional reserve in response to exercise in patients with nonobstructive HCM.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2005; 46(6):909-16. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between enhanced myocardial oxidative stress and impaired beta-adrenergic signaling remains to be characterized during the development of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and beta-adrenergic signaling, as well as left ventricular (LV) functional and structural changes, were evaluated during the development of cardiomyopathy in TO-2 hamsters; F1B hamsters served as controls. LV dysfunction was first apparent at 8 weeks of age and deteriorated thereafter in the TO-2 hamsters. At 32 weeks, the animals exhibited heart failure with an increased plasma norepinephrine concentration. Cardiac myolysis, as demonstrated by elevated plasma concentration of cardiac troponin T, peaked at 8 weeks. The glutathione redox ratio revealed increased oxidative stress in the LV myocardium in TO-2 hamsters even at 4 weeks and became manifest after 8 weeks. The hearts of TO-2 hamsters had significantly reduced superoxide dismutase activity from 8 weeks onward compared with control hamsters. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was unchanged at any time point. The LV functional response to isoproterenol was markedly reduced at 8 weeks, without any apparent changes in the amount of beta-adrenergic signaling molecules, and it deteriorated thereafter. Adenylyl cyclase activity was significantly decreased, despite increased amounts of both G(s) alpha mRNA and protein, in the LV myocardium at 18 weeks.
Myocardial oxidative stress is actually enhanced in the initial development of LV dysfunction. Both activation of myocardial oxidative stress and impairment of beta-adrenergic signaling become prominent at the stage of severe LV dysfunction. Myocardial oxidative stress may be involved in the development of beta-adrenergic desensitization.