[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspases are key effectors of programmed cell death. Down- and up-regulation of their activity are involved in different pathologies. In most cells, zVAD-fmk prevents apoptosis. However, unexpected effects of zVAD-fmk have been characterized in different laboratories, cell models and cell death processes. We have previously shown that zVAD-fmk accelerates p53-dependent apoptosis in rat embryonic fibroblasts. In this study, we pursued our investigations on zVAD-fmk effects and focused our study at the mitochondrial level in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In both primary and immortalized (by AgT or 3T9 protocol) MEFs, zVAD-fmk increased etoposide-induced loss of ΔΨm. This increase correlated with an increase of the number of apoptotic cells in primary and 3T9 MEFs, but did not in AgT MEFs. In both types of immortalized MEFs, zVAD-fmk regulated neither p53 levels nor transcriptional activities, suggesting that zVAD-fmk acts downstream of p53. In MEFs, zVAD-fmk increased p53-dependent loss of ΔΨm, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activity. Indeed, zVAD-fmk inhibited effector caspases (caspases-3, -6, -7) as expected but increased caspase-9 cleavage and activity in etoposide-treated MEFs. Q-VD-OPh, another caspase inhibitor, also increased both loss of ΔΨm and caspase-9 cleavage in etoposide-treated MEFs. Invalidation of bax and bak suppressed p53-dependent cell death and zVAD-fmk regulation of this process. Invalidation of caspase-9 did not inhibit mitochondrial membrane depolarization but suppressed zVAD-fmk amplification of this process. Altogether, our data suggest that caspase-9 activity is up-regulated by zVAD-fmk and is involved in an amplification loop of etoposide-induced cell death at the mitochondrial level in MEFs.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2012; 1823(8):1343-52. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian olfactory mucosa (OM) is continually renewed throughout life. Owing to their position in the nasal cavity, OM cells are exposed to multiple insults, including high levels of odourants that can induce their death. OM regeneration is therefore essential to maintain olfactory function, and requires the tight control of both cell death and proliferation. Apoptosis has been implicated in OM cell death. Olfaction is one of the senses involved in food intake and depends on individual nutritional status. We have previously reported the influence of hormones related to nutritional status on odour perception and have shown that the OM is a target of insulin and leptin, two hormones known for their anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential anti-apoptotic effect of these metabolic hormones on OM cells. Both Odora cells (an olfactive cell line) and OM cells treated with etoposide, a p53 activity inducer, exhibited mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis that was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Insulin, but not leptin, impaired this apoptotic effect. Insulin addition to the culture medium reduced p53 phosphorylation, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage, and caspase-3 enzymatic activity induced by etoposide. The apoptotic wave observed in the OM after interruption of the neuronal connections between the OM and the olfactory bulb by bulbectomy was impaired by intranasal insulin treatment. These findings suggest that insulin may be involved in OM cellular dynamics, through endocrine and/or paracrine-autocrine effects of circulating or local insulin, respectively.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology 07/2011; 23(7):627-40. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a differentiation and survival factor for neuronal cells both in vitro and in vivo. FGF1 activities can be mediated not only by paracrine and autocrine pathways involving FGF receptors but also by an intracrine pathway, which is an underestimated mode of action. Indeed, FGF1 lacks a secretion signal peptide and contains a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is consistent with its usual intracellular and nuclear localization. To progress in the comprehension of the FGF1 intracrine pathway in neuronal cells, we examined the role of the nuclear translocation of FGF1 for its neurotrophic activity as well as for its protective activity against p53-dependent apoptosis. Thus, we have transfected PC12 cells with different FGF1 expression vectors encoding wild type or mutant (Delta NLS) FGF1. This deletion inhibited both FGF1 nuclear translocation and FGF1 neurotrophic activity (including differentiation and serum-free cell survival). We also show that endogenous FGF1 protection of PC12 cells against p53-dependent cell death requires FGF1 nuclear translocation. Strikingly, wild type FGF1 is found interacting with p53, in contrast to the mutant FGF1 deleted of its NLS, suggesting the presence of direct and/or indirect interactions between FGF1 and p53 pathways. Thus, we present evidences that FGF1 may act by a nuclear pathway to induce neuronal differentiation and to protect the cells from apoptosis whether cell death is induced by serum depletion or p53 activation.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2009; 1793(11):1719-27. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 protein plays a central role in suppressing tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Emerging publications suggest that following stress, a fraction of p53 translocates to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, the localization of p53 under unstressed conditions remains largely unexplored. Here we show that p53 is localized at mitochondria in absence of apoptotic stimuli, when cells are proliferating, localization observed in various cell types (rodent and human). This is also supported by acellular assays in which p53 bind strongly to mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Furthermore, the mitochondria subfractionation study and the alkaline treatment of the mitochondrial p53 revealed that the majority of mitochondrial p53 is present in the membranous compartments. Finally, we identified VDAC, a protein of the mitochondrial outer-membrane, as a putative partner of p53 in unstressed/proliferative cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2009; 387(4):772-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retinoblastoma protein (Rb) plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. In cancer cells, ablation of Rb function or its pathway is a consequence of genetic inactivation, viral oncoprotein binding or deregulated hyperphosphorylation. Some recent data suggest that Rb relocation could also account for the regulation of its tumor suppressor activity, as is the case for other tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53.
In this reported study, we present evidence that a fraction of the total amount of Rb protein can localize to the mitochondria in proliferative cells taken from both rodent and human cells. This result is also supported by the use of Rb siRNAs, which substantially reduced the amount of mitochondrial Rb, and by acellular assays, in which [35S]-Methionine-labeled Rb proteins bind strongly to mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Moreover, endogenous Rb is found in an internal compartment of the mitochondria, within the inner-membrane. This is consistent with the protection of Rb from alkaline treatment, which destroys any interaction of proteins that are weakly bound to mitochondria.
Although a few data regarding an unspecific cytosolic localization of Rb protein have been reported for some tumor cells, our results are the first evidence of a mitochondrial localization of Rb. The mitochondrial localization of Rb is observed in parallel with its classic nuclear location and paves the way for the study of potential as-yet-unknown roles of Rb at this site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin currently detected in stored animal and human food supplies as well as in human sera worldwide. OTA has diverse toxicological effects; however, the most prominent one is the nephrotoxicity. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of OTA toxicity in cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. With this aim, we have monitored the effects of OTA on (i) cell viability, (ii) heat shock protein expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage, and (iv) cell death signaling pathway. Our results clearly showed that OTA treatment inhibits cell proliferation, downregulates Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 protein and mRNA levels, and did not induce a significant reactive oxygen species generation. We have also demonstrated a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, a cytochrome c release, and an activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in response to OTA exposure. Moreover, OTA activates p53 expression, while some of its transcriptional target genes (Bax, Bak, PUMA, and p21) were found to downregulate. According to these data, we concluded that OTA may exert an inhibitory action on the transcriptional process. Besides, oxidative damage is not a major contributor to OTA toxicity. This mycotoxin induces a mitochondrial and caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death, which seems to be mediated by p53 transcriptional independent activities.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 05/2009; 23(2):87-96. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The survival activity of FGF1 and the pro-apoptotic activity of p53 were characterized in vitro and/or in vivo for different types of neurons after different stresses and in different neurodegenerative pathologies. To investigate whether or not FGF1 and p53 pathways interact in neuronal cells, we studied the effect of FGF1 on p53-dependent apoptosis in PC12 cells. We first characterized p53-dependent PC12 cell death induced by etoposide (a DNA damaging agent). We showed that etoposide increased p53 stabilization, phosphorylation (Ser-15), nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. In particular, p53 promoted mdm2, p21, puma and noxa expression in PC12 cells. The activation of p53 initiated a classical mitochondrial apoptosis process associated with caspases activation and nuclear degradation. We demonstrated that FGF1 protected PC12 cells from p53-dependent apoptosis upstream from mitochondrial and nuclear events. FGF1 inhibited etoposide-induced p53 phosphorylation, stabilization, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. This study presents the first evidence that FGF1 and p53 pathways interact in neuronal cells, and that FGF1 protects neuronal cells from p53-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that alterations of FGF1/p53 crosstalk could be involved in a large range of neurons and in neurological disorders.