C Michael Robinson

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (21)59.74 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerebral emboli have been detected during intramedullary orthopaedic procedures. The quantity of emboli produced and their clinical effects are currently not known. This study aimed to quantify the intra-operative cerebral embolic load using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during the intramedullary stabilisation of femoral and tibial diaphyseal fractures. Clinical cognitive function was also assessed after surgery and any relationship to the cerebral embolic load determined. Prospective cohort study of 20 patients with femoral or tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nailing. The intra-operative cerebral embolic load was measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound of the middle meningeal artery. Cognitive function was assessed 3 days after surgery using a range of validated neuropsychological tests. The cognitive results were compared to predicted scores matched for age and intelligence quotient as is the standard method of cognitive assessment after trauma. Four patients had detectable cerebral emboli with counts of only 2, 3, 3, and 9 respectively. A significantly poorer than predicted cognitive score occurred in immediate and delayed memory recall tests. However there was no significant difference in any cognitive function score between those patients who had detectable cerebral emboli and those who did not. Small numbers of cerebral emboli were detected during intramedullary stabilisation of lower limb long bone fractures but with no apparent cognitive effect. This poor correlation is similar to recent studies performed on arthroplasty patients and also conforms to the extensive cardiac surgery literature which would indicate that such low levels of systemic embolisation are unlikely to consistently produce cerebral clinical effects.
    Injury 05/2009; 40(7):742-5. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • C Michael Robinson, Kar H Teoh, Alex Baker, Lawrence Bell
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    ABSTRACT: Fractures of the lesser tuberosity are rare injuries, and little is known of their epidemiology. Operative treatment is generally recommended for displaced fractures; however, the outcome of this method of treatment has not previously been studied. The aims of our study were to determine the approximate incidence of lesser tuberosity fractures, as well as the functional outcome following operative treatment in a consecutive series of patients. Over an eight-year period, we studied the demographic details of a consecutive series of twenty-two adult patients who had a fracture of the lesser tuberosity. We used age and sex-specific local census data to estimate the annual incidence of this injury in our local population. Seventeen of the original cohort of twenty-two patients, who were medically fit and had a displaced (two-part) fracture, were treated with open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. We assessed the outcome using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) general health measure, the Constant score, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score. The estimated annual incidence of these fractures was low at 0.46 per 100,000 population per year during the study period. There were fifteen men and seven women, with a median age of forty-three years. There was an even distribution of fractures across the age cohorts, and most fractures were sustained from a high-energy transfer mechanism. The median Constant score was 95 points at two years, and the median DASH score was 12 points at two years after the injury. Most patients regained nearly normal range of motion in the affected shoulder by three months. One patient had development of posttraumatic shoulder stiffness, which responded to arthroscopic release. All patients who were in regular employment prior to the injury returned to their jobs within six months. There were no significant differences between each component of the SF-36 at two years compared with age and sex-matched controls. A lesser tuberosity fracture, without an associated humeral head or greater tuberosity fracture, is a rare injury. Open reduction and internal fixation provides excellent restoration of function and range of shoulder movement, with a low risk of complications.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/2009; 91(3):512-20. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Undisplaced fractures of both the diaphysis and the lateral end of the clavicle have a high rate of union, and the functional outcomes are good after nonoperative treatment. Nonoperative treatment of displaced shaft fractures may be associated with a higher rate of nonunion and functional deficits than previously reported. However, it remains difficult to predict which patients will have these complications. Since a satisfactory functional outcome may be obtained after operative treatment of a clavicular nonunion or malunion, there is currently considerable debate about the benefits of primary operative treatment of these injuries. Displaced lateral-end fractures have a higher risk of nonunion after nonoperative treatment than do shaft fractures. However, nonunion is difficult to predict and may be asymptomatic in elderly individuals. The results of operative treatment are more unpredictable than they are for shaft fractures.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 03/2009; 91(2):447-60. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extended deltoid-splitting approach was developed as an alternative to the deltopectoral approach in the treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. The aim of our prospective study was to determine whether this approach was associated with evidence of nerve injury, functional deficits or other complications in these cases, during the first year following reconstruction. Over a 1-year-period, we treated 14 people (median age 59 years) with open reduction and plate fixation using the extended deltoid-splitting approach. All were prospectively reviewed clinically and radiologically during the first year after surgery. Functional testing involved three scoring systems, spring balance testing of deltoid power, dynamic muscle function testing and, at 1 year, electrophysiological assessment of axillary nerve function. Of the 14 fractures, 13 united without complications and with comparatively minor residual functional deficits. Of these 13 cases, 1 showed slight neurogenic change in the anterior deltoid but no evidence of anterior deltoid paralysis. In the remaining case, osteonecrosis of the humeral head developed 9 months after surgery and functional scores were poor, but without evidence of nerve injury on electrophysiological testing. This technique is a useful alternative in the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures, providing good access for reduction and implant placement without adverse effects.
    Injury 01/2009; 40(2):181-5. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Paul J Jenkins, Kate Slade, James S Huntley, C Michael Robinson
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical examination of suspected scaphoid fractures is sensitive, but not specific, and initial plain radiographs lack sensitivity. A variety of second-line imaging techniques have been proposed to improve immediate diagnosis and reduce overtreatment. Different sample populations and methods of reporting test performance have made side-by-side comparison difficult. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of clinically suspected scaphoid fracture and determine the prevalence of true fracture. These data are used to compare second-line imaging techniques in our population. 200 consecutive patients attending a trauma service with clinically suspected scaphoid fracture were followed through diagnosis to discharge. The prevalence of true fracture was 16% and was associated with male sex and injury playing sport. Magnetic resonance imaging has the best diagnostic performance, with the added benefit of soft tissue evaluation, but was the most expensive option. Ultrasound examination was least effective in detecting true fractures. Future studies should further evaluate the clinical and economic sequelae of overtreatment of suspected fractures. Clinicians should examine alternatives to "empirical" treatment without definite diagnosis based on their local facilities and patient demographics.
    Injury 08/2008; 39(7):768-74. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint in younger patients is associated with a high risk of recurrence and persistent functional deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a primary arthroscopic Bankart repair, while controlling for the therapeutic effects produced by the arthroscopic intervention and joint lavage. In a single-center, double-blind clinical trial, eighty-eight adult patients under thirty-five years of age who had sustained a primary anterior glenohumeral dislocation were randomized to receive either an arthroscopic examination and joint lavage alone or together with an anatomic repair of the Bankart lesion. Assessment of the rate of recurrent instability, functional outcome (with use of three scores), range of movement, patient satisfaction, direct health-service costs, and treatment complications was completed for eighty-four of these patients (forty-two in each group) during the subsequent two years. In the two years after the primary dislocation, the risk of a further dislocation was reduced by 76% and the risk of all recurrent instability was reduced by 82% in the Bankart repair group compared with the group that had arthroscopy and lavage alone. The functional scores were also better (p < 0.05), the treatment costs were lower (p = 0.012), and patient satisfaction was higher (p < 0.001) after arthroscopic repair. The improved functional outcome appeared to be mediated through the prevention of instability since the functional outcome in patients with stable shoulders was similar, irrespective of the initial treatment allocation. The patients who had a Bankart repair and played contact sports were also more likely to have returned to their sport at two years (relative risk = 3.4, p = 0.007). Following a first-time anterior dislocation of the shoulder, there is a marked treatment benefit from primary arthroscopic repair of a Bankart lesion, which is distinct from the so-called background therapeutic effect of the arthroscopic examination and lavage of the joint. However, primary repair does not appear to confer a functional benefit to patients with a stable shoulder at two years after the dislocation.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2008; 90(4):708-21. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Martin J Mitchell, Andrew C Gray, C Michael Robinson
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 01/2008; 17(2):e1-3. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • C Michael Robinson, Lukman Khan, Adeel Akhtar, Roger Whittaker
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    ABSTRACT: The recent technological developments in implant design and the wider availability of bone graft substitutes have stimulated a renaissance in the operative treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures. However, one of the remaining problems of the operative treatment of these injuries has been the limited surgical access to the posterior aspect of the shoulder afforded by the deltopectoral approach. In this article, we describe a novel extended deltoid-splitting approach, in which the area traversed by the axillary nerve is identified and protected during the surgery. We feel that this approach provides enhanced surgical exposure and offers a useful alternative to the deltopectoral approach in the operative treatment of 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 11/2007; 21(9):657-62. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    C Michael Robinson, Adeel Akhtar, Martin Mitchell, Cole Beavis
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    ABSTRACT: Complex posterior fracture-dislocations of the shoulder are rare and often associated with poor long-term function regardless of the choice of treatment. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology and pathological anatomy of posterior fracture-dislocations of the shoulder and to assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a specific treatment protocol of open reduction and internal fixation. We studied the demographic details of a consecutive series of twenty-six patients (twenty-eight shoulders in nineteen men and seven women with a mean age of fifty-three years) who sustained acute posterior dislocation of the humeral head with an associated Neer two, three, or four-part fracture. We used age and gender-specific local census data to assess the incidence of injury in our local population. All patients were treated by open relocation of the humeral head, bone-grafting of humeral head defects if they were causing residual shoulder instability, and internal fixation of the fracture. We recorded the prevalence of fracture complications that were clinically and radiographically apparent and assessed the functional outcome using three validated scoring systems (the Short Form-36 general health measure, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, and the Constant score). The overall incidence of posterior fracture-dislocations was 0.6 per 100,000 population per year. The peak incidence was in middle-aged men, and most injuries were sustained during a seizure or a fall from a height. In all patients, there was a displaced primary fracture of the anatomic neck of the humerus, propagating from the area of an osteochondral fracture of the anterior aspect of the humeral head (a reverse Hill-Sachs lesion). We recognized three subtypes determined by the extent of the secondary fracture lines. At two years after surgery, the median Constant score was 83.5 points and the median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 17.5 points. The eight components of the Short Form-36 score were not significantly different from those of age and sex-matched controls at two years. Acute complex posterior fracture-dislocations of the shoulder are rare, but they occur in patients who are younger than the majority of other patients who sustain a proximal humeral fracture. The use of open reduction and internal fixation to treat these fractures is associated with a relatively low risk of postoperative complications, and the functional outcome is generally favorable.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2007; 89(7):1454-66. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2007; 89(5):1092-6. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and risk factors for recurrent instability and functional impairment following a primary glenohumeral dislocation remain poorly defined in younger patients. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate these outcomes. We also aimed to produce guidelines for the design of future clinical trials, assessing the efficacy of interventions designed to improve the outcome after a primary dislocation. We performed a prospective cohort study of 252 patients ranging from fifteen to thirty-five years old who sustained an anterior glenohumeral dislocation and were treated with sling immobilization, followed by a physical therapy program. Patients received regular clinical follow-up to assess whether recurrent instability had developed. Functional assessments were made and were compared for two subgroups: those who had not had instability develop and those who had received operative stabilization to treat recurrent instability. On survival analysis, instability developed in 55.7% of the shoulders within the first two years after the primary dislocation and increased to 66.8% by the fifth year. The younger male patients were most at risk of instability, and 86.7% of all of the patients known to have recurrent instability had this complication develop within the first two years. A small but measurable degree of functional impairment was present at two years after the initial dislocation in most patients. Sample-size calculations revealed that a relatively small number of patients with a primary dislocation would be required in future clinical trials examining the effects of interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of recurrent instability and improve the functional outcome. Recurrent instability and deficits of shoulder function are common after primary nonoperative treatment of an anterior shoulder dislocation. There is substantial variation in the risk of instability, with younger males having the highest risk and females having a much lower risk. Future clinical trials to evaluate primary interventions should evaluate the prevalence of recurrent instability and functional deficits, with use of an assessment tool specifically for shoulder instability, during the first two years after the initial dislocation.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 12/2006; 88(11):2326-36. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    C Michael Robinson, S Houshian, L A K Khan
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    ABSTRACT: Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur that are caused by low-energy trauma are less common than other proximal femoral fractures, but they occur in a similar population of elderly individuals, who are often socially dependent and medically frail. Although a wide range of operative techniques have been used, cephalomedullary nailing theoretically provides the most minimally invasive and biomechanically stable means of treating these complex fractures. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the functional outcome and perioperative complications associated with the use of a trochanteric-entry cephalomedullary nail to treat all low-energy subtrochanteric fractures that were seen at a single institution. Over an eight-year period, we used the long Gamma nail to treat a consecutive series of 302 local patients who had sustained a subtrochanteric fracture during low-energy trauma. The mortality, prevalence of complications, and functional outcome were prospectively assessed during the first year after the injury. Survival analysis was used to assess the rates of reoperation and implant revision during the first year after surgery. At one year, seventy-four (24.5%) of the original 302 patients had died and seventeen (5.6%) had been lost to follow-up. The remaining 211 patients (69.9%) were evaluated with regard to the functional outcome and postoperative complications during the first year after the injury. As with other proximal femoral fractures in the elderly, there was an increased level of social dependence, an increase in the use of walking aids, and a reduction in mobility among survivors. Although eighty-eight (41.7%) of the 211 patients who were evaluated at one year after the injury had some degree of hip discomfort, only two described the pain as severe and disabling. Reoperation for the treatment of implant or fracture-related complications was required in twenty-seven (8.9%) of the 302 patients; however, only eighteen of these patients required nail revision, corresponding with a one-year nail-revision rate of 7.1% (95% confidence interval, 4.0% to 10.2%) on survival analysis. Of the 250 patients who survived for six months after the injury, five (2%) had a nonunion that was confirmed at the time of surgical exploration. Complications related to the proximal lag screw were seen in twelve of the original 302 patients, and a fracture distal to the tip of the nail occurred in five. Although superficial wound infection was relatively common, deep infection occurred in only five of the 302 patients. Subtrochanteric fractures caused by low-energy trauma are similar to other proximal femoral fractures, with a high mortality rate during the first year after the injury. Trochanteric-entry cephalomedullary nails are associated with an acceptable rate of perioperative complications and favorable functional outcomes. Therapeutic Level IV.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 11/2005; 87(10):2217-26. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    C Michael Robinson, Joseph Aderinto
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent posterior shoulder instability is an uncommon, debilitating condition in young adults that is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Although a number of predisposing factors have been identified, their relative importance remains poorly understood. Poor results have been reported following operative intervention to treat recurrent posterior instability with nonanatomic techniques. The more recent development of lesion-specific surgery has improved clinical results, particularly when that surgery has been performed arthroscopically. Operative treatment is therefore being increasingly recommended at an earlier stage to patients who do not respond to supervised rehabilitation programs.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2005; 87(4):883-92. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • C Michael Robinson, Joseph Aderinto
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    ABSTRACT: Posterior shoulder dislocations and fracture-dislocations are uncommon injuries that most often occur during seizures or as a result of high-energy trauma. Despite advances in imaging, they are frequently diagnosed late. Detection is facilitated by heightened clinical suspicion of the injury in high-risk individuals together with appropriate radiographic investigation. A wide variety of operative techniques, ranging from simple closed reduction to soft-tissue and bone stabilization procedures to prosthetic arthroplasty, are available to treat these injuries. Selection of the most appropriate treatment option is complex and multifactorial. Because of the rarity of these injuries, evidence-based treatment protocols are difficult to devise. Good functional outcomes are associated with early detection and treatment of isolated posterior dislocations that are associated with a small osseous defect and are stable following closed reduction. Poor prognostic factors include late diagnosis, a large anterior defect in the humeral head, deformity or arthrosis of the humeral head, an associated fracture of the proximal part of the humerus, and the need for an arthroplasty.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/2005; 87(3):639-50. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although adult respiratory distress syndrome is an important early complication of blunt trauma, the epidemiology and risk factors for its development remain poorly defined. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and demographics of this complication in a prospective cohort series of patients admitted to the hospital following injury. We also assessed the contribution of the severity and pattern of the injury to the risk of this complication developing. By identifying factors associated with the highest risk of the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome, we aimed to produce guidelines to facilitate earlier detection. We prospectively studied 7192 patients admitted to a single university hospital, over an eight-year period, for treatment of a traumatic injury. With the exception of patients who had sustained a hip fracture or who had been discharged within seventy-two hours after admission, all patients who required hospital admission following trauma, were older than thirteen years of age, and were a resident within the catchment area were included in the analysis. The prevalence and demographics of posttraumatic adult respiratory distress syndrome were identified for patients who had sustained musculoskeletal, thoracic, abdominal, and head injuries, either in isolation or in combination. The relative risks of this condition developing were calculated according to the injury pattern. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the most highly significant predictors of the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome. Adult respiratory distress syndrome developed in thirty-six (0.5%) of the patients. The prevalence was significantly higher among younger patients (p = 0.002), and 83% of the cases followed high-energy trauma. The prevalence of adult respiratory distress syndrome after isolated thoracic, head, abdominal, or extremity injury was <1%. Patients with injuries to two anatomical regions had a higher prevalence (up to 2.9%), and those with injuries to three anatomical regions had an even higher prevalence (up to 10.2%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the Injury Severity Score, the presence of a femoral fracture, the combination of abdominal and extremity injuries, and observations of compromised physiological function on admission each to be an independent predictor of the later development of adult respiratory distress syndrome. The prevalence of adult respiratory distress syndrome increases with injury severity and combinations of injuries to more than one anatomical region. We have been able to quantify the importance and relative risks associated with these injuries. The implications of our findings with regard to facilitating early detection of this complication are discussed.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 11/2004; 86-A(11):2366-76. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    C Michael Robinson, Richard S Page
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    ABSTRACT: The functional results associated with nonoperative treatment of severely impacted valgus fractures of the proximal part of the humerus are poor, and these injuries are difficult to treat with minimally invasive percutaneous fixation techniques. The aim of this study was to review the functional and radiographic results and complications of a new operative technique in a series of twenty-five patients. Over a two-year period, we treated twenty-nine patients with a severely impacted valgus fracture of the proximal part of the humerus. Three patients were lost to follow-up and one died, leaving twenty-five patients who were available for the study. In all of the fractures, the head-shaft angle had been tilted into > or = 160 degrees of valgus and the greater tuberosity was displaced by >1 cm. All patients were treated with open reduction of the fracture, and the space created behind the humeral head was filled with Norian Skeletal Repair System (SRS) bone substitute. The fractures were stabilized with either screws or buttress plate fixation. Associated rotator cuff tears were repaired. All patients underwent functional outcome assessment with use of the Constant, DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and SF-36 (Short Form-36) scores at one year, and twelve patients were followed for two years. All fractures united within the first year, all reductions were maintained, and no patient had signs of osteonecrosis of the humeral head on the latest follow-up radiographs. At one year, the median Constant score was 80 points and the median DASH score was 22 points. The functional results continued to be satisfactory in the twelve patients who were followed for two years. The results in our series were better than those achieved in studies of nonoperative treatment of similar fracture configurations. There were six clinically relevant complications, although none required a reoperation and all six patients had a satisfactory short-term functional outcome. Internal fixation of severely impacted valgus fractures of the proximal part of the humerus, supplemented by Norian SRS bone substitute to fill the proximal humeral metaphyseal defect, produces good early functional and radiographic outcomes. Additional follow-up will be required to assess whether these initially satisfactory outcomes are maintained over the longer term.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2004; 86-A Suppl 1(Pt 2):143-55. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonunion is a rare complication of a fracture of the clavicle, but its occurrence can compromise shoulder function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for nonunion in a cohort of patients who were treated nonoperatively after a clavicular fracture. Over a fifty-one-month period, we performed a prospective, observational cohort study of a consecutive series of 868 patients (638 men and 230 women with a median age of 29.5 years; interquartile range, 19.25 to 46.75 years) with a radiographically confirmed fracture of the clavicle, which was treated nonoperatively. Eight patients were excluded from the study, as they received immediate surgery. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at six, twelve, and twenty-four weeks after the injury. There were 581 fractures in the diaphysis, 263 fractures in the lateral fifth of the clavicle, and twenty-four fractures in the medial fifth. On survivorship analysis, the overall prevalence of nonunion at twenty-four weeks after the fracture was 6.2%, with 8.3% of the medial end fractures, 4.5% of the diaphyseal fractures, and 11.5% of the lateral end fractures remaining ununited. Following a diaphyseal fracture, the risk of nonunion was significantly increased by advancing age, female gender, displacement of the fracture, and the presence of comminution (p < 0.05 for all). On multivariate analysis, all of these factors remained independently predictive of nonunion, and, in the final model, the risk of nonunion was increased by lack of cortical apposition (relative risk = 0.43; 95% confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.54), female gender (relative risk = 0.70; 95% confidence interval = 0.55 to 0.89), the presence of comminution (relative risk = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.52 to 0.91), and advancing age (relative risk = 0.99; 95% confidence interval = 0.99 to 1.00). Following a lateral end fracture, the risk of nonunion was significantly increased only by advancing age and displacement of the fracture (p < 0.05 for both). On multivariate analysis, both of these factors remained independently predictive of nonunion (p < 0.05), and, in the final model, the risk of nonunion was increased by a lack of cortical apposition (relative risk = 0.38; 95% confidence interval = 0.25 to 0.57) and advancing age (relative risk = 0.98; 95% confidence interval = 0.97 to 0.99). Nonunion at twenty-four weeks after a clavicular fracture is an uncommon occurrence, although the prevalence is higher than previously reported. There are subgroups of individuals who appear to be predisposed to the development of this complication, either from intrinsic factors, such as age or gender, or from the type of injury sustained. The predictive models that we developed may be used clinically to counsel patients about the risk for the development of this complication immediately after the injury.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 07/2004; 86-A(7):1359-65. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    C Michael Robinson, David A Cairns
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal management of displaced fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle remains controversial. Successful results have been reported both with primary open reduction and internal fixation and with nonoperative treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of employing a policy of primary nonoperative treatment of displaced lateral fractures of the clavicle. We treated a cohort of 127 patients who had sustained a displaced fracture of the lateral end of the clavicle. With the exception of seven patients who had immediate internal fixation, all of these patients were treated nonoperatively. At the time of follow-up, nineteen patients had died or could not be traced and fifteen were interviewed by telephone only. The remaining eighty-six patients were assessed clinically at an average of 6.2 years after the injury. All of these patients had a functional evaluation and were assessed radiographically. Fourteen (14%) of the 101 patients who could be contacted had had symptoms severe enough to warrant delayed surgical intervention (Group I). The remaining eighty-seven patients had not undergone any surgery, and twenty-one of them (21% of the whole cohort) had a nonunion of the clavicular fracture. The average Constant score in the nonoperatively treated group was 93 points (range, 82 to 98 points). With the numbers available, there was no significant difference in the Constant or Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores between the patients with nonunion (Group II) and those in whom the fracture had healed (Group III) or between the patients who had been treated nonoperatively (Groups II and III) and those who had had delayed surgery (Group I). There was no significant difference between the SF-36 scores in any of the groups and the scores for age-matched controls in the general population. Nonoperative treatment of most displaced lateral fractures of the clavicle in middle-aged and elderly patients achieves a good medium-term functional result. Symptoms that were severe enough to warrant a delayed reconstructive procedure developed in only 14% of the patients. Asymptomatic nonunion does not appear to adversely affect the functional outcome in the medium term.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2004; 86-A(4):778-82. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    C Michael Robinson, Richard S Page
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    ABSTRACT: The functional results associated with nonoperative treatment of severely impacted valgus fractures of the proximal part of the humerus are poor, and these injuries are difficult to treat with minimally invasive percutaneous fixation techniques. The aim of this study was to review the functional and radiographic results and complications of a new operative technique in a series of twenty-five patients. Over a two-year period, we treated twenty-nine patients with a severely impacted valgus fracture of the proximal part of the humerus. Three patients were lost to follow-up and one died, leaving twenty-five patients who were available for the study. In all of the fractures, the head-shaft angle had been tilted into > or = 160 degrees of valgus and the greater tuberosity was displaced by >1 cm. All patients were treated with open reduction of the fracture, and the space created behind the humeral head was filled with Norian Skeletal Repair System (SRS) bone substitute. The fractures were stabilized with either screws or buttress plate fixation. Associated rotator cuff tears were repaired. All patients underwent functional outcome assessment with use of the Constant, DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and SF-36 (Short Form-36) scores at one year, and twelve patients were followed for two years. All fractures united within the first year, all reductions were maintained, and no patient had signs of osteonecrosis of the humeral head on the latest follow-up radiographs. At one year, the median Constant score was 80 points and the median DASH score was 22 points. The functional results continued to be satisfactory in the twelve patients who were followed for two years. The results in our series were better than those achieved in studies of nonoperative treatment of similar fracture configurations. There were six clinically relevant complications, although none required a reoperation and all six patients had a satisfactory short-term functional outcome. Internal fixation of severely impacted valgus fractures of the proximal part of the humerus, supplemented by Norian SRS bone substitute to fill the proximal humeral metaphyseal defect, produces good early functional and radiographic outcomes. Additional follow-up will be required to assess whether these initially satisfactory outcomes are maintained over the longer term.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2003; 85-A(9):1647-55. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder is used to treat complex proximal humeral fractures, although the reported functional results following this method of treatment have varied widely. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the prosthetic survival and functional outcomes in a large series of patients treated with shoulder hemiarthroplasty for a proximal humeral fracture. By determining the factors that affected the outcome, we also aimed to produce models that could be used clinically to estimate the functional outcome at one year following surgery. A thirteen-year observational cohort study of 163 consecutive patients treated with hemiarthroplasty for a proximal humeral fracture was performed. Twenty-five patients died or were lost to follow-up in the first year after treatment, leaving 138 patients who had assessment of shoulder function with use of the modified Constant score at one year postinjury. The overall rate of prosthetic survival was 96.9% at one year, 95.3% at five years, and 93.9% at ten years. The overall median modified Constant score was 64 points at one year, with a typically good score for pain relief (median, 15 points) and poorer scores, with a greater scatter of values, for function (median, 12 points), range of motion (median, 24 points), and muscle power (median, 14 points). Of the factors that were assessed immediately after the injury, only patient age, the presence of a neurological deficit, tobacco usage, and alcohol consumption were significantly predictive of the one-year Constant score (p < 0.05). Of the factors that were assessed at six weeks postinjury, those that predicted the one-year Constant score included the age of the patient, the presence of a persistent neurological deficit, the need for an early reoperation, the degree of displacement of the prosthetic head from the central axis of the glenoid seen radiographically, and the degree of displacement of the tuberosities seen radiographically. Primary shoulder hemiarthroplasty performed for the treatment of a proximal humeral fracture in medically fit and cooperative adults is associated with satisfactory prosthetic survival at an average of 6.3 years. Although the shoulder is usually free of pain following this procedure, the overall functional result, in terms of range of motion, function, and power, at one year varies. A good functional outcome can be anticipated for a younger individual who has no preoperative neurological deficit, no postoperative complications, and a satisfactory radiographic appearance of the shoulder at six weeks. The results are poorer in the larger group of elderly patients who undergo this procedure, especially if they have a neurological deficit, a postoperative complication requiring a reoperation, or an eccentrically located prosthesis with retracted tuberosities.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2003; 85-A(7):1215-23. · 3.23 Impact Factor