Po-Cheng Chiang

Academia Sinica, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (17)64.57 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence shows that the translocation of apoptosis related factors on cellular organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and nucleus, has a crucial role in the apoptotic process. We characterized the effect of paclitaxel (Sigma®) on Golgi involved apoptosis in human hormone refractory prostate cancer. FACScan™ flow cytometric analysis was used to determine cell cycle distribution and the subG1 (apoptosis) population. Protein expression and localization were detected by Western blot, confocal microscopic examination and the sucrose gradient separation technique. Paclitaxel induced Golgi apparatus disassembly and interaction between Golgi complexes and mitochondria. Discontinuous sucrose gradient fractionation was used to determine and collect Golgi containing fractions. Data revealed that paclitaxel induced an increase of Cdk1 activity and DR5 expression on the Golgi complex that was associated with increased cleavage of caspase-8, a DR5 downstream factor, and caspase-3 into catalytically active fragments. Data were validated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Golgi associated effects were inhibited by the Cdk1 inhibitor roscovitine (Sigma), suggesting a critical role for Golgi-Cdk1. Also, paclitaxel caused an increase of nuclear but not of Golgi associated PKC-δ activity. The selective PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin (Sigma) completely inhibited the increase of Golgi-Cdk1 activity, suggesting that nuclear PKC-δ served as an upstream regulator of Golgi-Cdk1. Data suggest that paclitaxel induces nuclear translocation and activation of PKC-δ, which in turn causes Golgi-Cdk1 activation, leading to Golgi associated DR5 up-regulation, and caspase-8 and 3 activation. Golgi mediated signaling cascades facilitate mitochondria involved apoptotic pathways and at least partly explain the anticancer activity of paclitaxel action.
    The Journal of urology 12/2011; 186(6):2434-41. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. A mutation and constitutive activation of K-ras occurs in more than 90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. A successful approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancers is urgent. Antroquinonol, a ubiquinone derivative isolated from a camphor tree mushroom, Antrodia camphorata, induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content by propidium iodide staining showed that antroquinonol induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and a subsequent apoptosis. Antroquinonol inhibited Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473), the phosphorylation site critical for Akt kinase activity, and blocked the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation at Ser(2448), a site dependent on mTOR activity. Several signals responsible for mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling cascades have also been examined to validate the pathway. Moreover, antroquinonol induced the down-regulation of several cell cycle regulators and mitochondrial antiapoptotic proteins. In contrast, the expressions of K-ras and its phosphorylation were significantly increased. The coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that the association of K-ras and Bcl-xL was dramatically augmented, which was indicative of apoptotic cell death. Antroquinonol also induced the cross talk between apoptosis, autophagic cell death and accelerated senescence, which was, at least partly, explained by the up-regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and K-ras. In summary, the data suggest that antroquinonol induces anticancer activity in human pancreatic cancers through an inhibitory effect on PI3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathways that in turn down-regulates cell cycle regulators. The translational inhibition causes G1 arrest of the cell cycle and an ultimate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, autophagic cell death and accelerated senescence also explain antroquinonol-mediated anticancer effect.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 08/2011; 23(8):900-7. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies demonstrated that eight prenylated flavanones (1-8), isolated from Taiwanese propolis, were capable of a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among them, nymphaeol A (3), nymphaeol B (4) and nymphaeol C (7), abundant in Taiwanese propolis, exhibited cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. It therefore seemed interesting to improve their activity via a semi-synthetic strategy. In this study, 12 novel prenylated flavanones were synthesised in our laboratory and their activities were assessed for two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, and a human hepatoma cell line, Hep-3B. Of these compounds, 10c, 11 and 12 showed more potent cytotoxicity against the PC-3 cell line than 5-Fu. Using cytometric analysis followed by double staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide, it was observed that these compounds induced apoptosis as well. This suggests that prenylated flavanones 10c, 11 and 12 may have anticancer potential for further development.
    Natural product research 07/2011; 26(2):116-24. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression has been demonstrated in many malignancies being a predominant mechanism by which cancer cells develop multidrug resistance. Several categories of P-gp inhibitors have been demonstrated to potentiate anticancer effect induced by cancer chemotherapeutic drugs through competitive inhibition of P-gp pumping activity. Few studies show the agent that selectively acts on P-gp and, by itself, causes cell apoptosis while remain P-gp-deficient cells unaffected. KNG-I-322, a desmosdumotin B derivative, displayed a direct interaction with P-gp and demonstrated selective anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities in P-gp overexpressed Hep3B/VIN other than P-gp-deficient Hep3B cells. KNG-I-322 induced an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448), p70S6K(Thr389) and 4E-BP(Thr37/46) in Hep3B/VIN but not Hep3B cells. The inhibition was fully blocked by the knockdown of P-gp using siRNA techniques. Notably, the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil, also directly interacted with P-gp but significantly diminished KNG-I-322-induced anti-proliferative activity. After the mechanism study, the data showed that KNG-I-322 induced a dramatic down-regulation of GRP78 expression, which was significantly inhibited by verapamil and completely diminished by the knockdown of P-gp. The protein profile analysis of detergent resistant membranes showed that upon the stimulation by KNG-I-322, the level of P-gp expression in non-raft fractions was dramatically increased and, concomitantly, the GRP78 expression was significantly decreased. Taken together, the data suggest that KNG-I-322 induces anticancer activity in Hep3B/VIN cells through a direct interaction with P-gp, leading to the inhibition of mTOR pathways and the induction of GRP78 down-regulation. The data support that KNG-I-322 is a selective anticancer agent against P-gp-overexpressed other than P-gp-deficient cancer cells.
    Biochemical pharmacology 02/2011; 81(9):1136-44. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and tubulin are, frequently, targets for developing anti-cancer drugs. A major obstacle to successful development is P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated resistance. Here, we have assessed a compound that inhibited growth of cancer cells, for effects on JNK and tubulin and as a substrate for P-gp. Several pharmacological and biochemical assays were used to characterize signalling pathways of 2-phenyl-5-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1H-benzimidazole (PPTMB), a benzimidazole analogue, in prostate cancer cells. PPTMB inhibited proliferation of several human prostate cancer cell lines. It displayed similar activity against a P-gp-rich cell line, indicating that PPTMB was not a substrate for P-gp. PPTMB induced G2/M arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis, using flow cytometry. Tubulin polymerization assays and Western blot analysis showed that PPTMB directly acted on tubulin and caused disruption of microtubule dynamics, inducing mitotic arrest and sustained high levels of cyclin B1 expression and Cdk1 activation. Subsequently, mitochondria-related apoptotic cascades were induced, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL phosphorylation, Mcl-1 down-regulation, truncated Bad formation and activation of caspase-9 and -3. PPTMB stimulated JNK phosphorylation at Thr(183)/Tyr(185). SP600125, a specific JNK inhibitor, significantly inhibited apoptotic signalling, indicating that JNK plays a key role in PPTMB action. PPTMB showed a 10-fold higher potency against prostate cancer cells than normal prostate cells. PPTMB is an effective anti-cancer agent. It disrupted microtubule dynamics, leading to mitotic arrest of the cell cycle and JNK activation, which in turn stimulated the mitochondria-related apoptotic cascades in prostate cancer cells.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2010; 160(7):1677-89. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Jui-Ling Hsu, Po-Cheng Chiang, Jih-Hwa Guh
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is chemoresistant to many anticancer drugs. Tunicamycin, an N-glycosylation inhibitor, causes unfolded protein response and is widely used as pharmacological inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study, several designs were used to investigate the resistance mechanism to camptothecin and etoposide in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. Tunicamycin significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by camptothecin or etoposide. Tunicamycin neither modified the topoisomerase levels nor inhibited the ATM activation caused by camptothecin and etoposide. The data suggest that tunicamycin-induced resistance may result from the downstream events of drug-trapped topoisomerase-DNA complexes and DNA double-strand breaks. Camptothecin and etoposide caused an increase of protein expression of several cell-cycle regulators and induced the cleavage of Bcl-2 family of proteins. These intracellular molecular events were abolished by tunicamycin. A design of postaddition of tunicamycin demonstrated that G1 checkpoint arrest contributed to the resistance mechanism. Curcumin, another G1 arrest-inducing agent in this study, was able to induce a similar resistant effect. Furthermore, the cells transfected with GRP78 siRNA were partly resistant to tunicamycin-induced apoptosis but not the inhibitory effect on cell-cycle regulators indicating that GRP78 and G1 arrest are two independent factors to tunicamycin-induced resistance mechanism. In conclusion, the data suggest that tunicamycin induces the resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors through GRP78 up-regulation and G1 arrest of the cell cycle. The findings also prompt the deliberation that the resistance can be caused during combined administration of chemotherapeutic drugs and Chinese herbal medicines, which induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and/or cell-cycle arrest in cancer cells.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 09/2009; 380(5):373-82. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are two serine/threonine protein kinases responsible for cellular energy homeostasis and translational control, respectively. Evidence suggests that these two kniases are potential targets for cancer chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Antroquinonol that is isolated from Antrodia camphorate, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of liver diseases, displayed effective anticancer activity against both HBV DNA-positive and -negative HCC cell lines. The rank order of potency against HCCs is HepG2>HepG2.2.15>Mahlavu>PLC/PRF/5>SK-Hep1>Hep3B. Antroquinonol completely abolished cell-cycle progression released from double-thymidine-block synchronization and caused a subsequent apoptosis. The data were supported by down-regulation and reduced nuclear translocation of G1-regulator proteins, including cyclin D1, cyclin E, Cdk4 and Cdk2. Further analysis showed that the mRNA expressions of the G1-regulator proteins were not modified by antroquinonol, indicating an inhibition of translational but not transcriptional levels. Antroquinonol induced the assembly of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-1/TSC2, leading to the blockade of cellular protein synthesis through inhibition of protein phosphorylation including mTOR (Ser(2448)), p70(S6K) (Thr(421)/Ser(424) and Thr(389)) and 4E-BP1 (Thr(37)/Thr(46) and Thr(70)). Furthermore, the AMPK activity was elevated by antroquinonol. Compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor, significantly reversed antroquinonol-mediated effects suggesting the crucial role of AMPK. Besides, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of mitochondrial content indicated the mitochondrial stress caused by antroquinonol. In summary, the data suggest that antroquinonol displays anticancer activity against HCCs through AMPK activation and inhibition of mTOR translational pathway, leading to G1 arrest of the cell-cycle and subsequent cell apoptosis.
    Biochemical pharmacology 08/2009; 79(2):162-71. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four natural pyranocoumarins clausenidin (1), nordentatin (2), clausarin (3), and xanthoxyletin (4) were isolated from the medicinal plant Clausena excavata. Recently, we found that 1 and 2 suppressed hepatitis B virus surface antigen in HepA2 cells, and in addition, 1-3 showed cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF7, KB, and KB-VIN). To explore the SAR of 1-4, 17 pyranocoumarin analogues (5-21) were designed and synthesized. Among these analogues, 5 and 10 were the most potent against hepatitis B virus with EC(50) values of 1.14 and 1.34microM, respectively. The most interesting result in the cytotoxicity assay was the significant activity of 1, 5, and 6 against the multi-drug resistant cell line, KB-VIN, without activity against the KB cell line. These data suggest that these three compounds could be useful hits for developing MDR-inverse drugs.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 01/2009; 17(16):6137-43. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their limited natural abundance and significant biochemical effects, we synthesized the alkaloids (+/-)-antofine (1a), (+/-)-deoxypergularinine (1b), and their dehydro congeners (2 and 3) starting from the corresponding phenanthrene-9-carboxaldehydes. We also evaluated their in vitro cytotoxic activity. Compounds 1a and 1b showed significant potency against various human tumor cell lines, including a drug-resistant variant, with EC(50) values ranging from 0.16 to 16ng/mL. Structure-activity correlations of these alkaloids and some of their synthetic intermediates were also ascertained. The non-planar structure between the two major moieties, phenanthrene and indolizidine, plays a crucial role in the cytotoxic activity of phenanthroindolizidines. Increasing the planarity and rigidity of the indolizidine moiety significantly reduced potency. A methoxy group at the 2-position (1a) was more favorable for cytotoxic activity than a hydrogen atom (1b).
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2008; 16(11):6233-41. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been suggested to play potential roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, many obstacles remain as to whether ER stress plays a role in carcinogenesis or tumoricide. This study sought to identify the signals that can serve as anticancer effectors in cells in response to ER stress. Tunicamycin (an N-glycosylation inhibitor) inhibited cell proliferation with IC(50) values of 0.19 and 0.62 microg/ml in hepatoma (Hep) 3B and HepG2 cells, respectively. It induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle in both cell lines. The anticancer mechanism of tunicamycin was investigated in Hep3B cells. Tunicamycin induced a rapid decline of cyclin D1 and cyclin A expression and an early increase of glucose-related protein (GRP) 78 and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible transcription factor (GADD) 153 levels. Cyclin A was the most sensitive regulator to tunicamycin-triggered degradation mechanism. The association of p27(Kip1) with cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 was also increased by tunicamycin. The inhibition of GADD153 expression by transfection of GADD153 antisense did not modify tunicamycin-induced G1 arrest and cyclin/Cdk expressions. The knockdown of GRP78 expression by the siRNA transfection technique moderately increased tunicamycin-induced apoptosis but not the antiproliferative effect by sulforhodamine B assay. We suggest that tunicamycin induces G1 arrest through down-regulation of cyclins and Cdks, in which cyclin A is more susceptible to ER stress-triggered degradation mechanism in Hep3B cells. The increased association of p27(Kip1) with cyclin D1/Cdk4 may also contribute to tunicamycin-induced cell-cycle arrest. GADD153 and GRP78 play a minor role in tunicamycin-mediated antiproliferative effect, although GRP78 moderately inhibits apoptosis in Hep3B cells. These data provide evidence that cell-cycle regulators are susceptible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) responsive to ER stress.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2008; 377(2):167-77. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is highly chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, 2'-fluoro-6,7-methylenedioxy-2-phenyl-4-quinolone (CHM-1), a synthetic 6,7-substituted 2-phenyl-4-quinolone, was identified as a potent and selective antitumor agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma. CHM-1 induced growth inhibition of HA22T, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner but did not obviously impair the viability of normal cells at the IC(50) for liver cancer cells. CHM-1-induced apoptosis was also characterized by immunofluorescence microscopy. CHM-1 interacted with tubulin at the colchicine-binding site, markedly inhibited tubulin polymerization both in vitro and in vivo, and disrupted microtubule organization. CHM-1 caused cell cycle arrest at G(2)-M phase by activating Cdc2/cyclin B1 complex activity. CHM-1-induced cell death, activation of Cdc2 kinase activity, and elevation of MPM2 phosphoepitopes were profoundly attenuated by roscovitine, a specific cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. CHM-1 did not modulate the caspase cascade, and the pan-caspase-inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not abolish CHM-1-induced cell death. However, CHM-1 induced the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the nucleus. Small interfering RNA targeting of AIF substantially attenuated CHM-1-induced AIF translocation. Importantly, CHM-1 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the lifespan in mice inoculated with HA22T cells. In conclusion, we show that CHM-1 exhibits a novel antimitotic antitumor activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo via a caspase-independent pathway. CHM-1 is a promising chemotherapeutic agent worthy of further development into a clinical trial candidate for treating cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 03/2008; 7(2):350-60. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytotoxicity-guided phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of Croton tonkinensis afforded two new kaurane diterpenoids (1, 2) and 10 known ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3- 12). The structures of 1 and 2 were based on analysis of spectroscopic and mass spectral data. Compounds 3- 12 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. Selected compounds from this plant were examined for cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 4 and 9 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the tested tumor cell lines. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 11 had IC 50 values less than 5 microM and were more potent than the nonspecific NOS inhibitor L-NAME in inhibiting LPS-induced NO production.
    Journal of Natural Products 01/2008; 70(12):1906-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various dietary antioxidants, including vitamins, flavonoids, curcumin, and a coumarin, were conjugated with paclitaxel (1) through an ester linkage. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against several human tumor cell lines as well as the corresponding normal cell lines. Interestingly, most tested conjugates selectively inhibited the growth of 1A9 (ovarian) and KB (nasopharyngeal) tumor cells without activity against other cell lines. Particularly, conjugates 16 and 20 were highly active against 1A9 (ED(50) value of 0.005 microg/mL) as well as KB (ED(50) values of 0.005 and 0.14 microg/mL, respectively) cells. Compound 22b, the glycinate ester salt of vitamin E conjugated with 1, appears to be a promising lead for further development as a clinical trial candidate as it exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Panc-1 (pancreatic cancer) with less effect on the related E6E7 (normal) cell line.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10/2007; 17(18):5204-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a very common malignancy and is chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptotic pathway is suggested to be less affected by the resistance mechanisms, becoming a potential target of chemotherapeutic strategy. The anticancer effects and expression of GADD153, a transcription factor induced by ER stress, were examined in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. The correlation between these two parameters was constructed under flavonoid stimulation with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.8. The data also showed that genistein (isoflavone) was the most effective one. Genistein induced the activation of several ER stress-relevant regulators, including m-calpain, GADD153, GRP78 and caspase-12. Furthermore, genistein-induced effect was inhibited in cells transfected with antisense GADD153 cDNA, indicating a functional role of GADD153. Notably, genistein induced the activation of caspase-2, whereas did not cause the DNA damage. It also triggered the production of ROS. The antioxidant trolox significantly reduced ROS accumulation, but did not modify genistein-induced apoptotic cell death. The long-term exposure (48 h) of cells to genistein caused Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bad cleavage; furthermore, cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore) almost completely abolished genistein-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced a 30% reverse of apoptosis caused by long-term treatment (48 h) of genistein, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial stress in the late phase of genistein-induced effect. Taken together, it is suggested that genistein induces the anticancer effect through a mechanism initiated by ER stress and facilitated by mitochondrial insult in Hep3B cells.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 04/2007; 73(6):782-92. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PGs) such as PGA1, PGA2 and delta12-PGJ2 have been shown to suppress tumor cell growth and to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Bromovulone III, which is isolated from the soft coral Clavularia viridis, is a cyclopentenone prostanoid. In this study, the anti-tumor activity as well as action mechanism of bromovulone III was identified in prostate cancer cells. Bromovulone III displayed anti-tumor activity of 30 to 100 times more effective than PGA1, PGA2 and delta12-PGJ2 in PC-3 cells. Several targets of caspases and Bcl-2 family of proteins were detected and the data demonstrated that bromovulone III induced the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, and Bid cleavage in which the caspase-8 activation occurred the first. Bromovulone III did not modify the protein levels of death receptors and ligands. Of note, the Fas clustering in PC-3 cells responsive to bromovulone III was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy suggesting the involvement of Fas-mediated pathway. Bromovulone III also induced the cleavage of Mcl-1 in this study. The cleavage fragments (24, 19 and 17 kDa) may partly share the apoptotic insult. Although it has been suggested that Fas-mediated signaling may contribute to the caspase-8 activation induced by DNA-damaging agents; however, bromovulone III did not induce any DNA breakage, suggesting that bromovulone III-induced Fas/caspase-8-dependent signaling is not through the direct target on DNA damage. In summary, the data suggest that bromovulone III causes a rapid redistribution and clustering of Fas in PC-3 cells. Subsequently, the Fas event causes the activation and interaction of caspase-8/Bid/caspase-9 signaling cascades, and the activation of executor caspase-3.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 09/2006; 542(1-3):22-30. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a very common malignancy and is highly chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. We isolated a marine prostanoid, bromovulone III, from soft coral Clavularia viridis and found that it displayed effective anti-tumor activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-tumor mechanism has been delineated in this study. Anti-tumor efficacy and apoptotic cell death were examined by sulforhodamine B and Hoechst 33342 assays. Rhodamine 123 was used to measure the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting detect the involvement of several apoptosis-related proteins. Electron microscopic examination detects the morphological change of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bromovulone III primarily induced mitochondria-related activation of caspase-9 and -3 in several tumor types, such as prostate cancer PC-3 and acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. However, it primarily induced the activation of m-calpain, caspase-12, and transcription factor CHOP/GADD153 in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells, suggesting the involvement of ER stress. Furthermore, a secondary mitochondrial swelling and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential were subsequently triggered after ER stress, suggesting the crosstalk between ER and mitochondria. It is suggested that bromovulone III induces apoptosis in Hep3B cells through a mechanism that induces ER stress and leads to activation of CHOP/GADD153 and caspase-12.
    Journal of Hepatology 11/2005; 43(4):679-86. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although evodiamine, an alkaloid isolated from Evodiae fructus, has been reported to exert anticancer activities, to our knowledge its target and mechanism of action have not yet been explored. We examined the anticancer activities and action mechanism of evodiamine. Human prostate cancer PC-3 cells were used in this study. The cytotoxic effect and cell growth inhibition were examined using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and sulforhodamine B assay, respectively. The apoptotic effect was determined using TUNEL assay and the progression of cells through the cell cycle and cell apoptosis were examined by FACScan flow cytometry (Becton Dickinson, Sunnyvale, California). In situ mitotic spindle detection and in vitro tubulin polymerization assay were performed by immunofluorescence staining for beta-tubulin and CytoDYNAMIX ScreenTM3 (CDS-03) kits (Cytoskeleton, Denver, Colorado). It was found that treatment of PC-3 cells with evodiamine decreased the cell number in a concentration and time dependent manner, and effectively inhibited PC-3 cell growth via the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and subsequent apoptosis. In an in situ assay we found that evodiamine inhibited microtubule spindle formation. In a cell-free assay system of tubulin polymerization evodiamine inhibited the polymerization of microtubules in a concentration dependent manner. These data suggest that evodiamine shows anticancer activity through inhibition of tubulin polymerization. This antitubulin activity might make evodiamine a potential anticancer drug.
    The Journal of Urology 02/2005; 173(1):256-61. · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

220 Citations
64.57 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Biomedical Sciences
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2005–2011
    • National Taiwan University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2008–2009
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry
      North Carolina, United States
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Universidad Nacional de Formosa
      Formosa, Formosa, Argentina