Adeela Kamal

Biogen Idec, Weston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (19)121.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) results in the degradation of oncoproteins that drive malignant progression, inducing cell death, making Hsp90 a target of substantial interest for cancer therapy. BIIB021 is a novel, fully synthetic inhibitor of Hsp90 that binds competitively with geldanamycin in the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90. In tumor cells, BIIB021 induced the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including HER-2, AKT, and Raf-1 and up-regulated expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp27. BIIB021 treatment resulted in growth inhibition and cell death in cell lines from a variety of tumor types at nanomolar concentrations. Oral administration of BIIB021 led to the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins measured in tumor tissue and resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth in several human tumor xenograft models. Studies to investigate the antitumor effects of BIIB021 showed activity on both daily and intermittent dosing schedules, providing dose schedule flexibility for clinical studies. Assays measuring the HER-2 protein in tumor tissue and the HER-2 extracellular domain in plasma were used to show interdiction of the Hsp90 pathway and utility as potential biomarkers in clinical trials for BIIB021. Together, these data show that BIIB021 is a promising new oral inhibitor of Hsp90 with antitumor activity in preclinical models.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2009; 8(4):921-9. · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2008; 6(12):50-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone protein implicated in stabilizing the conformation and maintaining the function of many cell-signaling proteins. Many oncogenic proteins are more dependent on Hsp90 in maintaining their conformation, stability, and maturation than their normal counterparts. Furthermore, recent data show that Hsp90 exists in an activated form in malignant cells but in a latent inactive form in normal tissues, suggesting that inhibitors selective for the activated form could provide a high therapeutic index. Hence, Hsp90 is emerging as an exciting new target for the treatment of cancer. We now report on a novel series of 2-amino-6-halopurine Hsp90 inhibitors exemplified by 2-amino-6-chloro-9-(4-iodo-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-ylmethyl)purine (30). These highly potent inhibitors (IC50 of 30 = 0.009 microM in a HER-2 degradation assay) also display excellent antiproliferative activity against various tumor cell lines (IC50 of 30 = 0.03 microM in MCF7 cells). Moreover, this class of inhibitors shows higher affinity for the activated form of Hsp90 compared to our earlier 8-sulfanylpurine Hsp90 inhibitor series. When administered orally to mice, these compounds exhibited potent tumor growth inhibition (>80%) in an N87 xenograft model, similar to that observed with 17-allylamino-17-desmethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which is a compound currently in phase I/II clinical trials.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2007; 50(12):2767-78. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A primary pathologic component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). Expediting the removal of these p-tau species may be a relevant therapeutic strategy. Here we report that inhibition of Hsp90 led to decreases in p-tau levels independent of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation. A critical mediator of this mechanism was carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), a tau ubiquitin ligase. Cochaperones were also involved in Hsp90-mediated removal of p-tau, while those of the mature Hsp90 refolding complex prevented this effect. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge that blockade of the refolding pathway promotes p-tau turnover through degradation. We also show that peripheral administration of a novel Hsp90 inhibitor promoted selective decreases in p-tau species in a mouse model of tauopathy, further suggesting a central role for the Hsp90 complex in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. When taken in the context of known high-affinity Hsp90 complexes in affected regions of the AD brain, these data implicate a central role for Hsp90 in the development of AD and other tauopathies and may provide a rationale for the development of novel Hsp90-based therapeutic strategies.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2007; 117(3):648-58. · 12.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation - J CLIN INVEST. 01/2007; 117(3):648-658.
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    ABSTRACT: The heat-shock response (HSR), a highly conserved cellular response, is characterized by rapid expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), and inhibition of other synthetic activities. The HSR can attenuate inflammatory responses, via suppression of transcription factor activation. A HSR can be induced pharmacologically by HSP90 inhibitors, through activation of the transcription factor Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1). In the present study we characterized the effects of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a less toxic derivative of the naturally occurring HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin, on glial inflammatory responses and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In primary enriched glial cultures, 17-AAG dose dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide-dependent expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase, attenuated interleukin (IL)-1beta expression and release, increased inhibitor of kappaB protein levels, and induced HSP70 expression. 17-AAG administration to mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide prevented disease onset when given at an early time, and reduced clinical symptoms when given during ongoing disease. T cells from treated mice showed a reduced response to immunogen re-stimulation, and 17-AAG reduced CD3- and CD28-dependent IL-2 production. Together, these data suggest that HSP90 inhibitors could represent a new approach for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2007; 99(5):1351-62. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of benzo- and pyridino- thiazolothiopurines as potent heat shock protein 90 inhibitors. The benzothiazole moiety is exceptionally sensitive to substitutions on the aromatic ring with a 7'-substituent essential for activity. Some of these compounds exhibit low nanomolar inhibition activity in a Her-2 degradation assay (28-150 nM), good aqueous solubility, and oral bioavailability profiles in mice. In vivo efficacy experiments demonstrate that compounds of this class inhibit tumor growth in an N87 human colon cancer xenograft model via oral administration as shown with compound 37 (8-(7-chlorobenzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-9-(2-cyclopropylamino-ethyl)-9H- purin-6-ylamine).
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2006; 49(17):5352-62. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are a characteristic neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and molecular chaperones appear to be involved in the removal of disease-associated hyperphosphorylated tau, a primary component of NFTs. Here, novel HSP90 inhibitors were used to examine the impact of chaperone elevation on clearance of different tau species in transfected cells using a unique quantitative assay. The HSP90 inhibitors reduced levels of tau phosphorylated at proline-directed Ser/Thr sites (pS202/T205, pS396/S404) and conformationally altered (MC-1) tau species, an epitope that is immeasurable by standard Western blot techniques. The selective clearance of these phospho-tau species and MC-1 tau was mediated via the proteasome, while lysosomal-mediated tau degradation seems to lack specificity for certain tau species, suggesting a more general role in total tau removal. Interestingly, tau phosphorylated at S262/S356 within the tau microtubule binding domain was minimally affected by chaperone induction. Overall, our data show that chaperone induction results in the selective clearance of specific phospho-tau and conformationally altered tau species mediated by the proteasome; however, the apparent stability of pS262/S356 tau may also explain why MARK is able to regulate normal tau function yet still be linked to the initiation of pathogenic tau hyperphosphorylation in AD.
    The FASEB Journal 05/2006; 20(6):753-5. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orally active Hsp90 inhibitors are of interest as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, fully synthetic 8-benzyladenines and 8-sulfanyladenines such as 4 were disclosed as Hsp90 inhibitors, but these compounds are not water soluble and consequently have unacceptably low oral bioavailabilities. We now report that water-solubility can be achieved by inserting an amino functionality in the N(9) side chain. This results in compounds that are potent, soluble in aqueous media, and orally bioavailable. In an HER-2 degradation assay, the highest potency was achieved with the neopentylamine 42 (HER-2 IC(50) = 90 nM). In a murine tumor xenograft model (using the gastric cancer cell line N87), the H(3)PO(4) salts of the amines 38, 39, and 42 induced tumor growth inhibition when administered orally at 200 mg/kg/day. The amines 38, 39, and 42 are the first Hsp90 inhibitors shown to inhibit tumor growth upon oral dosage.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2006; 49(2):817-28. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Article: P3-319
    Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2006; 2(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced-stage neuroblastomas are often resistant to chemotherapy. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 is a molecular chaperone that maintains the stability of important signal transduction proteins. We have previously reported that geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90 inhibitor, decreases Raf-1 and Akt protein expressions and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. We sought to determine the in vivo effects of Hsp90 inhibitor compounds on human neuroblastomas. Human neuroblastoma (LAN-1 and SK-N-SH) xenografts (4-mm3 tumor implants) were placed in the flanks of athymic nude mice. The mice received either Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG or EC5) or vehicle (control). The tumor dimensions were measured twice weekly. Proteins were extracted for Western immunoblotting. Hsp90 inhibitor compounds significantly blocked both LAN-1 and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma growth in vivo. Drug-treated tumors showed decreases in Raf-1 and cleaved PARP expressions. Hsp90 inhibitors may prove to be important novel therapeutic agents for patients with advanced-stage neuroblastoma who fail to respond to current treatment regimens.
    Anticancer research 01/2006; 26(3A):1903-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) is expressed in patients with aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found that ZAP-70+ CLL cells expressed activated heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) with high binding affinity for Hsp90 inhibitors, such as 17-allyl-amino-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG), whereas normal lymphocytes or ZAP-70- CLL cells expressed nonactivated Hsp90. Activated Hsp90 bound and stabilized ZAP-70, which behaved like an Hsp90 client protein only in CLL cells. Treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17-AAG and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) induced ZAP-70 degradation and apoptosis in CLL cells but not in T cells, and also impaired B-cell receptor signaling in leukemia cells. Transduction of ZAP-70- CLL cells with an adenovirus encoding ZAP-70 activated Hsp90 and specifically rendered the leukemia cells sensitive to 17-AAG. These data indicate that Hsp90 is necessary for ZAP-70 expression and activity; that ZAP-70 is unique among Hsp90 clients, in that its chaperone-dependency is conditional on the cell type in which it is expressed; and also that ZAP-70 is required for cell survival and signaling in CLL. Additionally, ZAP-70 expression in CLL cells confers markedly heightened sensitivity to 17-AAG or 17-DMAG, suggesting that these or other Hsp90 inhibitors could be valuable therapeutically in patients with aggressive CLL.
    Blood 11/2005; 106(7):2506-12. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic development for Alzheimer's disease has largely focused on the removal of beta amyloid because of its suggested role in the primary agent in initiating the disease process. However, with the recent discovery of mutations that result as pathologic buildup of tau in the absence of amyloid pathology, tau is beginning to be recognized as a potential target for drug discovery. We have developed a high-throughput drug screening method that allows for direct intracellular quantitation of tau protein species, enabling the fast, reliable detection of these changes. We have identified a family of small, blood brain barrier penetrant heat shock protein 90 inhibitors that significantly reduce tau protein levels in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated a clear inverse correlation between the tau levels and the increase in HSP27, HSP40 and HSP90. Modifications to this assay will further allow the specific analysis of pathologically relevant species. Using this assay, we have demonstrated that a class of HSP90 inhibitors is able to significantly lower intracellular tau levels most likely through induction of a heat shock response.
    Current Alzheimer Research 05/2005; 2(2):231-8. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    Francis Burrows, Hong Zhang, Adeela Kamal
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    ABSTRACT: The widely-expressed molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) regulates several important cellular processes via its' repertoire of 'client' proteins. Signal transduction pathways controlled by Hsp90 contribute to all major components of the malignant phenotype, so Hsp90 inhibitors are under investigation as anticancer agents. Since Hsp90 is also expressed at high levels in many normal tissues, it was unclear why Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG) have selective antitumor activity in animals and are well tolerated clinically. Recent findings indicate that Hsp90 is largely latent in unstressed normal cells, but tumor Hsp90 becomes completely utilized during malignant progression, resulting in an activation-dependent conformational shift that radically increases 17-AAG binding affinity in cancer cells. In this article, the implications of this discovery are discussed, with particular reference to cell cycle regulation in normal and malignant cells, and the consequences of inducing cell cycle arrest with Hsp90 inhibitors.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12/2004; 3(12):1530-6. · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Adeela Kamal, Francis J Burrows
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    ABSTRACT: Extract: Cancer drug discovery has traditionally focused on targeting DNA synthesis and cell division, resulting in drugs that show efficacy but have severe side effects, due to their lack of selectivity for tumor cells over normal cells. One truly tumor-specific protein, the mutant kinase BCR-ABL, single-handedly causes chronic myelogenous leukemia and is the target of the remarkably effective new drug Gleevec. However, BCR-ABL is very much the exception. The majority of new molecularly-targeted drugs, such as kinase inhibitors, aim to exploit the overexpression of a particular kinase in the tumors compared to the normal tissues. However, the pitfall in doing that is that these drugs are aimed at single biological targets, while the vast majority of advanced tumors harbor multiple genetic alterations that drive malignant growth. A newly emerging class of drugs, called heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, can simultaneously destroy multiple tumor-causing proteins and also have a profound therapeutic selectivity for tumor cells over normal cells. Hsp90 belongs to a family of proteins called molecular chaperones that are involved in the stabilization and folding of many signaling proteins (collectively referred to as Hsp90 "clients") that are dysregulated in cancers. Hsp90 client proteins include key regulators of cell proliferation and survival such as receptor tyrosine kinases, metastable/mutant signaling proteins, transcription factors and cell cycle regulators (Table 1). Hsp90 client proteins are major components of mitogenic signaling pathways that drive cellular proliferation and survival signaling pathways that counteract programmed cell death (apoptosis). Thus, Hsp90 inhibition can concurrently destablize many oncoproteins in numerous signaling pathways, suggesting that Hsp90 inhibitor drugs would be advantageous in destroying cancer cells that can easily overcome the inhibition of a single target or pathway.
    Discovery medicine 10/2004; 4(23):277-80. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The heat shock protein Hsp90 has increasingly become an important therapeutic target especially for treatment of cancers. Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Hsp90 by natural products (e.g., 17-allylaminogeldanamycin or radicicol) leads to the ubiquitination of oncogenic client proteins such as Her-2, Raf-1, and p-Akt followed by their proteasomal degradation. Hsp90 inhibitors simultaneously target multiple oncogenic proteins and provide an advantage for cancer therapy due to the potential for increased efficacy and overcoming drug resistance. In an effort to convert geldanamycin into a druglike compound with better pharmacokinetic properties and efficacy in human tumor xenograft models, geldanamycin was derivatized on the 17-position to prepare new analogues such as 17-geldanamycin amides, carbamates, and ureas and 17-arylgeldanamycins. All the compounds were first evaluated ex vivo using a cell-based Her-2 degradation assay and in vitro using biochemical assays that measure recombinant Hsp90 (rHsp90) competitive binding and changes in rHsp90 conformation. In addition, we confirmed the selectivity of geldanamycin analogues for Hsp90 derived from tumor cells using a novel cell lysate binding assay.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2004; 47(15):3865-73. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in the stabilization and conformational maturation of many signaling proteins that are deregulated in cancers. Hsp90 inhibition results in the proteasomal degradation of these client proteins and leads to potent antitumor activity. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylaminogeldanamycin (17-AAG) is presently in clinical trials. Recent work has identified the role of Hsp90 in multiple signal transduction pathways and revealed that the molecular mechanism of tumor selectivity by Hsp90 inhibitors is the result of an activated, high-affinity conformation of Hsp90 in tumors. This review discusses these recent advances in the understanding of tumor Hsp90 for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. In addition, the role of Hsp90 in non-oncological diseases will also be discussed.
    Trends in Molecular Medicine 07/2004; 10(6):283-90. · 9.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that plays a key role in the conformational maturation of oncogenic signalling proteins, including HER-2/ErbB2, Akt, Raf-1, Bcr-Abl and mutated p53. Hsp90 inhibitors bind to Hsp90, and induce the proteasomal degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. Although Hsp90 is highly expressed in most cells, Hsp90 inhibitors selectively kill cancer cells compared to normal cells, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylaminogeldanamycin (17-AAG) is currently in phase I clinical trials. However, the molecular basis of the tumour selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors is unknown. Here we report that Hsp90 derived from tumour cells has a 100-fold higher binding affinity for 17-AAG than does Hsp90 from normal cells. Tumour Hsp90 is present entirely in multi-chaperone complexes with high ATPase activity, whereas Hsp90 from normal tissues is in a latent, uncomplexed state. In vitro reconstitution of chaperone complexes with Hsp90 resulted in increased binding affinity to 17-AAG, and increased ATPase activity. These results suggest that tumour cells contain Hsp90 complexes in an activated, high-affinity conformation that facilitates malignant progression, and that may represent a unique target for cancer therapeutics.
    Nature 10/2003; 425(6956):407-10. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

1k Citations
28 Downloads
1k Views
121.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2009
    • Biogen Idec
      Weston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States