[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal tissues contain large numbers of memory CD4(+) T cells that, through T-cell receptor-dependent interactions with antigen-presenting cells, are believed to have a key role in barrier defense and maintenance of tissue integrity. Here we identify a major subset of memory CD4(+) T cells at barrier surfaces that coexpress interleukin-18 receptor alpha (IL-18Rα) and death receptor-3 (DR3), and display innate lymphocyte functionality. The cytokines IL-15 or the DR3 ligand tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like cytokine 1A (TL1a) induced memory IL-18Rα(+)DR3(+)CD4(+) T cells to produce interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-5, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-22 in the presence of IL-12/IL-18. TL1a synergized with IL-15 to enhance this response, while suppressing IL-15-induced IL-10 production. TL1a- and IL-15-mediated cytokine induction required the presence of IL-18, whereas induction of IL-5, IL-13, GM-CSF, and IL-22 was IL-12 independent. IL-18Rα(+)DR3(+)CD4(+) T cells with similar functionality were present in human skin, nasal polyps, and, in particular, the intestine, where in chronic inflammation they localized with IL-18-producing cells in lymphoid aggregates. Collectively, these results suggest that human memory IL-18Rα(+)DR3(+) CD4(+) T cells may contribute to antigen-independent innate responses at barrier surfaces.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.87.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet may have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In previous studies, the associations between increased intakes of carbohydrates, sugar, starch, and inflammatory bowel disease are inconsistent. However, few prospective studies have investigated the associations between these macronutrients and incident Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are plausible mechanisms for how dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, could prevent Crohn's disease (CD).
To conduct a prospective study to investigate the association between increased intake of DHA and risk of CD.
Overall, 229 702 participants were recruited from nine European centres between 1991 and 1998. At recruitment, dietary intakes of DHA and fatty acids were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored through to June 2004 to identify participants who developed incident CD. In a nested case-control analysis, each case was matched with four controls; odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for quintiles of DHA intake, adjusted for total energy intake, smoking, other dietary fatty acids, dietary vitamin D and body mass index.
Seventy-three participants developed incident CD. All higher quintiles of DHA intake were inversely associated with development of CD; the highest quintile had the greatest effect size (OR = 0.07; 95% CI = 0.02-0.81). The OR trend across quintiles of DHA was 0.54 (95% CI = 0.30-0.99, Ptrend = 0.04). Including BMI in the multivariate analysis, due to its correlation with dietary fat showed similar associations. There were no associations with the other dietary fatty acids studied.
There were inverse associations, with a biological gradient between increasing dietary docosahexaenoic acid intakes and incident Crohn's disease. Further studies in other populations should measure docosahexaenoic acid to determine if the association is consistent and the hypothesis tested in randomised controlled trials of purely docosahexaenoic acid supplementation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal M play an important role in maintaining gut homeostasis. However, little is known about these cells, their precursors, and their role in intestinal inflammation. Here, we characterize the CD14(+) mononuclear cell populations in intestinal mucosa and blood in patients with CD. Among the LP CD14(+) M, we identified three distinct HLA-DR(+)-expressing subsets. Compared with uninflamed, inflamed mucosa contained a marked increase in the proportion of the CD14(hi)HLA-DR(dim) cellular subset. This subset resembled the classical blood monocytes with low CD16, HLA-DR, and CX3CR1 expression. Classical monocytes migrated efficiently toward CCL2 and released the highest levels of MMP-1 and proinflammatory cytokines when stimulated with immune complexes or LPS. Our findings strongly suggest that it is the classical and not the intermediate or nonclassical monocytes that are the precursors to the dominating intestinal CD14(hi)HLA-DR(dim) subset. This enhances our understanding of CD pathology and may provide new options in treatment.
Journal of leukocyte biology 11/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Obesity is associated with a proinflammatory state that may be involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for which there are plausible biological mechanisms. Our aim was to perform the first prospective cohort study investigating if there is an association between obesity and the development of incident IBD.METHODS:A total of 300,724 participants were recruited into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. At recruitment, anthropometric measurements of height and weight plus physical activity and total energy intake from validated questionnaires were recorded. The cohort was monitored identifying participants who developed either Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Each case was matched with four controls and conditional logistic regression used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for body mass index (BMI) adjusted for smoking, energy intake, and physical activity.RESULTS:In the cohort, 177 participants developed incident UC and 75 participants developed incident CD. There were no associations with the four higher categories of BMI compared with a normal BMI for UC (P(trend)=0.36) or CD (P(trend)=0.83). The lack of associations was consistent when BMI was analyzed as a continuous or binary variable (BMI 18.5<25.0 vs. ≥25 kg/m(2)). Physical activity and total energy intake, factors that influence BMI, did not show any association with UC (physical activity, P(trend)=0.79; total energy intake, P(trend)=0.18) or CD (physical activity, P(trend)=0.42; total energy, P(trend)=0.11).CONCLUSIONS:Obesity as measured by BMI is not associated with the development of incident UC or CD. Alternative measures of obesity are required to further investigate the role of obesity in the development of incident IBD.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 15 January 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.453.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages (mφ) are essential for intestinal homeostasis and the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear whether discrete mφ populations carry out these distinct functions or if resident mφ change during inflammation. We show here that most resident mφ in resting mouse colon express very high levels of CX3CR1, are avidly phagocytic and MHCII(hi), but are resistant to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, produce interleukin 10 constitutively, and express CD163 and CD206. A smaller population of CX3CR1(int) cells is present in resting colon and it expands during experimental colitis. Ly6C(hi)CCR2(+) monocytes can give rise to all mφ subsets in both healthy and inflamed colon and we show that the CX3CR1(int) pool represents a continuum in which newly arrived, recently divided monocytes develop into resident CX3CR1(hi) mφ. This process is arrested during experimental colitis, resulting in the accumulation of TLR-responsive pro-inflammatory mφ. Phenotypic analysis of human intestinal mφ indicates that analogous processes occur in the normal and Crohn's disease ileum. These studies show for the first time that resident and inflammatory mφ in the intestine represent alternative differentiation outcomes of the same precursor and targeting these events could offer routes for therapeutic intervention in IBD.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 19 September 2012; doi:10.1038/mi.2012.89.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCAs) have been detected in the serum of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and their unaffected family members. The aim of this study was to establish the value of serological markers as predictors of UC and CD. DESIGN: Individuals who developed CD or UC were identified from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. At recruitment, none of the participants had a diagnosis of CD or UC. For each incident case, two controls were randomly selected matched for centre, date of birth, sex, date of recruitment and time of follow-up. Serum of cases and controls obtained at recruitment were analysed for ASCA IgG, ASCA IgA, perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), antibodies against Escherichia coli outer membrane porin C (OmpC) and flagellin CBir1. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk of CD and UC. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to test accuracy. RESULTS: A total of 77 individuals were diagnosed with CD and 167 with UC after a mean follow-up of 4.5 (SD 3.2) and 4.4 (SD 3.1) years following blood collection, respectively. Combinations of pANCA, ASCA, anti-CBir1 and anti-OmpC were most accurate in predicting incident CD and UC (area under curve 0.679 and 0.657, respectively). The predictive value of the combination of markers increased when time to diagnosis of CD or UC decreased. CONCLUSION: A panel of serological markers is able to predict development of CD and UC in individuals from a low-risk population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-related ocular diseases are characterized by inflammation and accumulation of insoluble proteins. We aimed to investigate the detectability and clinical relevance of a panel of AD-related markers, such as Alzheimer peptides and chemokines, in the aqueous humor (AH) samples taken from patients with cataract only, or cataract and 1 other ocular disease.
The AH samples were obtained during cataract surgery from patients with cataract only (n=162), cataract and glaucoma (n=21), cataract and exfoliation (PEX) (n=31), cataract and macular degeneration (n=36), and cataract and diabetic retinopathy (n=16). The AD peptides (Aß1-42, Aß1-40, Aß1-38) and chemokines (eotaxin, eotaxin 3, interleukin [IL]-8, inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, MCP-4, macrophage-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) were quantified by using multiplex immunoassays.
The levels of the AH peptides (Aß1-38, Aß1-40, Aß1-42) did not differ between disease groups. Independently of disease group, the Aß1-38 levels correlated with Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 (p<0.001, n=277). Notably, the ratio Aß1-42 to Aß1-38 differed between PEX and macular degeneration (mean 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.12 [11.3-3.99] vs 2.23 [2.67-0.52], p=0.003). Among chemokines examined, only MCP-1 and IL-8 were detected in about 90% to 46% of all analyzed (n=266) samples. Higher levels of AH IL-8 were found in the glaucoma group than in cataract only (p=0.011). Independently of disease group, a correlation was observed between AH MCP-1 and IL-8 (rho=0.275, p<0.001, n=266) and between MCP-1 and Aß1-40 (rho=0.239, p<0.001, n=266).
Our findings highlight pathologic similarities between AD and eye diseases, and show the potential of modern technologies to detect AD biomarkers in age-related eye diseases.
European journal of ophthalmology 01/2011; 21(1):104-11. · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reliable epidemiological data for portal vein thrombosis are lacking.
To investigate the incidence, prevalence and survival rates for patients with portal vein thrombosis.
Retrospective multicentre study of all patients registered with the diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis between 1995 and 2004.
A total of 173 patients (median age 57 years, 93 men) with portal vein thrombosis were identified and followed up for a median of 2.5 years (range 0-9.7). The mean age-standardized incidence and prevalence rates were 0.7 per 100,000 per year and 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Liver disease was present in 70 patients (40%), malignancy in 27%, thrombophilic factors in 22% and myeloproliferative disorders in 11%. Two or more risk factors were identified in 80 patients (46%). At diagnosis, 65% were put on anticoagulant therapy. Thrombolysis, TIPS, surgical shunting and liver transplantation were performed in 6, 3, 2 and 8 patients, respectively. The overall survival at 1 year and 5 years was 69% and 54%. In the absence of malignancy and cirrhosis, the survival was 92% and 76%, respectively.
The incidence and prevalence rates of portal vein thrombosis were 0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants per year and 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Concurrent prothrombotic risk factors are common. The prognosis is variable and highly dependent on underlying disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous in vitro experiments demonstrated that acute-phase protein, alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), could act either as an enhancer or as a suppressor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell activation depending on treatment time. Here we investigate how AAT regulates inflammatory responses in the short term when administrated post LPS challenge.
Similar experimental setup was used both in vitro and in vivo: human monocytes and neutrophils were stimulated with LPS for 2 h followed by AAT for a total time of 4 h, and C57BL/6 mice were treated intranasally with LPS and 2 h later with AAT and sacrificed after 4 h. Bronchial lavage (BAL) and lung homogenates were analyzed using bio-plex cytokine assay. BAL cell counts were assessed.
Within 4 h, AAT enhanced LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 release from monocytes and neutrophils. Mice challenged for 4 h with LPS followed by AAT at 2 h showed no changes in BAL cell counts and higher levels of almost all measured cytokines, specifically RANTES in BAL and IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-10 levels in lung homogenates, than in mice treated with LPS only.
Within the short term, AAT enhances the magnitude of LPS-induced specific cytokine/chemokine production, which may play an important role in amplification and resolution of acute-phase inflammatory reactions in vivo.
Agents and Actions 03/2010; 59(7):571-8. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms such as long-standing fatigue or pain, or a prolonged fever, constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of the present study was to determine if an extended immunophenotyping of lymphocytes and monocytes including activation markers can define disease-specific patterns, and thus provide valuable diagnostic information for these patients.
Whole blood from patients with gram-negative bacteraemia, neuroborreliosis, tuberculosis, acute mononucleosis, influenza or a mixed connective tissue disorders, as diagnosed by routine culture and serology techniques was analysed for lymphocyte and monocyte cell surface markers using a no-wash, no-lyse protocol for multi-colour flow cytometry method. The immunophenotyping included the activation markers HLA-DR and CD40. Plasma levels of soluble TNF alpha receptors were analysed by ELISA.
An informative pattern was obtained by combining two of the analysed parameters: (i), the fractions of HLA-DR-expressing CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, respectively, and (ii), the level of CD40 on CD14+ CD16- monocytes. Patients infected with gram-negative bacteria or EBV showed a marked increase in monocyte CD40, while this effect was less pronounced for tuberculosis, borrelia and influenza. The bacterial agents could be distinguished from the viral agents by the T cell result; CD4+ T cells reacting in bacterial infection, and the CD8+ T cells dominating for the viruses. Patients with mixed connective tissue disorders also showed increased activation, but with similar engagement of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Analysis of soluble TNF alpha receptors was less informative due to a large inter-individual variation.
Immunophenotyping including the combination of the fractions of HLA-DR expressing T cell subpopulations with the level of CD40 on monocytes produces an informative pattern, differentiating between infections of bacterial and viral origin. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of these parameters revealed the novel finding of characteristic patterns indicating a subacute bacterial infection, such as borreliosis or tuberculosis, or a mixed connective tissue disorder. The employed flow cytometric method is suitable for clinical diagnostic laboratories, and may help in the assessment of patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary linoleic acid, an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is metabolised to arachidonic acid, a component of colonocyte membranes. Metabolites of arachidonic acid have pro-inflammatory properties and are increased in the mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. The aim of this investigation was to conduct the first prospective cohort study investigating if a high dietary intake of linoleic acid increases the risk of developing incident ulcerative colitis.
Dietary data from food frequency questionnaires were available for 203 193 men and women aged 30-74 years, resident in the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Germany or Italy and participating in a prospective cohort study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). These participants were followed up for the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Each case was matched with four controls and the risk of disease calculated by quartile of intake of linoleic acid adjusted for gender, age, smoking, total energy intake and centre.
A total of 126 participants developed ulcerative colitis (47% women) after a median follow-up of 4.0 years (range, 1.7-11.3 years). The highest quartile of intake of linoleic acid was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23 to 5.07, p = 0.01) with a significant trend across quartiles (OR = 1.32 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.66, p = 0.02 for trend).
The data support a role for dietary linoleic acid in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis. An estimated 30% of cases could be attributed to having dietary intakes higher than the lowest quartile of linoleic acid intake.
Gut 08/2009; 58(12):1606-11. · 10.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Crohn's disease high tissue expression and serum levels of chemokines and their receptors are known to correlate with disease activity. Because statins can reduce chemokine expression in patients with coronary diseases, we wanted to test whether this can be achieved in patients with Crohn's disease.
We investigated plasma levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL26, CXCL8, CXCL10) and endothelial cytokines (sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sICAM-3, thrombomodulin) in ten Crohn's disease patients before and after thirteen weeks' daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin. Of the 13 substances investigated, only CXCL10 was found to be significantly reduced (by 34%, p = 0.026) in all of the treated patients. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.82, p<0.01).
CXCL10 is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, the activation of which results in the recruitment of T lymphocytes and the perpetuation of mucosal inflammation. Hence the reduction of plasma CXCL10 levels by atorvastatin may represent a candidate for an approach to the treatment of Crohns disease in the future.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(5):e5263. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical investigations have revealed that statins can downregulate both acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Whether statins express anti-inflammatory activities in the treatment of Crohn's disease is unknown.
Ten patients were given 80 mg atorvastatin once daily for 13 weeks and then followed up for 8 weeks after the treatment. The anti-inflammatory effects of statin were assessed by measuring levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble (s) CD14, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, sTNFRI and II, CCL2 and 8 and the mucosal inflammation by faecal calprotectin. Circulating monocytes were subgrouped and their chemokine receptor expression of CCR2 and CX(3)CR1 were analysed.
In 8 of 10 patients, atorvastatin treatment reduced CRP (P=0.008) and sTNFRII (P=0.064). A slight decrease in plasma levels of sCD14, TNF-alpha and sTNFRI was observed in 7/10 patients and faecal calprotectin was reduced in 8/10 patients. We also observed that the treatment diminished expression of CCR2 and CX(3)CR1 on monocyte populations (P=0.014). At the follow-up visit, 8 weeks after the atorvastatin treatment was terminated, CRP levels had returned to those seen before the treatment.
Our findings imply that atorvastatin therapy reduces inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease and, therefore, encourage further investigations of statin-mediated protective effects in inflammatory bowel diseases.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2008; 155(7):1085-92. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exact incidence and prevalence of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is unknown in the general population. Published reports differ in terms of the clinical characteristics, effects of therapy and survival.
To investigate the epidemiology, clinical presentation and survival in patients with BCS.
Retrospective multicentre study in Sweden reviewing the medical records of all patients with BCS 1986-2003, identified from the computerised diagnosis database of 11 hospitals, including all university hospitals and liver transplantation centres.
Forty-three patients with BCS were identified, of whom nine (21%) had concomitant portal vein thrombosis. The mean age-standardised incidence and prevalence rates in 1990-2001 were calculated to be 0.8 per million per year and 1.4 per million inhabitants respectively. Myeloproliferative disorders (38%), thrombophilic factors (31%) and oral contraceptives (30%) were common aetiological factors. Two or more risk factors were present in 44%. In 23%, no risk factor was evident. The median follow-up time was 2.7 years. Seventy-two percent were on anticoagulant therapy during follow-up. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting, surgical shunting procedures and liver transplantation were performed in 4, 6 and 18 patients respectively. Nineteen patients died. The overall transplantation-free survival at 1, 5 and 10 years was 47, 28 and 17% respectively.
Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder; the mean age-standardised incidence and prevalence rates in Sweden in 1990-2001 were calculated to be 0.8 per million per year and 1.4 per million inhabitants respectively. The presence of a myeloproliferative disorder was a common aetiological factor in our cohort and about half of the patients had a multifactorial aetiology. The transplantation-free survival was poor.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 09/2008; 29(2):253-9. · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study.
The study population was 260,686 men and women aged 20-80 years, participating in a large European prospective cohort study (EPIC). Participants were residents in the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Germany or Italy. Information on diet was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles.
A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were detected, apart from a marginally significant positive association with an increasing percentage intake of energy from total polyunsaturated fatty acids (trend across quartiles OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 0.99-1.43) p = 0.07).
No associations between ulcerative colitis and diet were detected, apart from a possible increased risk with a higher total polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. A biological mechanism exists in that polyunsaturated fatty acids are metabolised to pro-inflammatory mediators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective leukocyte apheresis is a new type of non-pharmacological treatment for patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Preliminary data have indicated that this type of therapy is safe and efficacious, and large sham-controlled studies are currently in progress. In Scandinavia, a substantial number of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease have already received leukocyte apheresis on a compassionate use basis and the aim of this study was to report the clinical outcome and adverse events in the first patients treated.
Clinical details of the first consecutive 100 patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage (Adacolumn) apheresis in Scandinavia were prospectively registered. Median length of follow-up was 17 months, (range 5-30).
The study population comprised 52 patients with ulcerative colitis, 44 patients with Crohn's disease and 4 patients with indeterminate colitis. In 97 patients the indication for Adacolumn treatment was steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent disease. Clinical remission was attained in 48% of the patients with ulcerative colitis, and an additional 27% had a clinical response to the apheresis treatment. The corresponding figures for patients with Crohn's disease were 41% and 23%, respectively. Complete steroid withdrawal was achieved in 27 out of the 50 patients taking corticosteroids at baseline. Adverse events were reported in 15 patients and headache was most frequently reported (n=7).
Granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage apheresis treatment seems to be a valuable adjuvant therapy in selected patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease. The risk for toxicity or severe adverse events appears to be low.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2007; 42(2):221-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated inflammatory biomarkers in plasma and in circulating monocytes obtained from patients with Crohn's disease and healthy individuals. Additionally, we assessed the effects of atorvastatin, 10 microM, ex vivo on monocytes cultured for 18 hours from the same subjects. Plasma and blood monocytes from eight patients with active Crohn's disease and eight healthy individuals were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and electrophoretic mobility assays. Patients with active Crohn's disease had increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (7.7-fold;p < 0.05), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (1.3-fold; p < 0.05), and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) (1.2-fold; p < 0.05). Monocytes from patients with Crohn's disease showed enhanced secretion of MCP-1 (4.8-fold; p < 0.05) and a markedly suppressed secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) (93%; p < 0.001). Transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappaB did not differ between the groups. Treating monocytes with atorvastatin resulted in the suppression of MCP-1 (42%; p < 0.05) and TNF-alpha (45%; p < 0.05) secretion. These results show increased levels of certain proinflammatory biomarkers, including oxLDL, in plasma and indicate that peripheral blood monocytes in active Crohn's disease are sensitized to chemotaxis. Treatment with atorvastatin may be a potential strategy to reduce oxLDL and inhibit monocyte migration to inflamed tissue, thus attenuating the inflammatory response.