[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bmp2 is essential for dentin formation. Bmp2 cKO mice exhibited similar phenotype to dentinogenesis imperfecta, showing dental pulp exposure, hypomineralized dentin and delayed odontoblast differentiation. As it is relatively difficult to obtain lot of primary Bmp2 cKO dental papilla mesenchymal cells and to maintain a long term culture of these primary cells, Availability of immortalized deleted Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal cells is critical for studying the underlying mechanism of Bmp2 signal in odontogenesis. In this study, our goal was to generate an immortalized deleted Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal (iBmp2(ko/ko) dp) cell line by introducing Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein (FGP) into the immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal (iBmp2(fx/fx) dp) cells. iBmp2(ko/ko) dp cells were confirmed by GFP and PCR. The deleted Bmp2 cells exhibited slow cell proliferation rate and cell growth was arrested in G2 phase. Expression of tooth-related marker genes and cell differentiation were decreased in the deleted cells. Importantly, extracellular matrix remodeling was impaired in the iBmp2(ko/ko) dp cells as reflected by the decreased Mmp-9 expression. In addition, with exogenous Bmp2 induction, these cell differentiation and mineralization were rescued as well as extracellular matrix remodeling was enhanced. Therefore, we for the first time described establishment of iBmp(ko/ko) cells that are useful for study of mechanisms in regulating dental papilla mesenchymal cell lineages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R), which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1) promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac), protein kinase C (PKC) or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K) agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these results show that PTH induces loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype and promotes the motility of these cells. These two effects are mediated through different mechanisms. The loss of phenotype effect is independent and the cell motility effect is dependent on calcium signaling.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0125731. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125731 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Bmp2 is essential for tooth formation, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in regulation of enamel formation was investigated by the Bmp2 conditional knock out (Bmp2 cKO) mice. Teeth of Bmp2 cKO mice displayed severe and profound phenotypes with asymmetric and misshaped incisors as well as abrasion of incisors and molars. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel layer was hypoplastic and enamel lacked a typical prismatic pattern. Teeth from null mice were much more brittle as tested by shear and compressive moduli. Expression of enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, enamelin, and enamel-processing proteases, Mmp-20 and Klk4 was reduced in the Bmp2 cKO teeth as reflected in a reduced enamel formation. Exogenous Bmp2 up-regulated those gene expressions in mouse enamel organ epithelial cells. This result for the first time indicates Bmp2 signaling is essential for proper enamel development and mineralization in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has demonstrated the ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, the specific elements within the EMD compound responsible for these effects remain unknown.
Nine different protein pools from a commercially produced EMD were collected based on molecular weight. Six of these pools, along with the complete EMD unfractionated compound and positive and negative controls, were tested for their ability to induce bone formation in a calvarial induction assay. Immunocytochemistry of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 (phospho-SMAD), osterix, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) was carried out at selected time points. Finally, proteomic analysis was completed to determine the specific protein-peptide content of the various osteoinductive pools.
One of the lower-molecular-weight pools tested, pool 7, showed bone induction responses significantly greater than those of the other pools and the complete EMD compound and was concentration dependent. Dynamic bone formation rate analysis demonstrated that pool 7 was optimally active at the 5- to 10-μg concentration. It was demonstrated that EMD and pool 7 induced phospho-SMAD, osterix, and VEGF-A, which is indicative of increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Proteomic composition analysis demonstrated that pool 7 had the highest concentration of the biologically active amelogenin-leucine-rich amelogenin peptide and ameloblastin 17-kDa peptides.
These studies demonstrate that the low-molecular-weight protein pools (7 to 17 kDa) within EMD have greater osteoinductive potential than the commercially available complete EMD compound and that the mechanism of action, in part, is through increased BMP signaling and increased osterix and VEGF-A. With this information, selected components of EMD can now be formulated for optimal osteo- and angio-genesis.
Journal of Periodontology 08/2013; 85(2). DOI:10.1902/jop.2013.130264 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We generated a new Bmp2 conditional knock-out allele without a neo cassette and removed Bmp2 gene in osteoblasts (Bmp2-cKO(ob)) using the 3.6Col1a1-Cre transgenic model. Bones of Bmp2-cKO(ob) mice are thinner, with increased brittleness. Osteoblast activity is reduced as reflected in reduced bone formation rate, and failure to differentiate to a mature mineralizing stage. Bmp2 in osteoblasts also indirectly controls angiogenesis in the periosteum and bone marrow. VegfA production is reduced in Bmp2-cKO(ob) osteoblasts. Deletion of Bmp2 in osteoblasts also leads to defective mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which correlates with the reduced microvascular bed in the periosteum and trabecular bones. Several marker genes of MSC (α-SMA, CD146 and Angiopoietin-1), in vitro CFU assays and deletion of the Bmp2 gene in vitro in α-SMA+ BMSC support our conclusions. Critical roles of the Bmp2 gene in osteoblasts and MSC are a vital link between bone formation, vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of the periodontium begins following onset of tooth-root formation in a coordinated manner after birth. Dental follicle progenitor cells are thought to form the cementum, alveolar bone and Sharpey's fibers of the periodontal ligament (PDL). However, little is known about the regulatory morphogens that control differentiation and function of these progenitor cells, as well as the progenitor cells involved in crown and root formation. We investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) in these processes by the conditional removal of the Bmp2 gene using the Sp7-Cre-EGFP mouse model. Sp7-Cre-EGFP first becomes active at E18 in the first molar, with robust Cre activity at postnatal day 0 (P0), followed by Cre activity in the second molar, which occurs after P0. There is robust Cre activity in the periodontium and third molars by 2 weeks of age. When the Bmp2 gene is removed from Sp7(+) (Osterix(+)) cells, major defects are noted in root, cellular cementum and periodontium formation. First, there are major cell autonomous defects in root-odontoblast terminal differentiation. Second, there are major alterations in formation of the PDLs and cellular cementum, correlated with decreased nuclear factor IC (Nfic), periostin and α-SMA(+) cells. Third, there is a failure to produce vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in the periodontium and the pulp leading to decreased formation of the microvascular and associated candidate stem cells in the Bmp2-cKO(Sp7-Cre-EGFP). Fourth, ameloblast function and enamel formation are indirectly altered in the Bmp2-cKO(Sp7-Cre-EGFP). These data demonstrate that the Bmp2 gene has complex roles in postnatal tooth development and periodontium formation.
International Journal of Oral Science 06/2013; 5(2). DOI:10.1038/ijos.2013.41 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteocytes, the most abundant cell population of the bone lineage, have been a major focus in the bone research field in recent years. This population of cells that resides within mineralized matrix is now thought to be the mechanosensory cell in bone and plays major roles in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. Studies of osteocytes had been impaired by their location, resulting in numerous attempts to isolate primary osteocytes and to generate cell lines representative of the osteocytic phenotype. Progress has been achieved in recent years by utilizing in vivo genetic technology and generation of osteocyte directed transgenic and gene deficiency mouse models. We will provide an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo models utilized to study osteocyte biology. We discuss generation of osteocyte-like cell lines and isolation of primary osteocytes and summarize studies that have utilized these cellular models to understand the functional role of osteocytes. Approaches that attempt to selectively identify and isolate osteocytes using fluorescent protein reporters driven by regulatory elements of genes that are highly expressed in osteocytes will be discussed. In addition, recent in vivo studies utilizing overexpression or conditional deletion of various genes using dentin matrix protein (Dmp1) directed Cre recombinase are outlined. In conclusion, evaluation of the benefits and deficiencies of currently used cell lines/genetic models in understanding osteocyte biology underlines the current progress in this field. The future efforts will be directed towards developing novel in vitro and in vivo models that would additionally facilitate in understanding the multiple roles of osteocytes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Osteocyte.
Bone 10/2012; 54(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.09.040 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways cooperatively regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Although BMP signaling regulates gene expression of the Wnt pathway, much less is known about whether Wnt signaling modulates BMP expression in osteoblasts. Given the presence of putative Tcf/Lef response elements that bind β-catenin/TCF transcription complex in the BMP2 promoter, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway stimulates BMP2 expression in osteogenic cells. In this study, we showed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is active in various osteoblast or osteoblast precursor cell lines, including MC3T3-E1, 2T3, C2C12, and C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, crosstalk between the BMP and Wnt pathways affected BMP signaling activity, osteoblast differentiation, and bone formation, suggesting Wnt signaling is an upstream regulator of BMP signaling. Activation of Wnt signaling by Wnt3a or overexpression of β-catenin/TCF4 both stimulated BMP2 transcription at promoter and mRNA levels. In contrast, transcription of BMP2 in osteogenic cells was decreased by either blocking the Wnt pathway with DKK1 and sFRP4, or inhibiting β-catenin/TCF4 activity with FWD1/β-TrCP, ICAT, or ΔTCF4. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we confirmed that Wnt/β-catenin transactivation of BMP2 transcription is directly mediated through the Tcf/Lef response elements in the BMP2 promoter. These results, which demonstrate that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an upstream activator of BMP2 expression in osteoblasts, provide novel insights into the nature of functional cross talk integrating the BMP and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in osteoblastic differentiation and maintenance of skeletal homeostasis.
Bone 09/2012; 52(1):145-156. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.09.029 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and oral diseases are closely interrelated. Poor metabolic control in diabetics is associated with a high risk of gingivitis, periodontitis and tooth loss. Salivary flow declines in diabetics and patients suffer from xerostomia. Reduced saliva predisposes to enamel hypomineralization and caries formation; however, the mechanisms that initiate and lead to progression of tooth decay and periodontitis in type 1 DM have not been explored. To address this issue, we analyzed tooth morphology in Akita ⁻/⁻ mice that harbor a point mutation in the Ins2 insulin gene, which leads to progressive hyperglycemia. Mandibles from Akita ⁻/⁻ and wild-type littermates were analyzed by microCT, scanning EM and histology; teeth were examined for amelogenin (Amel) and ameloblastin (Ambn) expression. Mice were injected with pilocarpine to assess saliva production. As hyperglycemia may alter pulp repair, the effect of high glucose levels on the proliferation/differentiation of cultured MD10-F2 pulp cells was also analyzed. Results showed that Akita ⁻/⁻ mice at 6 weeks of age showed chalky white incisors that correlated with marked hyperglycemia and impaired saliva production. MicroCT of Akita ⁻/⁻ teeth revealed excessive enamel wearing and hypomineralization; immunostaining for Amel and Ambn was decreased. A striking feature was invasion of dentinal tubules with Streptococcus mitis and microabcesses that originated in the coronal pulp and progressed to pulp necrosis and periapical periodontitis. High levels of glucose also inhibited MD10-F2 cell proliferation and differentiation. Our findings provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia in combination with reduced saliva in a model of type1 DM leads to decreased enamel mineralization/matrix proteins and predisposes to excessive wearing and decay. Importantly, hyperglycemia adversely affects enamel matrix proteins and pulp repair. Early detection and treatment of hyperglycemia and hyposalivation may provide a useful strategy for preventing the dental complications of diabetes and promoting oral health in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BMP signaling pathway has a crucial role in chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during endochondral bone development. To investigate the specific function of the Bmp2 and Bmp4 genes in growth plate chondrocytes during cartilage development, we generated chondrocyte-specific Bmp2 and Bmp4 conditional knockout (cKO) mice and Bmp2,Bmp4 double knockout (dKO) mice. We found that deletion of Bmp2 and Bmp4 genes or the Bmp2 gene alone results in a severe chondrodysplasia phenotype, whereas deletion of the Bmp4 gene alone produces a minor cartilage phenotype. Both dKO and Bmp2 cKO mice exhibit severe disorganization of chondrocytes within the growth plate region and display profound defects in chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. To understand the mechanism by which BMP2 regulates these processes, we explored the specific relationship between BMP2 and Runx2, a key regulator of chondrocyte differentiation. We found that BMP2 induces Runx2 expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. BMP2 enhances Runx2 protein levels through inhibition of CDK4 and subsequent prevention of Runx2 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Our studies provide novel insights into the genetic control and molecular mechanism of BMP signaling during cartilage development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CSF-1, a key regulator of mononuclear phagocyte production, is highly expressed in the skeleton by osteoblasts/osteocytes and in a number of nonskeletal tissues such as uterus, kidney and brain. The spontaneous mutant op/op mouse has been the conventional model of CSF-1 deficiency and exhibits a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by osteopetrosis, and defects in hematopoiesis, fertility and neural function. Studies to further delineate the biologic effect of CSF-1 within various tissues have been hampered by the lack of suitable models. To address this issue, we generated CSF-1 floxed/floxed mice and demonstrate that Cre-mediated recombination using Meox2Cre, a Cre line expressed in epiblast during early embryogenesis, results in mice with ubiquitous CSF-1 deficiency (CSF-1KO). Homozygous CSF-1KO mice lacked CSF-1 in all tissues and displayed, in part, a similar phenotype to op/op mice that included: failure of tooth eruption, osteopetrosis, reduced macrophage densities in reproductive and other organs and altered hematopoiesis with decreased marrow cellularity, circulating monocytes and B cell lymphopoiesis. In contrast to op/op mice, CSF-1KO mice showed elevated circulating and splenic T cells. A striking feature in CSF-1KO mice was defective osteocyte maturation, bone mineralization and osteocyte-lacunar system that was associated with reduced dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) expression in osteocytes. CSF-1KO mice also showed a dramatic reduction in osteomacs along the endosteal surface that may have contributed to the hematopoietic and cortical bone defects. Thus, our findings show that ubiquitous CSF-1 gene deletion using a Cre-based system recapitulates the expected osteopetrotic phenotype. Moreover, results point to a novel link between CSF-1 and osteocyte survival/function that is essential for maintaining bone mass and strength during skeletal development.
Bone 09/2011; 50(1):42-53. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2011.09.038 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tooth development is regulated by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and their reciprocal molecular signaling. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for tooth formation. However, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in the regulation of postnatal enamel formation was investigated via the conditional ablation of Bmp2 in enamel using the (Osx-Cre) mouse. Bmp2 gene ablation was confirmed by PCR analysis in Osx-Cre, Bmp2(flox/flox) mice. Bmp2-null mice displayed a severe and profound tooth phenotype with asymmetric and open forked incisors. Microradiographs revealed broken incisor tips and dental pulp chamber exposure. The enamel layer of incisors and molars was thin with hypomineralization. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel surface was rough with chipping and the enamel lacked a typical prismatic architecture. These results demonstrate that Bmp2 is essential for enamel formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a major physiologic regulator of calcium, phosphorous, and skeletal homeostasis. Cells of the osteoblastic lineage are key targets of PTH action in bone, and recent evidence suggests that osteocytes might be important in the anabolic effects of PTH. To understand the role of PTH signaling through the PTH/PTHrP receptors (PPR) in osteocytes and to determine the role(s) of these cells in mediating the effects of the hormone, we have generated mice in which PPR expression is specifically ablated in osteocytes. Transgenic mice in which the 10 kb-Dmp1 promoter drives a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase were mated with animals in which exon 1 of PPR is flanked by lox-P sites. In these animals, osteocyte-selective PPR knockout (Ocy-PPR(cKO) mice) could be induced by administration of tamoxifen. Histological analysis revealed a reduction in trabecular bone and mild osteopenia in Ocy-PPR(cKO) mice. Reduction of trabeculae number and thickness was also detected by micro-computed tomography analysis whereas bone volume fraction (BV/TV%) was unchanged. These findings were associated with an increase in Sost and sclerostin expression. When Ocy-PPR(cKO) mice were subjected to a low-calcium diet to induce secondary hyperparathyroidism, their blood calcium levels were significantly lower than littermate controls. Moreover, PTH was unable to suppress Sost and sclerostin expression in the Ocy-PPR(cKO) animals, suggesting an important role of PTH signaling in osteocytes for proper bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis.
Journal of Endocrinology 03/2011; 209(1):21-32. DOI:10.1530/JOE-10-0308 · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Generation of floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines is a valuable tool for studying the effects of Bmp2 on osteoblast differentiation and its signaling pathways during skeletal metabolism. Due to relatively limited sources of primary osteoblasts, we have developed cell lines that serve as good surrogate models for the study of osteoblast cell differentiation and bone mineralization. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines. Primary mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblasts were transfected with pSV3-neo and clonally selected. These transfected cells were verified by PCR and immunohistochemistry. To determine the genotype and phenotype of the immortalized cells, cell morphology, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were analyzed. Also, expression of osteoblast-related gene markers including Runx2, Osx, ATF4, Dlx3, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, osteonectin, osteocalcin and osteopontin were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. These results showed that immortalized floxed Bmp2 osteoblasts had a higher proliferation rate but preserved their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we, for the first time, describe the development of immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines and present a useful model to study osteoblast biology mediated by BMP2 and its downstream signaling transduction pathways.
Cell and Tissue Research 03/2011; 343(3):545-58. DOI:10.1007/s00441-010-1120-3 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for odontogensis and dentin mineralization. Generation of floxed Bmp2 dental mesenchymal cell lines is a valuable application for studying the effects of Bmp2 on dental mesenchymal cell differentiation and its signaling pathways during dentinogenesis. Limitation of the primary culture of dental mesenchymal cells has led to the development of cell lines that serve as good surrogate models for the study of dental mesenchymal cell differentiation into odontoblasts and mineralization. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal cell lines, which were isolated from 1st mouse mandibular molars at postnatal day 1 and immortalized with pSV40 and clonally selected. These transfected cell lines were characterized by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization nodule formation. One of these immortalized cell lines, iBmp2-dp, displayed a higher proliferation rate, but retained the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to primary cells as determined by expression of tooth-specific markers as well as demonstrated the ability to differentiate and form mineralized nodules. In addition, iBmp2-dp cells were inducible and responded to BMP2 stimulation. Thus, we for the first time described the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchyma cell line that might be used for studying the mechanisms of dental cell differentiation and dentin mineralization mediated by Bmp2 and other growth factor signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since little is known regarding osteocytes, cells embedded within the mineralized bone matrix, a proteomics approach was used to discover proteins more highly expressed in osteocytes than in osteoblasts to determine osteocyte-specific function. Two proteomic profiles obtained by two different proteomic approaches using total cell lysates from the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 and the osteoblast cell line MC3T3 revealed unique differences. Three protein clusters, one related to glycolysis (Phosphoglycerate kinase 1, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, hypoxia up-regulated 1 [ORP150], triosephosphate isomerase), one to protein folding (Mitochondrial Stress-70 protein, ORP150, Endoplasmin), and one to actin cytoskeleton regulation (Macrophage-capping protein [CapG], destrin, forms of lamin A and vimentin) were identified. Higher protein expression of ORP-150, Cap G, and destrin in MLO-Y4 cells compared with MC3T3 cells was validated by gene expression, Western blotting, and in vivo expression. These proteins were shown to be selective in osteocytes in vivo using immuno-staining of mouse ulnae. Destrin was most highly expressed in embedding osteoid osteocytes, GapG in embedded osteocytes, and ORP150 in deeply embedded osteocytes. In summary, the proteomic approach has yielded important information regarding molecular mechanisms used by osteocytes for embedding in matrix, the formation of dendritic processes, and protection within a hypoxic environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) promotes differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells to mature osteoblasts that form healthy bone. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation. The antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) and the flavoprotein enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor DPI (diphenyleneiodonium) prevented BMP-2-stimulated alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralized bone nodule formation in mouse 2T3 pre-osteoblasts. BMP-2 elicited a rapid generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) concomitant with increased activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. NAC and DPI inhibited BMP-2-induced ROS production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity respectively. NAD(P)H oxidases display structurally similar catalytic subunits (Nox1-5) with differential expression in various cells. We demonstrate that 2T3 pre-osteoblasts predominantly express the Nox4 isotype of NAD(P)H oxidase. To extend this finding, we tested the functional effects of Nox4. Adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant-negative Nox4 inhibited BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. BMP-2 promotes expression of BMP-2 for maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype. NAC and DPI significantly blocked BMP-2-stimulated expression of BMP2 mRNA and protein due to a decrease in BMP2 gene transcription. Dominant-negative Nox4 also mimicked this effect of NAC and DPI. Our results provide the first evidence for a new signalling pathway linking BMP-2-stimulated Nox4-derived physiological ROS to BMP-2 expression and osteoblast differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is defined as reduced bone mineral density with a high risk of fragile fracture. Current available treatment regimens include antiresorptive drugs such as estrogen receptor analogues and bisphosphates and anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, neither option is completely satisfactory because of adverse effects. It is thus highly desirable to identify novel anabolic agents to improve future osteoporosis treatment. Osthole, a coumarin-like derivative extracted from Chinese herbs, has been shown to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, but its effect on bone formation in vivo and underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we found that local injection of Osthole significantly increased new bone formation on the surface of mouse calvaria. Ovariectomy caused evident bone loss in rats, whereas Osthole largely prevented such loss, as shown by improved bone microarchitecture, histomorphometric parameters, and biomechanical properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that Osthole activated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, increased Bmp2 expression, and stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Targeted deletion of the beta-catenin and Bmp2 genes abolished the stimulatory effect of Osthole on osteoblast differentiation. Since deletion of the Bmp2 gene did not affect Osthole-induced beta-catenin expression and the deletion of the beta-catenin gene inhibited Osthole-regulated Bmp2 expression in osteoblasts, we propose that Osthole acts through beta-catenin-BMP signaling to promote osteoblast differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that Osthole could be a potential anabolic agent to stimulate bone formation and prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2010; 25(6):1234-45. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.21 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic mechanical loads applied to the skeleton from habitual physical activity result in increased bone formation. These loads lead to dynamic pressure gradients and oscillatory flow of bone interstitial fluid, which, in turn, exposes cells resident in the bony matrix to oscillatory fluid shear stress. Dynamic fluid flow has previously been shown to be a potent anabolic stimulus for cultured osteoblasts. In this study, we used cDNA microarrays to examine early phase, broad-spectrum gene expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts in response to physical stimulation. RNA was harvested at 30 min and 1 h post-stimulation. RNA was used for microarray hybridization as well as subsequent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of expression levels for selected genes. Microarray results were analysed by both functional and expression profile clustering. We identified a small number of genes at both the 30 min and 1 h timepoints that were either upregulated or downregulated with flow compared to no-flow control by twofold or more. From the group of genes upregulated at 30 min, we selected nine for RT-PCR confirmation. All were found to be upregulated by at least twofold. We identify a novel set of early response genes potentially involved in mediating the anabolic response of MC3T3 osteoblasts to flow, and provide functional groupings of these genes that may shed light on the relevant mechanosensory pathways involved.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 02/2010; 368(1912):605-16. DOI:10.1098/rsta.2009.0231 · 2.15 Impact Factor