[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in vitro screening protocol was used to transform a systemically-distributed SCD inhibitor into a liver-targeted compound. Incorporation of a key nicotinic acid moiety enables molecular recognition by OATP transporters, as demonstrated by uptake studies in transfected cell lines, and likely serves as a critical component of the observed liver-targeted tissue distribution profile. Preclinical anti-diabetic oGTT efficacy is demonstrated with nicotinic acid-based, liver-targeting SCD inhibitor 10, and studies with a close-structural analog devoid of SCD1 activity, suggest this efficacy is a result of on-target activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that once-a-day dosing of systemically-distributed SCD inhibitors leads to adverse events in eye and skin. Herein, we describe our efforts to convert a novel class of systemically-distributed potent triazole-based uHTS hits into liver-targeted SCD inhibitors as a means to circumvent chronic toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimization of a lead thiazole amide MF-152 led to the identification of potent bicyclic heteroaryl SCD1 inhibitors with good mouse pharmacokinetic profiles. In a view to target the liver for efficacy and to avoid SCD1 inhibition in the skin and eyes where adverse effects were previously observed in rodents, representative systemically-distributed SCD1 inhibitors were converted into liver-targeting SCD1 inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential use of SCD inhibitors for the chronic treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia has been limited by preclinical adverse events associated with inhibition of SCD in skin and eye tissues. To establish a therapeutic window, we embarked on designing liver-targeted SCD inhibitors by utilizing molecular recognition by liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). In doing so, we set out to target the SCD inhibitor to the organ believed to be responsible for the therapeutic efficacy (liver) while minimizing its exposure in the tissues associated with mechanism-based SCD depletion of essential lubricating lipids (skin and eye). These efforts led to the discovery of MK-8245 (7), a potent, liver-targeted SCD inhibitor with preclinical antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic efficacy with a significantly improved therapeutic window.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of trisubstituted ureas has been identified as potent and selective mPGES-1 inhibitors. These compounds are selective over other prostanoid enzymes such as PGF synthase and TX synthase. This series of inhibitors was developed by lead optimization of a hit from an internal HTS campaign. Lead compound 42 is potent in A549 cell assay (IC(50) of 0.34 μM) and in human whole blood assay (IC(50) of 2.1 μM). An efficient and versatile one-pot strategy for the formation of ureas, involving a reductive amination, was developed to generate these inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potent and orally bioavailable SCD inhibitors built on an azetidinyl pyridazine scaffold were identified. In a one-month gDIO mouse model of obesity, we demonstrated that there was no therapeutic index even at low doses; efficacy in preventing weight gain tracked closely with skin and eye adverse events. This was attributed to the local SCD inhibition in these tissues as a consequence of the broad tissue distribution observed in mice for this class of compounds. The search for new structural scaffolds which may display a different tissue distribution was initiated. In preparation for an HTS campaign, a radiolabeled azetidinyl pyridazine displaying low non-specific binding in the scintillation proximity assay was prepared.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity has been linked to a number of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes. Compound 3j, a potent SCD inhibitor (human HepG2 IC(50)=1nM) was identified from the optimization of a lead thiazole compound MF-152 with over 100-fold improvement in potency. In a 4-week chronic oral dosing at 0.2mg/kg, 3j gave a robust 24% prevention of body weight gain in mice fed on a high fat diet accompanied with an improved metabolic profile on insulin and glucose levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multiplexed cell assay has been optimized to measure the activities of fatty acyl-CoA elongase, delta-5 desaturase (Delta5D), delta-6 desaturase (Delta6D), and delta-9 desaturase (Delta9D) together using (14)C-labeled tracers in HepG2 cells, which express the human stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 isoform (SCD1) exclusively. The Delta5 and Delta9 desaturase activities are indexed by the efficient conversion of [1-(14)C]-eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3, cis-8,11,14) to (14)C-arachidonic acid (C20:4, cis-5,8,11,14) and the conversion of [1-(14)C]-stearic acid to (14)C-oleic acid (C18:1, cis-9), respectively. CP-74006 potently blocks the Delta5D activity with an IC(50) value of 20 nM and simplifies the metabolism of [1-(14)C]-alpha-linolenate (C18:3, cis-9,12,15) by accumulating (14)C-eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4, cis-8,11,14,17) as the major (14)C-eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3, cis-11,14,17) and (14)C-docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4, cis-10,13,16,19) as the minor metabolites through Delta6 desaturation and elongation. This simplified metabolite spectrum enables the delineation of the Delta6D activity by comparing the combined Delta6D/elongase activity index of the (14)C-(C20:4/C18:3) ratio with the corresponding elongation index of the (14)C-(C20:3/C18:3) ratio following compound treatment. SC-26196 and sterculic acid specifically inhibit the Delta6D and Delta9D activities with an IC(50) value of 0.1 microM and 0.9 microM, respectively. This medium-throughput cell assay provides an efficient tool in the identification of specific desaturase and elongase inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) inhibitors were developed. Investigations of enzyme potency and metabolism led to the identification of the thiadiazole-pyridazine derivative MF-438 as a potent SCD1 inhibitor. MF-438 exhibits good pharmacokinetics and metabolic stability, thereby serving as a valuable tool for further understanding the role of SCD inhibition in biological and pharmacological models of diseases related to metabolic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenanthrene imidazoles 26 and 44 have been identified as novel potent, selective and orally active mPGES-1 inhibitors. These inhibitors are significantly more potent than the previously reported chlorophenanthrene imidazole 1 (MF63) with a human whole blood IC50 of 0.20 and 0.14 microM, respectively. It exhibited a significant analgesic effect in a guinea pig hyperalgesia model at oral doses as low as 14 mg/kg. Both active and selective mPGES-1 inhibitors (26 and 44) have a relatively distinct pharmacokinetic profile and are suitable for clinical development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SCD1 inhibition may represent a novel treatment for obesity, type-2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. A prototype thiazole amide analog 13 (MF-152) was identified as an excellent tool in the study of SCD biology in animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery and SAR of a novel series of substituted 2,2-bisaryl-bicycloheptane inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) are herein described. SAR studies have shown that 2,5-substitution on the exo-aryl group is optimal for potency. The most potent compounds in this series have an ortho-nitrogen aryl linked with a methyleneoxy as the 5-substituent and a polar group such as a urethane as the 2-substituent. One of the most potent compounds identified is the 5-benzothiazolymethoxy-2-pyridinylcarbamate derivative 2 (FLAP IC(50)=2.8 nM) which blocks 89% of ragweed induced urinary LTE(4) production in dogs (at an I.V. dose of 2.5 microg/kg/min). This compound inhibits calcium ionophore stimulated LTB(4) production in both human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and human whole blood (IC(50)=2.0 and 33 nM, respectively).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenanthrene imidazole 3 (MF63) has been identified as a novel potent, selective, and orally active mPGES-1 inhibitor. This new series was developed by lead optimization of a hit from an internal HTS campaign. Compound 3 is significantly more potent than the previously reported indole carboxylic acid 1 with an A549 whole cell IC(50) of 0.42 microM (50% FBS) and a human whole blood IC(50) of 1.3 microM. It exhibited a significant analgesic effect in a guinea pig hyperalgesia model when orally dosed at 30 and 100mg/kg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors are often used in preclinical studies without potency and selectivity data in the experimental species. To address this issue, we assessed a selective COX-2 inhibitor MF-tricyclic in four commonly used species, namely mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits, in the present study. In both the guinea pig and rabbit whole blood assay, the compound inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PGE(2) production with an IC(50) (COX-2) of 0.6 and 2.8 microM, respectively. By comparison, the compound displayed a much weaker activity on clot-induced formation of thromboxane with an IC(50) (COX-1) of >10 microM (guinea pigs) and 23 microM (rabbits). In keeping with the in vitro potency data, the compound significantly inhibited interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) -induced PGE(2) formation in the rabbit synovium at plasma concentrations near the whole blood assay IC(50) for COX-2 but much lower than that for COX-1. MF-tricyclic was also potent and selective toward COX-2 in mice, inhibiting carrageenan-induced PGE(2) accumulation in the air pouch dose-dependently (ED(50)=0.5 mg/kg) without affecting stomach PGE(2) levels. In rats, MF-tricyclic was found to be effective in three standard in vivo assays utilized for assessing COX-2 inhibitors, namely, LPS-induced pyresis, carrageenan-induced paw edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis at the doses that did not inhibit stomach PGE(2) levels. Similar to that in rats, the compound displayed pharmacological efficacy in mice, guinea pigs and rabbits when tested in the LPS pyresis model. Our data reveal that MF-tricyclic has the desired biochemical and pharmacological properties for selective COX-2 inhibition in all four test species.
European Journal of Pharmacology 04/2007; 560(2-3):216-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.01.008 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors have potential as therapeutic agents for asthma and inflammatory diseases. A novel series of substituted coumarin derivatives has been synthesized and the structure-activity relationship was evaluated with respect to their ability to inhibit the formation of leukotrienes via the human 5-lipoxygenase enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES-1), the enzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of PGE2, is induced during the inflammatory response. For this reason, mPGES-1 could be a potential therapeutic target. A high-throughput screening assay was developed to identify potential inhibitors of mPGES-1. The assay consisted of a 30-s mPGES-1 enzymatic reaction followed by the detection of PGE2 by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The enzymatic reaction was performed in a batch mode because the instability of the substrate (10 min) limited the number of plates assayed within a working day. The detection of the product by EIA was performed on 3 instruments requiring 14 different steps for complete automation. The authors describe here the optimization and implementation of a 2-part assay on a Thermo CRS robotic system. More than 315,000 compounds were tested, and a hit rate of 0.84% was obtained for this assay. Although the entire assay required multiple steps, the assay was successfully miniaturized and automated for a high-throughput screening campaign.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of potent and selective inhibitors of the inducible microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES-1) has been developed based on the indole FLAP inhibitor MK-886. Compounds 23 and 30 inhibit mPGES-1 with potencies in the low nanomolar range and with selectivities of at least 100-fold compared to their inhibition of mPGES-2, thromboxane synthase and binding affinity to FLAP. They also block the production of PGE2 in cell based assays but with a decreased potency and more limited selectivity compared to the enzyme assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral inflammation involves an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in the central
nervous system (CNS), which contributes to allodynia and hyperalgesia. In the present study we have determined the changes
in prostanoid tissue levels and in expression of terminal prostanoid synthases in both the CNS and inflamed peripheral tissue
during carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in the rat. Prostanoid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
and enzyme expression at the RNA level by quantitative PCR analysis during both the early (1-6 h) and late (12 and 24 h) phases
of the inflammatory response. In the paw, the early phase was associated with increases in PGE2 and thromboxane (TX)B2 levels and with a peak of COX-2 expression that preceded that of microsomal prostaglandin-E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1). COX-2 and mPGES-1 remained elevated during the late phase, and PGE2 continued to further increase through 24 h. The cytosolic PGE2 synthase (cPGES) showed a small transient increase during the early phase, whereas mPGES-2 expression was not affected by
inflammation. In the cerebrospinal fluid, elevated levels of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α, PGD2, and TXB2 were detected during the early phase. PGE2 levels also increased in the spinal cord and, to a lesser extent, in the brain and remained elevated in both the cerebrospinal
fluid and the spinal cord during the late phase. The expression of mPGES-1 was strongly up-regulated in the brain and spinal
cord during inflammation, whereas no change was detected for the expression of cPGES, mPGES-2, COX-1, and terminal PGD, TX,
or PGI synthases. The results show that the carrageenan-induced edema in the paw elicits an early phase of COX-2 induction
in the CNS leading to an increase synthesis in PGD2, 6-keto-PGF1α, and TXB2 in addition to the major PGE2 response. The data also indicate that the up-regulation of mPGES-1 contributes to COX-2-mediated PGE2 production in the CNS during peripheral inflammation.