[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pik-h, an allele of Pik, confers resistance against the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Its positional cloning has shown that it comprises a pair of NBS-LRR genes, Pikh-1 and Pikh-2. While Pikh-1 appears to be constitutively transcribed, the transcript abundance of Pikh-2 responds to pathogen challenge. The Pikh-1 CC (coiled coil) domain interacts directly with both AvrPik-h and Pikh-2. Transient expression assays demonstrated that Pikh-2 mediates the initiation of the host defence response. Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of both Pikh-1 and Pikh-2 is required for their functionalities. In a proposed mechanistic model of Pik-h resistance, it is suggested that Pikh-1 acts as an adaptor between AvrPik-h and Pikh-2, while Pikh-2 transduces the signal to trigger Pik-h-specific resistance.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98067. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A stepwise mutation occurred in both pathogens and their respective hosts has played seminal role in the co-evolutionary arms race evolution in diverse pathosystems. The process driven by rice blast AvrPik and Pik alleles was investigated through population genetic and evolutionary approaches. The genetic diversity of the non-signal domain of AvrPik was higher than that in its signal peptide domain. Positive selection for particular AvrPik alleles in the Northeastern region of China was stronger than in the South. The perfect relationship between the functional lineages and AvrPik allele specific pathotypes was established by ruling out the non-functional lineages derived from additional copies. Only four alleles conditioning stepwise pathotypes were detected in natural populations, which were likely created by only one evolutionary pathway with three recognizable mutation steps. Two non-stepwise pathotypes were determined by two blocks in a network constructed by all the 16 possible alleles, indicating that a natural evolution process can be artificially changed by a combination of specific SNPs. Assuming that AvrPik evolution has been largely driven by host selection, the co-evolutionary stepwise relationships between AvrPik and Pik was established. The experimental validation of stepwise mutation is required for the development of sustainable management strategies against plant disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the isolation of Pi1, a gene conferring broad-spectrum resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae). Using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that Pi1 is an allele at the Pik locus. Like other alleles at this locus, Pi1 consists of two genes. A functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) was identified that allows differentiation of Pi1 from other Pik alleles and other non-Pik genes. A extensive germplasm survey using this FNP reveals that Pi1 is a rare allele in germplasm collections and one that has conferred durable resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogen isolates.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2012; 125(5):1047-55. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elite rice cultivar Yuejingsimiao 2 (YJ2) is characterized by a high level of grain quality and yield, and resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae. YJ2 showed 100% resistance to four fungal populations collected from Guangdong, Sichuan, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang Provinces, which is a higher frequency than that shown by the well-known resistance (R) gene donor cultivars such as Sanhuangzhan 2 and 28zhan. Segregation analysis for resistance with F(2) and F(4) populations indicated the resistance of YJ2 was controlled by multiple genes that are dominant or recessive. The putative R genes of YJ2 were roughly tagged by SSR markers, located on chromosomes 2, 6, 8, and 12, in a bulked-segregant analysis using genome-wide selected SSR markers with F(4) lines that segregated into 3 resistant (R):1 susceptible (S) or 1R:3S. The recessive R gene on chromosome 8 was further mapped to an interval ≈1.9 cM/152 kb in length by linkage analysis with genomic position-ready markers in the mapping population derived from an F(4) line that segregated into 1R:3S. Given that no major R gene was mapped to this interval, the novel R gene was designated as pi55(t). Out of 26 candidate genes predicted in the region based on the reference genomic sequence of the cultivar Nipponbare, two genes that encode a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein and heavy-metal-associated domain-containing protein, respectively, were suggested as the most likely candidates for pi55(t).
Science China. Life sciences 02/2012; 55(2):141-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deployment of broad-spectrum resistance genes is the most effective and economic means of controlling blast in rice. The cultivar Er-Ba-Zhan (EBZ) is a widely used donor of blast resistance in South China, with many cultivars derived from it displaying broad-spectrum resistance against blast. Mapping in a set of recombinant inbred lines bred from the cross between EBZ and the highly blast-susceptible cultivar Liangjiangxintuanheigu (LTH) identified in EBZ a blast resistance gene on each of chromosomes 1 (Pish), 6 (Pi2/Pi9) and 12 (Pita/Pita-2). The resistance spectrum and race specificity of the allele at Pi2/Pi9 were both different from those present in other known Pi2/Pi9 carriers. Fine-scale mapping based on a large number of susceptible EBZ × LTH F(2) and EBZ × LTH BC(1)F(2) segregants placed the gene within a 53-kb segment, which includes Pi2/Pi9. Sequence comparisons of the LRR motifs of the four functional NBS-LRR genes within Pi2/Pi9 revealed that the EBZ allele is distinct from other known Pi2/Pi9 alleles. As a result, the gene has been given the designation Pi50(t).
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 01/2012; 124(7):1295-304. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blast resistance gene Pik-p, mapping to the Pik locus on the long arm of rice chromosome 11, was isolated by map-based in silico cloning. Four NBS-LRR genes are present in the target region of cv. Nipponbare, and a presence/absence analysis in the Pik-p carrier cv. K60 excluded two of these as candidates for Pik-p. The other two candidates (KP3 and KP4) were expressed in cv. K60. A loss-of-function experiment by RNAi showed that both KP3 and KP4 are required for Pik-p function, while a gain-of-function experiment by complementation test revealed that neither KP3 nor KP4 on their own can impart resistance, but that resistance was expressed when both were introduced simultaneously. Both Pikp-1 (KP3) and Pikp-2 (KP4) encode coiled-coil NBS-LRR proteins and share, respectively, 95 and 99% peptide identity with the two alleles, Pikm1-TS and Pikm2-TS. The Pikp-1 and Pikp-2 sequences share only limited homology. Their sequence allowed Pik-p to be distinguished from Pik, Pik-s, Pik-m and Pik-h. Both Pikp-1 and Pikp-2 were constitutively expressed in cv. K60 and only marginally induced by blast infection.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 03/2011; 122(5):1017-28. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of rice. Breeding durable resistant cultivars (cvs) can be achieved by pyramiding of various resistance (R) genes. Pia, carried by cv. Aichi Asahi, was evaluated against 612 isolates of M. oryzae collected from 10 Chinese provinces. The Pia gene expresses weak resistance in all the provinces except for Jiangsu. Genomic position-ready marker-based linkage analysis was carried out in a mapping population consisting of 800 F(2) plants derived from a cross of Aichi Asahi×Kasalath. The locus was defined in an interval of approximately 90 kb, flanked by markers A16 and A21. Four candidate genes (Pia-1, Pia-2, Pia-3, and Pia-4), all having the R gene conserved structure, were predicted in the interval using the cv. Nipponbare genomic sequence. Four candidate resistance gene (CRG) markers (A17, A25, A26, and A27), derived from the four candidates, were subjected to genotyping with the recombinants detected at the flanking markers. The first three markers completely co-segregated with the Pia locus, and the fourth was absent in the Aichi Asahi genome and disordered with the Pia locus and its flanking markers, indicating that the fourth candidate gene, Pia-4, could be excluded. Co-segregation marker-based genotyping of the three sets of differentials with known R gene genotypes revealed that the genotype of A26 (Pia-3) perfectly matched the R gene genotype of Pia, indicating that Pia-3 is the strongest candidate gene for Pia.
Science China. Life sciences 03/2011; 54(4):372-8. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • The rice-rice blast pathosystem is of great interest, not only because of the damaging potential of rice blast to the rice crop, but also because both the pathogen and its host are experimentally amenable. The rice blast resistance gene Pik, which is one of the five classical alleles located at the Pik locus on the long arm of chromosome 11, confers high and stable resistance to many Chinese rice blast isolates. • The isolation and functional characterization of Pik were performed in the present study through genetic and genomic approaches. • A combination of Pik-1 and Pik-2 is required for the expression of Pik resistance. Both Pik-1 and Pik-2 encode coiled-coil nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins, and each shares a very high level of protein identity with corresponding proteins encoded by the Pik-m and Pik-p alleles. Pik could be distinguished from other Pik alleles, including Pik-m and Pik-p, by the allele-specific, single-nucleotide polymorphism T1-2944G. • The coupled genes probably did not evolve as a result of a duplication event, and are far from any NBS-LRR R gene characterized. Pik is a younger allele at the locus that probably emerged after rice domestication.
New Phytologist 01/2011; 189(1):321-34. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance gene Pi36 confers a stable and high level of resistance against Chinese isolates of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to investigate the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes in both
the Pi36/AvPi36 incompatible interactions. Among 17 members of the OsMAPK family, OsMAPK2, OsMAPK4, OsMAPK8 and OsMAPK15 were differentially expressed, as were OsWRKY30, OsWRKY32, OsWRKY64 and OsWRKY67 among the 13 OsWRKY members studied. The induction of the expression of genes from both of these families suggests that both the JA and SA pathways
are involved in Pi36-mediated defence. Other genes differentially expressed included the OsbZIP transcription factors, OsNIF1 and OsNIF2, and the NPR1 homologue OsNH2, all of which were reported in the rice blast pathosystem. The involvement of these genes illustrates the complexity of the
downstream signalling pathways involved in the Pi36/AvrPi36 interaction.
Keywordsblast resistance gene Pi36
-quantitative RT-PCR-resistance-related genes-signalling transduction pathway
Chinese Science Bulletin 06/2010; 55(18):1881-1888. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pik-p is carried by cv. K60, which is one of the Japanese differentials widely used in both Japan and China since the 1980s. Its utility and specificity was evaluated with a total of 612 isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae collected from various regions in China in combination with 16 main resistance genes being used in the breeding programs. Pik-p is an independently and dominantly acting gene in the Pik cluster, which conditions differential reactions against many isolates and contains higher resistance in Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan provinces, China, indicating that this gene could be still used in these regions. A high-resolution genetic map of Pik-p was constructed using genomic position-ready markers. A set of 47 recombinants out of 681 F(2) plants derived from the crosses cv. K60 (resistant) x cv. AS20-1 (susceptible) and x cv. Kasalath (susceptible) was identified in the genetic interval defined by the markers RM5926 and K37 which flank the Pik gene cluster. This set was then genotyped with seven markers known to reside within the interval. The closest markers to Pik-p were K28 (approximately 0.60 centimorgans [cM]) and K39 (approximately 0.07 cM). A further four markers in the K28-K39 interval were developed from an in silico analysis based on the cv. Nipponbare genome sequence, and these all co-segregated with Pik-p. This 0.67-cM region is equivalent to a physical separation in cv. Nipponbare of approximately 126 kb, plus an as-yet-unfilled genomic gap of unknown length. Four nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat-type resistance genes are present in this interval, and these represent good candidates for Pik-p.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Oryza sativa subsp. indica reference cultivar (cv.), 93-11 is completely resistant to many Chinese isolates of the rice blast fungus. Resistance segregated in a 3:1 (resistance/susceptible) ratio in an F(2) population from the cross between 93-11 and the japonica reference cv. Nipponbare, when challenged with two independent blast isolates. The chromosomal location of this monogenic resistance was mapped to a region of the long arm of chromosome 12 by bulk segregant analysis, using 180 evenly distributed SSR markers. Five additional SSR loci and nine newly developed PCR-based markers allowed the target region to be reduced to ca. 1.8 cM, equivalent in Nipponbare to about 800 kb. In the reference sequence of Nipponbare, this region includes an NBS-LRR cluster of four genes. The known blast resistance gene Pi-GD-3 also maps in this region, but the 93-11 resistance was distinguishable from Pi-GD-3 on the basis of race specificity. We have therefore named the 93-11 resistance Pi41. Seven markers completely linked to Pi41 will facilitate both marker-assisted breeding and gene isolation cloning.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 02/2009; 118(6):1027-34. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance (R) gene Pi37, present in the rice cultivar St. No. 1, was isolated by an in silico map-based cloning procedure. The equivalent genetic region in Nipponbare contains four nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) type loci. These four candidates for Pi37 (Pi37-1, -2, -3, and -4) were amplified separately from St. No. 1 via long-range PCR, and cloned into a binary vector. Each construct was individually transformed into the highly blast susceptible cultivar Q1063. The subsequent complementation analysis revealed Pi37-3 to be the functional gene, while -1, -2, and -4 are probably pseudogenes. Pi37 encodes a 1290 peptide NBS-LRR product, and the presence of substitutions at two sites in the NBS region (V239A and I247M) is associated with the resistance phenotype. Semiquantitative expression analysis showed that in St. No. 1, Pi37 was constitutively expressed and only slightly induced by blast infection. Transient expression experiments indicated that the Pi37 product is restricted to the cytoplasm. Pi37-3 is thought to have evolved recently from -2, which in turn was derived from an ancestral -1 sequence. Pi37-4 is likely the most recently evolved member of the cluster and probably represents a duplication of -3. The four Pi37 paralogs are more closely related to maize rp1 than to any of the currently isolated rice blast R genes Pita, Pib, Pi9, Pi2, Piz-t, and Pi36.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnaporthe oryzae is a model for plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. We have assembled a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based physical map of
the species, using in silico sequence data. A set of 120 SSR markers was developed from the genomic sequence of the reference isolate 70-15. These markers
were readily amplified from the genomic DNA of other isolates, and high levels of allelic variation characterised the parental
isolates of the two crosses tested. All the markers were locatable to one of the seven M. oryzae chromosomes. An SSR-based physical in silico map was constructed, and pre-existing SSR and RFLP loci were integrated into the map, along with 23 Avr (avirulence) genes and two other genes of importance to the plant/pathogen interaction. This map provides a platform for
population genetics and functional genomics studies in the model pathogen, and even in other evolutionally related pathogens.
Chinese Science Bulletin 11/2007; 52(24):3346-3354. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blast, caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice worldwide. The Chinese native cultivar (cv.) Q15 expresses the broad-spectrum resistance to most of the isolates collected from China. To effectively utilize the resistance, three rounds of linkage analysis were performed in an F(2) population derived from a cross of Q15 and a susceptible cv. Tsuyuake, which segregated into 3:1 (resistant/susceptible) ratio. The first round of linkage analysis employing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was carried out in the F(2) population through bulked-segregant assay. A total of 180 SSR markers selected from each chromosome equally were surveyed. The results revealed that only two polymorphic markers, RM247 and RM463, located on chromosome 12, were linked to the resistance (R) gene. To further define the chromosomal location of the R gene locus, the second round of linkage analysis was performed using additional five SSR markers, which located in the region anchored by markers RM247 and RM463. The locus was further mapped to a 0.27 cM region bounded by markers RM27933 and RM27940 in the pericentromeric region towards the short arm. For fine mapping of the R locus, seven new markers were developed in the smaller region for the third round of linkage analysis, based on the reference sequences. The R locus was further mapped to a 0.18 cM region flanked by marker clusters 39M11 and 39M22, which is closest to, but away from the Pita/Pita(2) locus by 0.09 cM. To physically map the locus, all the linked markers were landed on the respective bacterial artificial chromosome clones of the reference cv. Nipponbare. Sequence information of these clones was used to construct a physical map of the locus, in silico, by bioinformatics analysis. The locus was physically defined to an interval of approximately 37 kb. To further characterize the R gene, five R genes mapped near the locus, as well as 10 main R genes those might be exploited in the resistance breeding programs, were selected for differential tests with 475 Chinese isolates. The R gene carrier Q15 conveys resistances distinct from those conditioned by the carriers of the 15 R genes. Together, this valuable R gene was, therefore, designated as Pi39(t). The sequence information of the R gene locus could be used for further marker-based selection and cloning.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics 11/2007; 278(4):403-10. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The indica rice variety Kasalath carries Pi36, a gene that determines resistance to Chinese isolates of rice blast and that has been located to a 17-kb interval on chromosome 8. The genomic sequence of the reference japonica variety Nipponbare was used for an in silico prediction of the resistance (R) gene content of the interval and hence for the identification of candidate gene(s) for Pi36. Three such sequences, which all had both a nucleotide-binding site and a leucine-rich repeat motif, were present. The three candidate genes were amplified from the genomic DNA of a number of varieties by long-range PCR, and the resulting amplicons were inserted into pCAMBIA1300 and/or pYLTAC27 vectors to determine sequence polymorphisms correlated to the resistance phenotype and to perform transgenic complementation tests. Constructs containing each candidate gene were transformed into the blast-susceptible variety Q1063, which allowed the identification of Pi36-3 as the functional gene, with the other two candidates being probable pseudogenes. The Pi36-encoded protein is composed of 1056 amino acids, with a single substitution event (Asp to Ser) at residue 590 associated with the resistant phenotype. Pi36 is a single-copy gene in rice and is more closely related to the barley powdery mildew resistance genes Mla1 and Mla6 than to the rice blast R genes Pita, Pib, Pi9, and Piz-t. An RT-PCR analysis showed that Pi36 is constitutively expressed in Kasalath.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating crop diseases worldwide. The avirulence gene corresponding to rice blast resistance gene
Pi7 in field isolate CHL346 was inherited as a single gene, designated AvrPi7, in a segregating population consisting of 189 ascospore progenies derived from a cross between field isolates CHL346 and
CHL42. In order to determine the chromosomal location of the AvrPi7 locus, a total of 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed based on the whole-genome sequence of reference
isolate 70-15 of M. oryzae. Linkage analysis of the locus with these SSR markers showed that eight SSR markers on chromosome 1 were linked to the locus,
among which the closest flanking markers MS1-9 and MS1-15 were 3.2 and 16.4 cM from the locus, respectively. For fine mapping,
additional PCR-based makers including eight SSR markers and three candidate avirulence gene (CAG) markers were developed in
the region flanking both markers. The AvrPi7 locus was genetically delimited within a 1.6-cM region flanked by markers MS1-21 and MS1-22, and co-segregated with the marker
CAG2. To construct a physical map of the AvrPi7 locus, molecular markers linked to the Avr gene were mapped on the supercontigs of the reference isolate 70-15 through bioinformation analysis (BIA). Consequently,
the AvrPi7 locus was delimited to a 75-kb interval flanked by markers MS1-21 and MS1-22 based on the reference sequence. Merodiploids
observed in this study are also discussed.
Chinese Science Bulletin 04/2007; 52(7):903-911. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene Pi15 for resistance of rice to Magnaporthe grisea was previously mapped to a ≈0.7-cM region on chromosome 9. To further define the chromosomal region of the Pi15 locus, a contig spanning the locus was constructed, in silico, through bioinformatics analysis using a reference sequence of the cultivar ‘Nipponbare’. One simple sequence repeat marker adopted from the International Rice Microsatellite Initiative and six candidate resistance gene (CRG) markers, developed from gene annotation of the reference sequence of the contig, were used for linkage analysis in a mapping population consisting of 504 extremely susceptible F2 plants. The Pi15 locus was delimited to a ≈0.5-cM region flanked by the markers CRG5 and CRG2 and co-segregated with the markers BAPi15782, CRG3 and CRG4, which was physically converted to a 44-kb interval.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The famous rice cultivar (cv.), St. No. 1, confers complete resistance to many isolates collected from the South China region. To effectively utilize the resistance, a linkage assay using microsatellite markers (SSR) was performed in the three F2 populations derived from crosses between the donor cv. St. No. 1 and each of the three susceptible cvs. C101PKT, CO39 and AS20-1, which segregated into 3R:1S (resistant/susceptible) ratio, respectively. A total of 180 SSR markers selected from each chromosome equally were screened. The result showed that the two markers RM128 and RM486 located on chromosome 1 were linked to the resistance gene in the respective populations above. This result is not consistent with those previously reported, in which a well-known resistance gene Pif in the St. No. 1 is located on chromosome 11. To confirm this result, additional four SSR markers, which located in the region lanked by RM128 and RM486, were tested. The results showed that markers RM543 and RM319 were closer to, and RM302 and RM212 completely co-segregated with the resistance locus detected in the present study. These results indicated that another resistance gene involved in the St. No. 1, which is located on chromosome 1, and therefore tentatively designated as Pi37(t). To narrow down genomic region of the Pi37(t) locus, eight markers were newly developed in the target region through bioinformatics analysis (BIA) using the publicly available sequences. The linkage analysis with these markers showed that the Pi37(t) locus was mapped to a approximately 0.8 centimorgans (cM) interval flanked by RM543 and FPSM1, where a total of seven markers co-segregated with it. To physically map the locus, the Pi37(t)-linked markers were landed on the reference sequence of cv. Nipponbare through BIA. A contig map corresponding to the locus was constructed based on the reference sequence aligned by the Pi37(t)-linked markers. Consequently, the Pi37(t) locus was defined to 374 kb interval flanking markers RM543 and FPSM1, where only four candidate genes with the resistance gene conserved structure (NBS-LRR) were further identified to a DNA fragment of 60 kb in length by BIA.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 12/2005; 111(8):1563-70. · 3.51 Impact Factor