Russell R Reid

The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (53)106.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The present study is a case report of a 3-year-old girl who was referred to our clinic with the clinical features of cherubism. A locally aggressive tumor was diffusely infiltrating the maxilla and mandible. At 4 years after resection, our patient has not demonstrated any signs of recurrence, which might point to a role for adjunctive chemotherapy, in this case imatinib (Gleevec), for odontogenic myxoma.
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    ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of craniofacial defects in children presents several challenges that are not encountered in the adult population. Autologous bone grafts have long been the criterion standard for repairing these defects. Recently, several new materials and techniques have expanded our arsenal of reconstructive options. In this clinical report, we describe the use of both particulate bone grafting and demineralized bone matrix together to repair craniofacial defects encountered in pediatric patients.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 02/2014; · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reconstructive goals for myelodysplastic defects are to provide a multilayered, tension-free and well-vascularized closure to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage, wound infection or breakdown and to optimize neurologic outcomes. We reviewed our ten-year experience with myelodysplastic defects and our preferred technique for large defects utilizing paraspinous flaps followed by V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flaps. A retrospective chart review was performed on all myelodysplastic defects closed at the University of Chicago Medicine from 2002 to 2012. Twenty-three patients were treated: eight were closed using V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flaps, eight primarily, two with transposition flaps and five with bilateral latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps. Patient defect characteristics, reconstructive details, follow up time, and wound complications were analyzed. The primary closure group included eight patients. There was one minor complication and two major complications that required debridement and plastic surgery consultation in this group. The transposition group included two patients and had no wound healing issues. The latissimus and gluteus myocutaneous group included five patients and had one minor wound healing issues. The V-Y crescentic group included eight patients. There were four minor wound breakdowns in the lateral donor sites and one major wound complication involving a CSF leak, meningitis and wound breakdown that required debridement. The groups were stratified by size, <5 cm and >5 cm, and further analyzed. Bilateral V-Y crescentic rotation advancement flap is a useful option when confronted with large myelodysplastic defects. It provides a multilayer, tension-free wound closure and spares the gluteus maximus and latissimus dorsi muscle groups.
    Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 01/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Maureen Beederman, Evan M. Farina, Russell R. Reid
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    ABSTRACT: The normal growth and development of the skull is a tightly regulated process that occurs along the osteogenic interfaces of the cranial sutures. Here, the borders of the calvarial bones and neighboring tissues above and below, function as a complex. Through coordinated remodeling efforts of bone deposition and resorption, the cranial sutures maintain a state of patency from infancy through early adulthood as the skull continues to grow and accommodate the developing brain’s demands for expansion. However, when this delicate balance is disturbed, a number of pathologic conditions ensue; and if left uncorrected, may result in visual and neurocognitive impairments. A prime example includes craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of one or more cranial and/or facial suture(s). At the present time, the only therapeutic measure for craniosynostosis is surgical correction by cranial vault reconstruction. However, elegant studies performed over the past decade have identified several genes critical for the maintenance of suture patency and induction of suture fusion. Such deeper understandings of the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms that regulate suture biology may provide necessary insights toward the development of non-surgical therapeutic alternatives for patients with cranial suture defects. In this review, we discuss the intricate cellular and molecular interplay that exists within the suture among its three major components: dura mater, osteoblastic related molecular pathways and osteoclastic related molecular pathways.
    Genes & Diseases. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The study is a case report on a three-year old girl who was referred to our clinic with the clinical features of cherubism. A locally aggressive tumor was diffusely infiltrating the maxilla and mandible. Our patient has not demonstrated any recurrence now 4 years post resection, which may point to a role of adjunctive chemotherapy, in this case imanitib (Gleevec), in odontogenic myxomas.
    Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The psychosocial impact of craniofacial disfigurement affects both the developing child and his/her family. The Facial Reconstruction Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia has employed a Parent Liaison (PL) to provide psychosocial support to families and has been an invaluable resource in this regard. We hypothesize that a PL impacts the overall outcome of the surgery by building trust between the parents and medical institution, and increasing satisfaction. An anonymous satisfaction survey was sent to families of craniofacial patients treated between January 1976 and June 2012. All patients who had undergone at least 1 craniofacial procedure had addresses on file and were included in this study. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test.During the study, 441 surveys were mailed to families meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 151 families returned completed surveys (34.2%), and 121 surveys were included for analysis (27.4%). In rating overall satisfaction, families who met with the PL had statistically higher scores than those who had not (P = 0.0011). Parents who met with the PL preoperatively reported greater satisfaction in time spent answering questions (P = 0.0029) and the perception that questions were adequately answered (P = 0.0039). No statistical difference was observed in postoperative preparedness between families that did and did not meet the PL. The results demonstrate that the PL is beneficial in the education, experience, and satisfaction of families treated at a large Craniofacial Center. The PL complements the surgeon's treatment of the physical by adding psychosocial support.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 11/2013; 24(6):1898-901. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Composite cranial defects in the setting of infection, irradiation, or cerebrospinal fluid leak present a significant risk for devastating neurologic sequelae. Such defects require soft-tissue coverage and skeletal reconstruction that can withstand the hostile environment of a precarious wound. Patients with high-risk composite cranial defects treated with free flap reconstruction containing a vascularized osseous component from 2003 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Fourteen patients received autologous vascularized cranioplasties between 2003 and 2012 with a mean age of 55.7 years and a mean follow-up of 14.1 months. Preoperatively, all patients had infection, irradiation, cerebrospinal fluid leak, or a combination thereof. Thirteen patients (92.9 percent) were reoperative cases for recurrent tumor, infection, or both. Six patients (42.9 percent) failed previous reconstructive procedures. Tissue biopsy-proven infection was present in 10 patients (71.4 percent) with calvarial osteomyelitis, both osteomyelitis and meningitis, or scalp soft-tissue infection only. Nine patients (64.3 percent) suffered from malignancy and six of these patients were irradiated preoperatively. Cranioplasty was achieved as part of a chimeric free flap using rib, scapula, both rib and scapula, or ilium. Vascularized duraplasty using serratus anterior fascia as a component of the chimeric flap was performed in three patients. No flap losses occurred and all patients had resolution of infection. Soft-tissue and skeletal restoration are the two critical components of composite cranial reconstruction. The authors report outcomes of the largest series of one-stage immediate cranioplasty consisting of autologous soft tissue and vascularized bone in high-risk composite cranial wounds and suggest its application in defects associated with compromised wound beds. Therapeutic, IV.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 10/2013; 132(4):967-75. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Jonathan Bank, Kelly J Ledbetter, Russell R Reid
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2013; 24(3):1054-1055. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The RUNX2 transcription factor regulates osteoblast differentiation. Its absence, as with cleidocranial dysplasia, results in deficient bone formation. However, its excess seems to follow a dose response of over ossification. RUNX2 duplications (3 copies) are exceedingly rare but have been reported to cause craniosynostosis. There are no existing reports of quadruplications (4 copies). We present a case study of a boy with an atypical skull deformity with pan-craniosynostosis whose microarray analysis revealed 4 copies of a 1.24-Mb region from 6p12.3 to 6p21.1 containing the RUNX2 gene. Further characterization of this osteogenic pathway may aid in our understanding of the pathogenesis and subsequent prevention and treatment of syndromic craniosynostosis.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2013; 24(1):126-9. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Rina Patel, Russell R Reid, Colin S Poon
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    ABSTRACT: Maxillofacial fractures are very common. Recognizing patterns of facial fractures is helpful in assessing maxillofacial injury and accurately characterizing all fractures that may be present. Facial fractures are grouped into the following categories: nasal bone, naso-orbito-ethmoid, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary (including Le Fort-type fractures), mandibular, and frontal sinus fractures. Within each subgroup of facial fractures, there are key findings, whether of the fracture itself or of potential associated injuries, that are important factors in determining whether the patient is managed conservatively or with surgery. This article highlights the features of facial fractures that are the most important to the surgeons and provides a framework for effective radiological reporting.
    Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR. 10/2012; 33(5):410-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The squamosal suture is markedly different from the major calvarial sutures of the human skull. The unique properties of the suture are a result of the complex developmental biology of the temporal bone and biomechanical force exerted by surrounding structures. The dysmorphic effects of premature fusion of the suture, and possible treatment strategies in cases of synostosis, have received only brief description in the literature. A retrospective case series was performed. The study included patients evaluated by one of the senior authors (S.P.B., R.R.R., and D.J.S.) between 1993 and 2009. All pertinent patient data including inpatient and outpatient charts, photographic records, and radiographic scans were reviewed. Any management performed under the direction of a craniofacial surgeon was documented--including orthotic helmet therapy and operative management. The study included 14 patients. Synostosis of the squamosal suture was noted to occur either in an isolated fashion or in the setting of other craniofacial malformations. Patients with isolated squamosal synostosis often suffered from a deformity that was mild in severity and tended to improve with time. However, when occurring in the setting of other forms of craniosynostosis, the deformity was often progressive, and transcranial surgery was frequently required. Synostosis of the squamosal suture can result in, or contribute to, significant craniofacial dysmorphism. The optimal form of therapy for this disorder is evolving.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 03/2012; 130(1):165-76. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Craniofacial defect repair is often limited by a finite supply of available autologous tissue (ie, bone) and less than ideal alternatives. Therefore, other methods to produce bony healing must be explored. Several studies have demonstrated that low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation (ie, 5-30 Hz) of osteoblasts enhances bone formation. The current study was designed to investigate whether a Food and Drug Administration-approved, high-frequency PEMF-emitting device is capable of inducing osteogenic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. Osteoprogenitor cells (commercially available C3H10T1/2 and mouse calvarial) in complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium were continuously exposed to PEMF stimulation delivered by the ActiPatch at a frequency of 27.1 MHz. Markers of cellular proliferation and early, intermediate, and terminal osteogenic differentiation were measured and compared with unstimulated controls. All experiments were performed in triplicate. High-frequency PEMF stimulation increases alkaline phosphatase activity in both cell lines. In addition, high-frequency PEMF stimulation augments osteopontin and osteocalcin expression as well as mineral nodule formation in C3H10T1/2 cells, indicating late and terminal osteogenic differentiation, respectively. Cellular proliferation, however, was unaffected by high-frequency PEMF stimulation. Mechanistically, high-frequency PEMF-stimulated osteogenic differentiation is associated with elevated mRNA expression levels of osteogenic bone morphogenetic proteins in C3H10T1/2 cells. Our findings suggest that high-frequency PEMF stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells may be explored as an effective tissue engineering strategy to treat critical-size osseous defects of the craniofacial and axial skeleton. ABBREVIATIONS: ALP, alkaline phosphatase; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; ERK-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1; iCALs, immortalized calvarial cells; IHC, immunohistochemical; MAP, mitogen-activated protein; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; OCN, osteocalcin; OPN, osteopontin; p38α, p38-reactivating kinase; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PEMF, pulsed electromagnetic field.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 03/2012; 23(2):586-93. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Critical-size osseous defects cannot heal without surgical intervention and can pose a significant challenge to craniofacial reconstruction. Autologous bone grafting is the gold standard for repair but is limited by a donor site morbidity and a potentially inadequate supply of autologous bone. Alternatives to autologous bone grafting include the use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, mesenchymal stem cells, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are essential mediators of bone formation involved in the regulation of differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Here we focus on the use of BMPs in experimental models of craniofacial surgery and clinical applications of BMPs in the reconstruction of the cranial vault, palate, and mandible and suggest a model for the use of BMPs in personalized stem cell therapies.
    BioMed Research International 01/2012; 2012:601549. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells which reside in many tissues and can give rise to multiple lineages including bone, cartilage and adipose. Although MSCs have attracted significant attention for basic and translational research, primary MSCs have limited life span in culture which hampers MSCs' broader applications. Here, we investigate if mouse mesenchymal progenitors can be conditionally immortalized with SV40 large T antigen and maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising their multipotency. Using the system which expresses SV40 large T antigen flanked with Cre/loxP sites, we demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) can be efficiently immortalized by SV40 large T antigen. The conditionally immortalized MEFs (iMEFs) exhibit an enhanced proliferative activity and maintain long-term cell proliferation, which can be reversed by Cre recombinase. The iMEFs express most MSC markers and retain multipotency as they can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages under appropriate differentiation conditions in vitro and in vivo. The removal of SV40 large T reduces the differentiation potential of iMEFs possibly due to the decreased progenitor expansion. Furthermore, the iMEFs are apparently not tumorigenic when they are subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice. Thus, the conditionally immortalized iMEFs not only maintain long-term cell proliferation but also retain the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Our results suggest that the reversible immortalization strategy using SV40 large T antigen may be an efficient and safe approach to establishing long-term cell culture of primary mesenchymal progenitors for basic and translational research, as well as for potential clinical applications.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e32428. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promoting osteogenic differentiation and efficacious bone regeneration have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of orthopaedic and musculoskeletal disorders. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are bone marrow progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate along osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Differentiation along these lineages is a tightly controlled process that is in part regulated by the Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs). BMPs 2 and 7 have been approved for clinical use because their osteoinductive properties act as an adjunctive treatment to surgeries where bone healing is compromised. BMP-9 is one of the least studied BMPs, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies have identified BMP-9 as a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. BMP-9 exhibits significant molecular cross-talk with the Wnt/ β-catenin and other signaling pathways, and adenoviral expression of BMP-9 in MSCs increases the expression of osteogenic markers and induces trabecular bone and osteiod matrix formation. Furthermore, BMP-9 has been shown to act synergistically in bone formation with other signaling pathways, including Wnt/ β-catenin, IGF, and retinoid signaling pathways. These results suggest that BMP-9 should be explored as an effective bone regeneration agent, especially in combination with adjuvant therapies, for clinical applications such as large segmental bony defects, non-union fractures, and/or spinal fusions.
    Current Gene Therapy 04/2011; 11(3):229-40. · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Craniosynostosis is a significant disorder affecting 1 in 2500 live births worldwide. Although a large body of work has focused on dural regulation and the contributions of molecular mediators such as fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and transforming growth factor β, minimal attention has been directed toward osteoclast function in cranial suture biology. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) is an essential mediator of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. In this study, physiologic fusion of posterior frontal sutures in murine development correlated with decreasing protein expression of RANK in comparison to age-matched coronal and sagittal sutures via immunohistochemical survey. However, RANK mRNA did not exhibit a similar pattern suggesting that RANK is regulated at the protein level. Fused cranial sutures in nonsyndromic craniosynostotic children also showed decreased levels of RANK staining in immunohistochemistry in comparison to patent sutures from the same patients. Immunohistochemistry with a RANK ligand antibody did not show differences in fused or patent sutures. Moreover, RANK knockdown in calvarial strip suture cultures displayed increased bone density specifically in the suture line after infection with small interfering RANK viruses. Cranial suture biology, similar to bone biology in general, likely depends on a complex interplay between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We now report a temporospatial correlation between RANK expression and suture morphology that suggests that osteoclast activity is important in maintenance of cranial suture patency in normal physiology and disease. Furthermore, RANK downregulation promoted suture fusion establishing a causal relationship between the presence of RANK and patency.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 03/2011; 22(2):699-705. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mandibular arteriovenous malformation (AVM) presented with massive molar socket bleeding and was emergently treated by tooth extraction and partial resection of the surrounding alveolar bone. To achieve hemostasis, the resultant cavity was filled with hydroxyapatite bone cement. Not only was hemostasis and alveolar reconstruction achieved, but follow-up angiography demonstrated venous outlet occlusion and retrograde AVM thrombosis requiring no further treatment.
    Journal of neurointerventional surgery 03/2011; 3(1):92-4. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier investigations suggest that the morphologic features of patients with lambdoid synostosis include ipsilateral occipital flattening, an ipsilateral mastoid prominence, downward cant of the posterior skull base to the affected side, and contralateral hemifacial deficiency. These features are absent in patients with deformational plagiocephaly. The authors hypothesize that significant differences in craniofacial morphology exist between patients with lambdoid synostosis and those with deformational plagiocephaly. Craniometric measurements were performed on patients with unilateral lambdoid synostosis (n = 9) and deformational plagiocephaly (n = 12). Measurements were performed on affected and unaffected sides and included posterior fossa deflection angle, petrous ridge angle, middle cranial fossa and anterior cranial fossa area, temporomandibular joint displacement, and maxillary and mandibular dimensions. Appropriate statistical tests were performed. Statistically significant differences in posterior fossa deflection angle, petrous ridge angle, and middle cranial fossa were found between groups. Lambdoid synostosis patients demonstrated a larger petrous ridge angle (p = 0.0001) and middle cranial fossa (p = 3.37 × 10(-6)) on the unaffected side. Deformational plagiocephaly patients exhibited no discrepancies between sides. The mean posterior fossa deflection angle was 10.55 degrees for the lambdoid synostosis group and 3.59 degrees for the deformational plagiocephaly group (p < 0.0001). All lambdoid synostosis patients had deviation of the posterior cranial fossa toward the affected side. Deformational plagiocephaly patients had variable deflection. All lambdoid synostosis patients demonstrated marked posterior displacement of the contralateral temporomandibular joint. Deformational plagiocephaly patients had either symmetric temporomandibular joint position (75 percent) or slight contralateral posterior displacement (25 percent). Mandibular size was not significantly different between groups. Patients with lambdoid synostosis and deformational plagiocephaly manifest significant differences in cranial base morphology, contributing to the phenotypic differences seen in these two groups of patients.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 01/2011; 127(1):303-12. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells are characterized by their capability to self-renew and terminally differentiate into multiple cell types. Somatic or adult stem cells have a finite self-renewal capacity and are lineage-restricted. The use of adult stem cells for therapeutic purposes has been a topic of recent interest given the ethical considerations associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, or myogenic lineages. Owing to their ease of isolation and unique characteristics, MSCs have been widely regarded as potential candidates for tissue engineering and repair. While various signaling molecules important to MSC differentiation have been identified, our complete understanding of this process is lacking. Recent investigations focused on the role of epigenetic regulation in lineage-specific differentiation of MSCs have shown that unique patterns of DNA methylation and histone modifications play an important role in the induction of MSC differentiation toward specific lineages. Nevertheless, MSC epigenetic profiles reflect a more restricted differentiation potential as compared to ES cells. Here we review the effect of epigenetic modifications on MSC multipotency and differentiation, with a focus on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. We also highlight clinical applications of MSC epigenetics and nuclear reprogramming.
    Stem cells international. 01/2011; 2011:201371.
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    ABSTRACT: The Wnt pathway plays a critical role in development and differentiation of many tissues, such as the gut, hair follicles, and bone. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnts may function as key regulators in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and bone formation. Conversely, aberrant Wnt signaling is associated with many osteogenic pathologies. For example, genetic alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway lead to osteoporosis and osteopenia, while inactivating mutations of Wnt inhibitors result in a hyperostotic skeleton with increased bone mineral density. Hyperparathyroidism causes osteopenia via induction of the Wnt signaling pathway. Lithium, often used to treat bipolar disorder, blocks a Wnt antagonist, decreasing the patient's risk of fractures. Thus, manipulating the Wnt pathway may offer plenty therapeutic opportunities in treating bone disorders. In fact, induction of the Wnt signaling pathway or inhibition of Wnt antagonists has shown promise in treating bone metabolic disorders, including osteoporosis. For example, antibodies targeting the Wnt inhibitor Sclerostin lead to increased bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. However, such therapies targeting the Wnt pathway are not without risk, as genetic alternations may lead to over-activation of Wnt/β-catenin and its association with many tumors. It is conceivable that targeting Wnt inhibitors may predispose the individuals to tumorigenic phenotypes, at least in bone. Here, we review the roles of Wnt signaling in bone metabolic and pathologic processes, as well as the therapeutic potential for targeting Wnt pathway and its associated risks in bone diseases.
    Current Molecular Pharmacology 01/2011; 4(1):14-25.

Publication Stats

704 Citations
106.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • • Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Division of Plastic Surgery
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2012
    • Chongqing University
      • School of Bioengineering
      Chongqing, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 2007–2012
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Chongqing Medical University
      Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 2004–2007
    • Northwestern University
      • • Division of Plastic Surgery
      • • Feinberg School of Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States