[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To date, tanning prevention programs have led to limited success. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential unexpected prevention effects of completing an online survey focused on tanning attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge among female college tanners. Methods: A sample of 92 female undergraduate students from the USA, mean age. =. 20.09, SD. =. 1.41 years, who engaged in indoor tanning completed an online survey assessing awareness of tanning-related health risks, appearance-based motivations to tan and not to tan, media literacy related to tanning marketing, and tanning behaviors in 2013. Four months later, participants were invited to complete a follow-up survey assessing tanning intentions and behaviors since completing the initial survey. Results: Fifty-one participants (55%) completed the follow-up questions, of whom 43 (84.3%) reported having decreased or ceased engaging in indoor tanning. In addition participants provided comments indicating that completing the survey had lead to decreases in their tanning behaviors. Conclusions: Our study presents novel and compelling support for using brief online surveys for decreasing health-risk behaviors such as sunbed use. Such measures are extremely cost-effective and easy to disseminate and implement. Replication and extension of these findings are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appearance investment has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction. Despite this, few studies have explored men's investment in their appearance. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine appearance investment as a prospective predictor of young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals. A community sample of 187 young men participated in a study at ages 21 and 24. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that appearance investment, as hypothesized, was a prospective predictor of increases in leanness orientation, media-ideal internalization, and muscularity behaviors. However, appearance investment did not predict increases in muscularity dissatisfaction. The present findings highlight the importance of including appearance investment in sociocultural models of the development of men's body image, and suggest that appearance investment may be an important target variable to consider when designing body dissatisfaction prevention and intervention programs tailored to young men.
Body image 11/2015; 16:10-16. DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.10.001 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic traits constitute the Dark Tetrad of personality traits. While this construct has received increasing attention, to our knowledge, there is no typological study aiming to identify homogeneous groups of high-school students based on these traits. The aim of this study was (a) to identify a typology of high-school students based on the Dark Tetrad traits in a community sample and (b) to examine whether these profiles differ on psychopathological variables known to be associated with personality traits. Participants were 615 high-school students who completed self-report questionnaires. Psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic traits were moderately correlated suggesting they may be overlapping but distinct constructs. Cluster analysis yielded four groups: a Low Traits group, a Sadistic–Machiavellian group, a Psychopathic–Narcissistic group, and a high traits group called the Dark Tetrad cluster which was high on all traits. The Dark Tetrad cluster constituted 15% of the total sample and was characterized by the highest levels of antisocial behaviors and suicidal ideations. This study suggests that a significant minority of non-clinical high-school students is characterized by the presence of high levels of the Dark Tetrad traits and self and other-aggression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to traditional media has been associated with bulimic symptoms. However, to date, little is known regarding the effects of Internet exposure. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between Internet use and bulimic symptoms within the competing frameworks of sociocultural, impression management, and self-objectification theory. A sample of 289 French women aged 18-25 years completed an online questionnaire assessing bulimic symptoms, body dissatisfaction, body image avoidance, self-surveillance, body shame, and weekly Internet use. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that body shame and body image avoidance mediated the effect of weekly Internet use on bulimic symptoms. Furthermore, when entered into a multiple mediation analysis, these two variables provided independent mediation pathways of equal magnitude. The findings support the usefulness of both the self-objectification and impression management frameworks for investigating the relationship between Internet use and bulimic symptoms. Longitudinal research would help to clarify these pathways further.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 09/2015; DOI:10.1089/cyber.2015.0154 · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clarifying the trajectories of body image and eating concerns in adolescents is critical. We examined longitudinal patterns of development of body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction among early adolescent girls within a sociocultural framework. A sample of 259 school girls (M age = 12.76 years, SD = 0.44) reported on sociocultural influences, body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction at baseline, 8, and 14 months. A subsample provided height and weight. Analyses identified four trajectories of body dissatisfaction: low, moderate-increasing, moderate-decreasing, and high. Three trajectories of dietary restriction emerged: low, moderate, and high. Baseline and 8-month sociocultural variables and BMI differed between the trajectories. A subgroup of girls displays high levels of body image and eating concerns by early adolescence. Sociocultural variables influence these trajectories
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10964-015-0356-3 · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic traits constitute the Dark Tetrad of personality
traits. While this construct has received increasing attention, to our knowledge, there is no typological
study aiming to identify homogeneous groups of high-school students based on these traits. The aim
of this study was (a) to identify a typology of high-school students based on the Dark Tetrad traits in a
community sample and (b) to examine whether these profiles differ on psychopathological variables
known to be associated with personality traits. Participants were 615 high-school students who completed
self-report questionnaires. Psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic traits were moderately
correlated suggesting they may be overlapping but distinct constructs. Cluster analysis yielded
four groups: a Low Traits group, a Sadistic–Machiavellian group, a Psychopathic–Narcissistic group,
and a high traits group called the Dark Tetrad cluster which was high on all traits. The Dark Tetrad cluster
constituted 15% of the total sample and was characterized by the highest levels of antisocial behaviors
and suicidal ideations. This study suggests that a significant minority of non-clinical high-school students
is characterized by the presence of high levels of the Dark Tetrad traits and self and other-aggression.
Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83:97–101. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction Universities are believed to present rich opportunities for eating disorder prevention research. However, the widespread recruitment from psychology subject pools and the attractive compensation offered widens the gap between efficacy trials and effectiveness studies, and raises concerns about the possibility of wide-scale dissemination. Objective To encourage thinking about how to disseminate prevention programs broadly. Method We provide a real-world example of the implementation of two prevention programs. Results This paper illustrates the difficulties of recruiting for a disordered eating prevention intervention when offering minimal compensation despite the use of comprehensive and creative advertising. Conclusions These difficulties speak to the challenges in conducting widespread eating disorder prevention in university settings and highlight the need to develop strategies to help overcome challenges in prevention research and dissemination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Internet addiction or problematic Internet use is a recent and increasingly recognized disorder which has been consistently associated with many psychiatric disorders, adding to the documented negative consequences of problematic Internet use. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits and none in a French sample. Moreover, those which have evaluated this relationship have mainly been conducted on small samples.
The main goal of our study was to explore the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits in a French sample, taking into account the presence of depressive symptoms, and gender.
A sample of 276 participants aged from 18 to 50 (M = 28 ; SD = 8.9) completed a questionnaire assessing problematic Internet use, time spent online, the presence of ten personality traits and depressive symptoms.
Our results revealed significant differences between genders. Among men, problematic Internet use was associated with Personality Clusters A and B while in women, no Cluster or personality traits was associated with problematic Internet use. Time spent online was predicted by schizoid personality traits among men and avoidant personality traits among women.
Our results indicate that Cluster A (schizoid and schizotypal) and Cluster B traits (borderline and antisocial) play a more important role in problematic Internet use than Cluster C traits among men. Differences between men and women regarding the relationships between personality traits, time online and problematic Internet use may be related to differences in the activities engaged in by men and women online. We observed that communication websites use was more prevalent among women while erotic, gambling and shopping websites use was more prevalent among men suggesting that the characteristics of problematic Internet use may vary according to gender.
Few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits, and none among a French sample. These results suggest the importance of assessing the impact of personality traits on Internet use, particularly on time spent online, by differentiating results in terms of gender and online activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms.
We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms.
We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms.
Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.
Journal of Eating Disorders 12/2014; 2(1):30. DOI:10.1186/s40337-014-0030-2
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Internet addiction is a recently recognized disorder which has received increasing attention worldwide over the past two decades. This focus has led to the development of several screening tools measuring different aspects of Internet use, and more particularly Internet addiction. However, a synthesis of the information regarding the validity and usefulness of these different scales is lacking and would help inform researchers and clinicians in their choice of measures when assessing for Internet addiction. The main goal of this study was therefore to identify all the existing measures of Internet addiction and to review the psychometric properties of the most frequently used ones. Five electronic databases were searched using the key words: internet use disorder, internet addiction, problematic internet use, pathologic internet use, cyber dependence, and scale, test, questionnaire, tool, assessment and inventory. Forty-five tools assessing Internet addiction were identified, of which only seventeen had been evaluated more than once in terms of their psychometric properties. Most of the existing scales for Internet addiction require further validation work but some of them already demonstrate promising psychometric properties. Given the interest in this phenomenon, it seems important for the field to promote the use of validated and well-established measures.
Computers in Human Behavior 12/2014; 41. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.026 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L’anorexie altère la qualité de vie familiale et amplifie les dysfonctionnements familiaux. Il apparaît primordial de prendre en charge la famille des anorexiques pour limiter l’impact de l’anorexie sur la famille. Cette étude exploratoire s’intéresse au vécu de la prise en charge de l’anorexie des parents et de la fratrie de jeunes filles anorexiques en France. L’objectif est d’explorer le vécu des traitements afin d’acquérir une meilleure connaissance de l’impact de cette maladie sur les parents et sur la fratrie. L’objectif second est de proposer différentes pistes de réflexion pour améliorer le processus de soin du patient et de sa famille.
Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence 12/2014; 62:508-513. DOI:10.1016/j.neurenf.2013.12.005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants' mean age was 18.7 ± 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 ± 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 ± 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 09/2014; 8(5):1029-34. DOI:10.1177/1932296814540130
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elder mistreatment is expected to rise with the aging of the American population. To date, the association between specific forms of mistreatment and decreased quality of life is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between verbal mistreatment among elderly individuals and depression and quality of life. A sample of 142 older adults (40% male) aged 65 or over was enrolled from a large medical practice and academic dental practice, mean (SD) age = 74.88 (6.98) years. Thirty-eight percent of the sample reported verbal mistreatment. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and depression, verbal mistreatment was a significant predictor of social functioning (r = -.28, p < .001), mental health (r = -.25, p < .001), and role limitations OR = 3.02, 95% CI [1.34-6.77]. The present findings highlight the prevalence of verbal mistreatment of elderly individuals.
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 08/2014; 26(4):351-364. DOI:10.1080/08946566.2013.801817