[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Acute exacerbations (AE) in patients with COPD are associated with a decline in lung function, increased risk of hospitalization, and mortality. In this cross-sectional study we tested whether the level of objectively measured daily physical activity and exercise capacity are associated with the number of COPD exacerbations. Methods In 210 patients with COPD (67 % men; mean (SD) age: 63 (8) years) enrolled in The Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcomes Cohort of Switzerland (TOPDOCS) physical activity (PA) (steps per day, physical activity level, (PAL)), exercise capacity (6-min walking distance, (6MWD)), comorbidities, lung function, and medication were assessed. Differences between COPD patients with frequent (≥2 year) and infrequent (0–1 year) exacerbations were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate whether the level of objectively measured daily physical activity and exercise capacity are associated with the number of COPD exacerbations. Results Patients with frequent AE had a significantly lower FEV1 and 6MWD compared to patients with infrequent AE. In univariate analysis, the number of exacerbations was inversely associated with FEV1, 6MWD, BMI, and smoking status while there was a positive association with RV/TLC and combined inhaled medication. However, there was no significant association with PAL and steps per day. In multivariate analysis, FEV1 and the use of combined inhaled medication were independently associated with the number of AE, after correction for covariates. Conclusions The findings of this study imply that FEV1, independent of inhaled medication, is significantly associated with COPD exacerbations. Neither physical activity nor exercise capacity was independently associated with COPD exacerbations.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 12/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I–IV, 40–75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601–0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620–0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for Depression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With respect to the overweight epidemic, this study aimed to investigate the association between domain-specific physical activity and body composition measures in Swiss male employees.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 10/2014; 56(10):1074-1081. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease proposed in 2011 a new system to classify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into risk groups A-D, which considers symptoms and future exacerbation risk to grade disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between COPD risk group classifications using COPD assessment test (CAT) or modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and severity grades or past-year exacerbations. Furthermore, physical activity across risk groups was examined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mannitol- and exercise bronchial provocation tests are both used to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The study aim was to compare the short-term treatment response to budesonide and montelukast on airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol challenge test and to exercise challenge test in children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: In the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is a major goal to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients with COPD often suffer from exertional dyspnea and adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which could be associated with poorer HRQOL. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent association of objectively measured daily physical activity and functional capacity with HRQOL in patients with COPD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, 87 stable patients (58.6% male, mean age: 67.3 ± 9.6 yrs) with COPD in GOLD grades I (n = 23), II (n = 46), III (n = 12) and IV (n = 6) were investigated. To assess HRQOL, the COPD assessment test (CAT) was completed. Patients performed spirometry and 6-min walk test. Physical activity was measured by the SenseWear Mini Armband on 7 consecutive days. By performing a multiple linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CAT score were identified. Results: Age (β = −0.39, p = 0.001), average daily steps (β = −0.31, p = 0.033) and 6-min walk distance (β = −0.32, p = 0.019) were found to be independent predictors of CAT score, whereas physical activity duration above 3 METs (p = 0.498) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s in % of predicted (p = 0.364) showed no significant association. Conclusions: This study showed that average daily steps and functional capacity are independent determinants of HRQOL in patients with COPD. This emphasizes the importance to remain active and mobile, which is associated with better HRQOL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep problems are a well-known risk factor for work injuries, but less is known about which vulnerable populations are most at risk. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between sleep quality and the risk of work injury and to identify factors that may modify the association. A case-control study including 180 cases and 551 controls was conducted at the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, from 1 December 2009 to 30 June 2011. Data on work injuries and sleep quality were collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association between sleep quality and work injury were estimated in multivariable logistic regression analyses and were stratified by hypothesized effect modifiers (age, gender, job risk, shift work, sleep duration and working hours). Poor sleep quality was associated significantly with work injury of any type (P < 0.05) and with being caught in particular (P < 0.05). The association between poor sleep quality and work injury was significantly higher for workers older than 30 years (odds ratio>30 1.30 versus odds ratio≤30 0.91, P < 0.01), sleeping 7 h or less per night (odds ratio≤7 1.17 versus odds ratio>7 0.79, P < 0.05) and working 50 h or more per week (odds ratio≥50 1.79 versus odd ratio<50 1.10, P < 0.01). Work injury risk increased with increasing severity of sleep problems (P < 0.05). Prior work injury frequency increased with decreasing sleep quality (P < 0.05). Older age, short sleep duration and long working hours may enhance the risk of work injuries associated with sleep quality.
Journal of Sleep Research 06/2014; · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review describes different bronchoprovocation tests and their merits in diagnosing asthma.
A new indirect challenge test using dry powder mannitol has been made available and has been systematically validated and tested in different populations.
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma, and its measurement using direct inhalation challenges, particularly with inhaled methacholine or histamine, or indirect challenges using stimuli such as exercise, dry air hyperpnea, distilled water, hypertonic saline and mannitol, and the pharmacological agent adenosine monophosphate is important in establishing a correct diagnosis. Direct challenge tests are sensitive and have a high negative predictive value to exclude asthma. This is particularly true in excluding asthma as a diagnosis in patients with symptoms that suggest asthma, but are caused by another condition. Indirect AHR correlates better with eosinophilic airway inflammation. Therefore, indirect challenge tests are seen as more specific. A newer indirect challenge test that uses a kit containing prepacked capsules of dry powder mannitol in different doses is safe and efficient to use. Indirect challenge tests are superior to direct challenge tests to confirm the presence of asthma.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 11/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE International guidelines advocate a 7- to 14-day course of systemic glucocorticoid therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the optimal dose and duration are unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a short-term (5 days) systemic glucocorticoid treatment in patients with COPD exacerbation is noninferior to conventional (14 days) treatment in clinical outcome and whether it decreases the exposure to steroids. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS REDUCE (Reduction in the Use of Corticosteroids in Exacerbated COPD), a randomized, noninferiority multicenter trial in 5 Swiss teaching hospitals, enrolling 314 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute COPD exacerbation, past or present smokers (≥20 pack-years) without a history of asthma, from March 2006 through February 2011. INTERVENTIONS Treatment with 40 mg of prednisone daily for either 5 or 14 days in a placebo-controlled, double-blind fashion. The predefined noninferiority criterion was an absolute increase in exacerbations of at most 15%, translating to a critical hazard ratio of 1.515 for a reference event rate of 50%. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Time to next exacerbation within 180 days. RESULTS Of 314 randomized patients, 289 (92%) of whom were admitted to the hospital, 311 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis and 296 in the per-protocol analysis. Hazard ratios for the short-term vs conventional treatment group were 0.95 (90% CI, 0.70 to 1.29; P = .006 for noninferiority) in the intention-to-treat analysis and 0.93 (90% CI, 0.68 to 1.26; P = .005 for noninferiority) in the per-protocol analysis, meeting our noninferiority criterion. In the short-term group, 56 patients (35.9%) reached the primary end point; 57 (36.8%) in the conventional group. Estimates of reexacerbation rates within 180 days were 37.2% (95% CI, 29.5% to 44.9%) in the short-term; 38.4% (95% CI, 30.6% to 46.3%) in the conventional, with a difference of -1.2% (95% CI, -12.2% to 9.8%) between the short-term and the conventional. Among patients with a reexacerbation, the median time to event was 43.5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 13 to 118) in the short-term and 29 days (IQR, 16 to 85) in the conventional. There was no difference between groups in time to death, the combined end point of exacerbation, death, or both and recovery of lung function. In the conventional group, mean cumulative prednisone dose was significantly higher (793 mg [95% CI, 710 to 876 mg] vs 379 mg [95% CI, 311 to 446 mg], P < .001), but treatment-associated adverse reactions, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, did not occur more frequently. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients presenting to the emergency department with acute exacerbations of COPD, 5-day treatment with systemic glucocorticoids was noninferior to 14-day treatment with regard to reexacerbation within 6 months of follow-up but significantly reduced glucocorticoid exposure. These findings support the use of a 5-day glucocorticoid treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier:ISRCTN19646069.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2013; · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Sleep problems are a potential risk factor for work injuries but the extent of the risk is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effect of sleep problems on work injuries. METHODS: A systematic literature search using several databases was performed. Sleep problems of any duration or frequency as well as work injuries of any severity were of interest. The effect estimates of the individual studies were pooled and relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through random effects models. Additionally, the population attributable risk was estimated. RESULTS: In total, 27 observational studies (n = 268,332 participants) that provided 54 relative risk estimates were included. The findings of the meta-analysis suggested that workers with sleep problems had a 1.62 times higher risk of being injured than workers without sleep problems (RR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.43-1.84). Approximately 13% of work injuries could be attributed to sleep problems. CONCLUSION: This systematic review confirmed the association between sleep problems and work injuries and, for the first time, quantified its magnitude. As sleep problems are of growing concern in the population, these findings are of interest for both sleep researchers and occupational physicians.
Sleep Medicine Reviews 05/2013; · 9.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess airway hyperresponsiveness to eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation and dry powder mannitol challenge in athletes aiming to participate at the Paralympic Games 2008 in Beijing, especially in athletes with spinal cord injury.
Forty-four athletes with a disability (27 with paraplegia (group 1), 3 with tetraplegia (group 2) and 14 with other disabilities such as blindness or single limb amputations (group 3) performed spirometry, skin prick testing, measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation challenge test (EVH) and mannitol challenge test (MCT). A fall in FEV1 of >=10% in either challenge test was deemed positive for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
Fourteen (32%) athletes were atopic and 7 (16%) had a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. Absolute lung function values were significantly lower in patients of group 1 and 2 compared to group 3. Nine (20%) athletes were positive to EVH (8 paraplegics, 1 tetraplegic), and 8 (18%) athletes were positive to MCT (7 paraplegics, 1 tetraplegic). Fourteen (22.7%) subjects were positive to at least one challenge; only three athletes were positive to both tests. None of the athletes in group 3 had a positive test. Both challenge tests showed a significant association with physician-diagnosed asthma status (p = 0.0001). The positive and negative predictive value to diagnose physician-diagnosed asthma was 89% and 91% for EHV, and 75% and 86% for MCT, respectively.
EVH and MCT can be used to identify, but especially exclude asthma in Paralympic athletes.
BMC sports science, medicine and rehabilitation. 04/2013; 5(1):7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health challenge and a leading cause of death worldwide. Several risk factors have been identified, with cigarette smoking being the most important. Diagnostic assessment is based on symptoms, risk of exacerbations and results of lung function testing. A fixed post-bronchodilator ratio for forced expiratory volume in one second to forced expiratory volume (FEV1/FVC) of <0.7 is required to make the diagnosis, and the severity of airflow obstruction defines the grade according to GOLD (Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD). The GOLD strategy makes therapeutic recommendations taking into account the grade, symptomatic assessment and future risk of exacerbations. This review focuses on the therapeutic options for COPD, in accordance with the GOLD strategy. Smoking cessation is the most effective treatment option in all COPD stages. Bronchodilators, namely long-acting antimuscarinic drugs and long-acting beta-agonists, form the mainstay of treatment in COPD. Patients with frequent exacerbations also benefited from the addition of inhaled corticosteroids. Roflumilast is an add-on option for patients with severe COPD. Several controversies are the subject of discussion: (1.) whether pharmacotherapy can modify the natural history of COPD; (2.) whether pharmacotherapy should be started in the early stages of COPD; (3.) the impact of therapy on comorbidities; (4.) whether patients benefit from a combination therapy with a long-acting beta-agonist, a long-acting antimuscarinic drug and an inhaled corticosteroid; (5.) step-down therapy. This overview also reviews the evidence for recommended vaccines in COPD, as well as nonpharmacological therapies. Rehabilitation is an essential part of COPD treatment. Oxygen therapy, noninvasive nocturnal ventilation and surgical treatment options only apply to a highly selected group of patients. Disease management programmes and guideline adherence are briefly discussed. In conclusion, although there is debate as to the extent with which pharmacological therapies influence mortality, adherence to the GOLD strategy is recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Use of inhaled corticosteroids in mild to moderate COPD is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol might identify patients who are likely to respond to add-on inhaled corticosteroids. METHODS:Ninety subjects with mild to moderate COPD were recruited and 68 subsequently randomised in a double-blind manner to receive inhaled budesonide (1600 mcg/day, n= 31) or placebo (n= 37) for 3 months. Thirty-eight subjects had airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol (17 received budesonide, 21 placebo). All subjects received tiotropium throughout the study including 4 weeks before randomisation. Spirometry, quality of life (St George Respiratory Questionnaire), degree of dyspnoea, airway responsiveness to mannitol and exhaled nitric oxide were assessed at week 0 (recruitment), week 4 (baseline prior to randomisation) and week 16 (posttreatment). RESULTS:Compared to placebo, budesonide was associated with improved quality of life in subjects showing airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol (difference of changes in quality of life score between randomisation and study completion: -9.1, 95% CI [-15.8; -2.3] p< 0.01). Treatment with inhaled budesonide also led to a reduction in airway responsiveness to mannitol compared with the placebo group (difference in log response-dose-ratio change: -0.3 95% CI [-0.6;-0.04] p< 0.01). However, post - randomisation changes in FEV(1) % predicted, quality of life and nitric oxide showed no difference between budesonide and placebo. CONCLUSIONS:In subjects with mild to moderate COPD and airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol, quality of life and airway responsiveness improved after treatment with inhaled corticosteroids added to long-acting bronchodilator therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide is routinely done at the earlobe site. In patients receiving non invasive ventilation or in the intensive care setting with necklines, an alternate measurement site would be useful. We started to use the infraclavicular site for transcutaneous measurements of carbon dioxide using a new digital sensor.
Comparison of transcutaneous carbon dioxide with arterial carbon dioxide at the infraclavicular site.
We retrospectively compared transcutaneous carbon dioxide at the infraclavicular site with arterial carbon dioxide in 50 samples. The Sentec Digital Monitoring System (Sentec AG, Therwil, Switzerland) was used. The V-Sign digital sensor was placed on the infraclavicular site at the medial two third and one third point from the sternoclavicular joint and acromioclavicular joint.
When comparing P(c)CO(2) with P(a)CO(2) values, the Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 0.02 kPa (95% CI: [- 0.1; 0.14]) with a precision of 0.42 kPa. Linear regression analysis describes the relationship between the two methods. The slope of the linear model was 0.85 ± 0.04 and the intercept was 0.77 ± 0.21 (RSE = 0.37, R(2) = 0.91).
The measurement of transcutaneous carbon dioxide at the infraclavicular site is feasible with a digital sensor and has a good correlation with the carbon dioxide values obtained from the arterial blood gas. The findings of the current study form the basis for further clinical studies for its regular application in clinical use.
Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 03/2012; 72(4):340-2. · 1.38 Impact Factor