[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is rare disorders with incidence about 1 : 100000 inhabitants yearly. In the whole Russian Federation there are nearly seven thousand CML patients. Introduction new innovative target drugs — tyrosine kinase inhibitors in routine clinical practice occurred in the last decade. This dramatically changed course of disease and fate of patients. The median survival had increased from 3–4 years to more than 15 years with full restoration of professional capabilities. There is perspective of therapy cessation in some patients. The present federal guidelines are evidence-based protocol and include all stages of CML patients management: diagnosis, treatment and minimal residual disease monitoring. The guidelines are intended to hematologists, oncologists, pediatricians, healthcare organizers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define an association of bone marrow microvessel density (MVD) with histological properties (the magnitude of fibrosis and quantification of megakaryocytes (MGKC)) in patients with Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD).
MVD was analyzed in 93 patients with different forms of CMPD, by estimating histological parameters. True polycythemia (TP) was present in 28 patients; 20 patients had essential thrombocythemia (ET), 36 had subleukemic myelosis, out them 6 were in a prefibrotic stage, and 9 with diagnosed post-TP (ET) myelofibrosis. The grade of myelofibrosis was estimated from the degree of bone marrow fibrosis as 0, 1, 2, and 3 and the clusters of MGKC were in accordance with degrees: 0, 1, and 2. MVD was studied from the absolute number of CD34-positive vascular structures.
In patients with TP, fibrosis was defined as grade 0 and 1 in 23 (82%) and 5 (18%) cases, respectively. The content of reticulin fiber was in the normal range in 19 (95%) of the 20 patients with ET. The clusters of MGKC of grades 1 and 2 showed an even distribution among patients with ET and those with TP. Fibrosis was absent in all the patients (n = 6) with prefibrotic-stage primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The patients with PMF had high MVD values [6.5 (range 2.8-22)] than those with TP [4.0 (range 1.76-10.2)] or ET [3.7 (range 2-8.5)] and the controls [3.2 (range 2-4.1)] (p < 0.001) confirming that angiogenesis is uninvolved at the onset of disease in patients with ET and those with TP. The patients with prefibrotic-stage PMF had higher values [6.0 (range 4.8-10.6)] than those with ET [3. 7 (range 2-8.5)] (p < 0.001). This suggests that angiogenesis is an early sign preceding the development of fibrosis.
Bone marrow angiogenesis assessment (from MVD measurements) may be an additional criterion for the diagnosis of disease evolution and an additional criterion between ET and PMF in a prefibrotic stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased PRV-1 mRNA expression and the presence of Jak2(V617F) mutation in peripheral blood granulocytes are specific markers for chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), which facilitate the differential diagnosis between polycythemia vera (PV) and secondary erythrocytosis (SE) and may be helpful for monitoring treatment efficacy in MPD patients. We evaluated the presence of the Jak2V617F mutation and increased PRV-1 mRNA expression along with previously established markers - erythropoietin (EPO) independent colony formation (EEC) and erythropoietin level for diagnosis of PV and assessment of treatment efficiency. Increased PRV-1 expression was found in 37 out of 46 patients diagnosed with PV (80%), in 4 out of 15 patients diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (27%) and in 4 out of 8 patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF) (50%), and increased PRV-1 expression plus EEC formation was observed in 19 of 36 examined MPD patients indicating the superiority of PVSG and WHO bone marrow criteria for the diagnosis of ET, PV and CIMF. We could confirm a very high sensitivity, specificity and utility of the Jak2(V617F) mutation for differential diagnosis between PV and SE. Spontaneous EEC, serum EPO levels, PRV-1 expression was evaluated in 22 PV patients who carried the Jak2(V617F) mutation. A concordance of increased PRV-1 expression and presence of Jak2(V617F) mutation in 19/22 (85%); of increased PRV-1/Jak2/EEC in 14/22 (63%); and of Jak2/PRV-1/EEC/low Epo level in 10/22 (45%) patients was found indicating the superiority of the presence of Jak2(V617F) mutation for the diagnosis of PV. IFN-alpha therapy in patients with PV was more effective then hydroxyurea treatment and significantly reduced increased PRV-1 expression together with higher levels of Jak2(V617F) mutation (50-100%) in PV patients treated with hydroxy urea (HU) and lower levels of Jak2(V617F) mutation (35-90%) in PV patients treated with IFN-alpha. Normal PRV-1 expression level was observed in 44% of PV patients who achieved clinical remission and only in 3% of patient who did not. These preliminary observations indicate that the Jak2(V617F) mutation in particular and PRV-1 overexpression appear to be suitable markers for monitoring treatment efficiency in prospective randomised clinical studies comparing pegylated interferon and hydroxyurea in well defined PV patients with a clear indication for cytoreductive therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the content of early and late cobblestone area-forming cells, immediate progeny of hemopoietic stem cells, and committed precursor cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases and healthy donors. In patients with essential thrombocythemia, the number of late cobblestone area-forming cells in the peripheral blood decreased, while other parameters did not differ from those in healthy donors. In patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, we found a decreased number of late and early cobblestone area-forming cells in the bone marrow and late cobblestone area-forming cells in the peripheral blood, while the count of early cobblestone area-forming cells in the peripheral blood increased. In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, the number of early cobblestone area-forming cells in the bone marrow decreased, but the count of late and early cobblestone area-forming cells in the peripheral blood increased. The number of endogenous committed precursor cells in the peripheral blood increased in all groups of patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases and, particularly, in patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukemia. Functional characteristics of immediate descendants of hemopoietic stem cells probably reflect the level of damage and attest to the existence of various mechanisms underlying the defect of the hemopoietic stem cell during chronic myeloproliferative diseases.
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 09/2007; 144(2):181-4. DOI:10.1007/s10517-007-0284-7 · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systematization of the results of 20-year multicenter randomized trial of the efficacy of treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of adults; presentation of the design of the study of the strategy of consolidation and maintenance therapy after high-dose consolidation initiated in 2007.
Treatment outcomes on the protocol AML-01.01 are presented for 354 AML patients from 29 hematological centers located in 22 towns of Russia and 2 towns of Ukraine. The patients were randomized into 3 groups by variant of therapy: 124 patients (62 males and 62 females; age median 42 years) received 4 courses of 7+3+VP-16 and 5 courses of maintenance therapy (7+3 with thioguanin); 130 patients (65 males and 65 females, age median 41 year) received 2 courses of 7+3+VP-16, 2 courses 7+3, maintenance--5 courses 7+3 with thioguanin; 126 patients (57 males and 68 females, age median 40 years) were given 2 courses of 7+3+VP-16, 2 HAD courses, treatment discontinuation.
A complete remission after the first course of 7+3+VP-16 was achieved in 55% patients, after the second course--in 30% after the course 7+3+VP-16 or 7+3 with mitoxantron, in 70%--after NAM. Overall and recurrence-free survival were 18 and 35%; 30 and 20%; 36 and 30%, respectively. There was no significant difference in efficacy of the treatment scheme.
The multivariate analysis has shown that a leading factor having impact on treatment results was the number of randomized patients: the less patients were randomized, the worse were the results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To quantitatively determine minimal residual disease (MRD) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with a chronic phase (CP) of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
A molecular response was analyzed in 53 CML CP patients with incomplete and complete cptogenetic response (ICR and CCR) during imatinib therapy (median follow-up 36 months). BCR-ABL gene type p210 expression was quantitatively determined by real-time PCR under the TaqMan technology (an ICycler IQ device). The beta2 microglobulin (beta2M) gene was used as a reference gene. The results were expressed as the ratio: the number of BCR-ABL copies to that of beta2M x 10(5), as well as the difference of the common logarithm (lg) of the baseline expression level (BEL) and the result obtained: CEL lg-result lg.
The study revealed a correlation of the results of real-time PCR with those of cytogenetic analysis and showed it possible to study not only bone marrow, but also peripheral blood. Some negative real-time PCR results were checked using more sensitive PCR techniques. MRD was identified in most CML patients showing ICR and CCR during imatinib therapy. The reduction in BCR-ABL transcript levels by less than 2 lg (as compared to BEL) was associated with a cytogenetic recurrence and that by less than 3 lg was associated with a permanent high cytogenetic response. In patients with a cytogenetic recurrence, the median of BCR-ABL transcript levels was higher than that in patients with a permanent stable or unstable cytogenetic response. An elevation of BCR-ABL transcript levels over time antedated the development of a cytogenetic recurrence.
Quantitative monitoring by real-time PCR gives additional information on the dynamics of MRD in CML patients treated with glivec and permits improvement of study protocols for patients with CML at complete clinicohematological and cytogenetic remission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC) in patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD) and to analyse possible correlation between an elevated concentration of plasma homocystein (HC) and thrombotic complications.
The trial enrolled 61 patients: 39 CMPD patients with thrombotic complications and free of them, 22 nonhematological patients with thrombosis. The control group consisted of 40 healthy donors. The examination protocol included determination with standard methods of HC plasma concentration, platelet and plasma components of hemostasis, mutation of factor V Leiden gene, prothrombin and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).
Mean HC concentration in the serum in CMPD patients was 19 +/- 1.7 mcmol/l which appeared higher than in healthy donors (12 +/- 1.3 mcmol/l). The highest HC was in patients with subleukemic myelosis (SLM)--23 +/- 2.3 mcmol). No difference in HC concentration in plasma was observed in CMPD carriers of homo- or heteroxygous mutation of C667T gene or CMPD patients without the mutation. In CMPD content of factor VIII was higher in HHC than in normal HC (222 +/- 26.5 and 116 +/- 20%, respectively, p = 0.002). For von Willebrand factor 202 +/- 15.6 and 120 +/- 14.6%, respectively (p < 0.003). HC reduction in response to vitamin therapy was the greater the higher its initial level was.
There is correlation between HHC and thrombosis in CMPD patients. HC concentration may depend on the proliferative stage of CMPD. As HC is a significant independent factor of thrombotic complications risk, it is necessary to detect and treat HHC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reveal prognostically significant factors affecting efficacy of glivek therapy in untreated (duration of the disease < or = 6 months) and pretreated (duration of the disease > 6 months) patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in a chronic phase.
A total of 338 patients (64 untreated and 274 pretreated) with a chronic-phase CML on glivek therapy entered the trial.
Five-year survival on glivek was high (89, 98 and 88% in untreated and pretreated patients, respectively). Incidence of transformation in the acceleration phase and blast crisis was low both in untreated and pretreated patients (1.6 and 11%, respectively) and correlated with the rate of a complete cytogenetic response (CCR). Untreated patients had no factors affecting treatment efficacy negatively, CCR probability was 96%. Blastemia, thrombocytosis and splenomegaly reduced CCR probability significantly in pretreated patients. Slow reduction of the tumor mass, late achievement of a complete hematological response and a cytogenetic response decreased probability of CCR.
Glivek is a drug of choice for patients with chronic-phase CML. High probability of CCR both in untreated and pretreated patients lowers the risk of the disease transformation into the phase of acceleration/blast crisis and raises overall survival in both groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyse the course of pregnancy in chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD) with hyperthrombocytosis, primarily, essential thrombocytemia.
The analysis of thrombogenic risk factors covered literature data and 8 cases observed by the authors.
Six pregnant women received long-term treatment with preparations of interferon-alpha in a dose 9-20 million IU a week (both before and during pregnancy). Rapid reduction of hyperthrombocytosis (1100-4000 x 10(9) l) and the absence of a negative effect on development of the fetus were seen in all the cases. Normal delivery on week 37-39 was in 4 patients, spontaneous abortion on week 24 was provoked by a car accident. Three gravidas (gestational week 28, 33 and 34) are still under observation. Lupus anticoagulant or elevation of anticardiolipin antibodies level was detected in 4 of 8 patients, 2 patients had heterozygous mutation of methylentetrahydrofolatereductase genes and factor V (Leiden). These patients were given lannacher, faxiparine, folic acid and discrete plasmapheresis (in 2 cases).
Gravidas with hyperthrombocytosis, if not contraindicated, must be treated with aspirin and interferon-alpha preparations at any gestational term. Moreover, it is necessary to exclude additional most prevalent causes of thrombophilia for adequate prevention of thromboses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were characterized by lower adhesion to normal stromal sublayer compared to bone marrow precursors from healthy donors, while adhesion to fibroblast monolayer and fibronectin was similar in bone marrow cells from patients and donors. In vitro experiments showed that the percentage of adherent hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome in normal stromal sublayer and fibroblasts was lower compared to healthy donors. The decrease in adhesive activity of hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome probably contributes to impairment of cell-cell interactions in the bone marrow of these patients.
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 02/2005; 139(1):7-10. DOI:10.1007/s10517-005-0197-2 · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the results of therapy of invasive pulmonary aspergillesis (IPA) in one medical center from 2000 to 2005.
Diagnosis of IPA was made according to the International criteria. Incidence of verified IPA was 2%, probable--84%, possible--14%.
IPA was diagnosed in 50 cases in 49 patients aged 16- 78 years, median 35. Most of the patients consisted of acute leukemia cases (54%). Intensive cytostatic therapy was given in 41% cases. In 54% IPA developed in critical neutropenia, median of duration of which being 29 days (3 to 144 days). 29 patients received glucocorticoid drugs. In diagnosis of IPA Aspergillus spp was isolated in 46% cases (A. fumigatus-59%, A. flavus-29%, A. niger-4%, A-versicolor-4%, in 1 (4%) case identification was not made. Positive antigen Aspergillus was detected in 27 cases. All the patients had pulmonary involvement detected at x-ray or computed tomography. Coincidence of pulmonary lesions seen at x-rays and computer tomograms was only in 30% patients. Cure was achieved in 44%, lethality was 56%. Overall survival in IPA for 90 days was 47%. Amphotericine was effective in 29%. Voriconasol--in 3 of 5 patients, kaspofungin--in 3 of 7. Surgical treatment was given to 4 patients.
Lethality in IPA for 5 years when basic therapy was amfotericin B reached 56%. Reduction of lethality can be achieved due to early diagnosis of the infection and administration of voriconasol at the initial stage of IPA. It is necessary to conduct multicenter studies to ascertain indications for combined antifungal therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyse incidence rate of chromosomal aberrations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), specification of clinicomorphological features of some cytogenetic variants.
Chromosomal analysis by the method of G-differential staining of chromosomes was made in 209 patients with different variants of MDS. RESULTS; Clonal chromosomal aberrations occured in 60.8%. The following aberrations were found most frequently: deletion of the long arm of the chromosome 5 (del(5q)) - 34.6%, trisomy of chromosome 8 (14.1%), monosomy of chromosome 7 (13.4%), aberrations 3q21q26 (12.6%), aberrations of a long arm of X-chromosome (4.7%), the absence of Y-chromosome (3.1%). Complex aberrations of karyotype were found in 13.5% cases. Chromosomal aberrations determined not only clinical and morphological features but also the prognosis of the disease.
Cytogenetic examination is an essential component of MDS patients examination. It allows more precise classification of MDS variant and prognostification of the disease course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical practice with the drug glivek (imatinibe mesilate, ST1571) blocking activity of oncoprotein p210 shows that a cytogenetic response can be reached in 50-60% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), in a late chronic phase (CP) in resistance to or intolerance of interferon alpha (IF-alpha) and in 24-43% of patients in the acceleration phase (AP). This study aimed at assessment of the rate and stability of a cytogenetic response (CR) and long-term results of survival in CML patients on glivek.
Glivek was given to 195 CML patients (median of the treatment duration was 42 months, 1-156 months, of the patients' age--46 years). 79 patients were in CP, 116--in AP. The doses were 400 mg/day and 116 mg/day, respectively. Karyotype was studied before the treatment and later after each 6 months.
A considerable CR was achieved in 57% patients in CP and 44%--in AP. Of them complete CR was obtained in 48 and 35%, respectively. Marked CR is a favourable prognostic factor. Survival of patients with marked CR in CP (97% 0 and AP (89%) was significantly higher than without CR (58 and 47%, respectively, p < 0.05). Marked CR persisted in 95% cases in both phases of CML. In complete CR, a repeated study of karyotype revealed residual number of Ph+ cells both in CP and AP in 86% patients. This demonstrates necessity to take glivek continuously in achievement of a complete CR by karyotypic test. Glivek inhibits the disease progression, lowers annual lethality. 42-month (median of glivek treatment duration) overall survival reached 91 and 59% in CP and AP, respectively.
CR is an integral index prognosticating CML course. Survival rose significantly in patients with marked CR both in CP and AP of CML. Marked CR is persistent in continuous glivek therapy. The rate of a CR depends much on the disease stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct molecular-cytogenetic monitoring of bone marrow cells in different regimens of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment.
A total of 651 samples of bone marrow from 319 CML patients were studied. 229 patients received polychemotherapy and 90 patients--interferon-alpha. Primary examination and monitoring of the treatment efficacy were performed using G-differential chromosome staining. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was made in 75% cases.
Interferon therapy resulted in a significant increase in the number of complete and significant cytogenetic responses. With aggravation of the disease the above responses occurred less frequently while minor and no response are encountered more often. Treatment with interferon-alpha in combination with chemotherapy is much more effective than monotherapy with interferon.
G-differential chromosome staining karyotypes metaphases and detects clonal chromosome restructuring. Molecular-cytogenetic methods study chromosome restructuring at DNA level. FISH detects chimeric gene bcr/abl in cases when Ph-chromosome is not detectable by standard cytogenetic methods.