[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a great threat to global TB control. The burden in Zambia is not well defined because routine surveillance data are scarce. We reviewed national MDR-TB data for the last decade to inform future public health policy with respect to MDR-TB in Zambia.
Retrospective review of national surveillance of MDR-TB data, TB programme and laboratory reports between 2000 and 2011.
The total number of DSTs performed during this 11-year period was 2 038 and accounted for 2.6% (2 038/78 639) of all the retreatment cases notified. The total number of diagnosed MDR-TB cases for this period was 446, of which 56.3% (251/446) were male and 41.7% (186/446) female. Only one child was found to have MDR-TB. Poly-drug resistance accounted for 18.9% (172/911) of the DR-TB cases and 8.4% of the total DSTs. 8.8% (80/911) of the DR-TB cases showed either rifampicin mono- or poly-resistance other than MDR-TB. No XDR-TB was reported. There were no data available on DR-TB and HIV co-infection. Only 65 MDR-TB patients were notified and put on second-line treatment according to WHO guidelines.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis may be an emerging challenge in Zambia. There is a need to invest in improving the capacity of the TB programme to detect and manage MDR-TB.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In high-tuberculosis (TB)-endemic countries, comorbidity of pulmonary TB in hospitalised patients with non-communicable diseases is well documented. In this study, we evaluated the use of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay for the detection of concomitant pulmonary TB in patients admitted to the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, with a primary obstetric or gynaecological condition.
The Study population were inpatients admitted with a primary obstetric or gynaecological problem who had a concomitant cough and were able to expectorate a sputum sample. Sputum samples from 94 patients were analysed for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) by standard smear microscopy, MGIT culture, MGIT drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay were evaluated against the culture gold standard.
Twenty-six of 94 (27.7%) patients had culture-confirmed pulmonary TB. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity of 80.8% [95% CI: 60.0-92.7%]) compared against MGIT culture. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay was more sensitive than sputum smear microscopy (21/26 (80.8%) vs. 13/26 (50.0%), P = 0.02) and detected an additional eight culture-confirmed cases. Culture DST analysis identified two monoresistant M.tb strains: one resistant to rifampicin (rifampicin sensitive by the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay) and one to ethambutol. HIV infection was linked with a 3-fold increase in risk of TB, accounting for 87.5% (21/24) of TB cases. 50% of cases presented as comorbidities with other communicable diseases (CDs) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
As an alternative to sputum microscopy, the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay provides a sensitive, specific and rapid method for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in obstetric or gynaecological inpatients. Pulmonary TB is an important cause of concomitant comorbidity to the obstetric or gynaecological condition necessitating admission. TB and HIV comorbidities with other communicable and non-communicable diseases were also common. More proactive screening for TB comorbidity is required in obstetric and gynaecological wards.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 07/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013, tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide, with prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis rising. WHO estimates roughly 630 000 cases of MDR tuberculosis worldwide, with great variation in the frequency of MDR tuberculosis between countries. In the past 8 years, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has emerged, and has been reported in 84 countries, heralding the possibility of virtually untreatable tuberculosis. Increased population movement, the continuing HIV pandemic, and the rise in MDR tuberculosis pose formidable challenges to the global control of tuberculosis. We provide an overview of the global burden of drug-resistant disease; discuss the social, health service, management, and control issues that fuel and sustain the epidemic; and suggest specific recommendations for important next steps. Visionary political leadership is needed to curb the rise of MDR and XDR tuberculosis worldwide, through sustained funding and the implementation of global and regional action plans.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 03/2013; · 19.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid progress has been made in the development of new diagnostic assays for tuberculosis in recent years. New technologies have been developed and assessed, and are now being implemented. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which enables simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance, was endorsed by WHO in December, 2010. This assay was specifically recommended for use as the initial diagnostic test for suspected drug-resistant or HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis. By June, 2012, two-thirds of countries with a high tuberculosis burden and half of countries with a high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis burden had incorporated the assay into their national tuberculosis programme guidelines. Although the development of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is undoubtedly a landmark event, clinical and programmatic effects and cost-effectiveness remain to be defined. We review the rapidly growing body of scientific literature and discuss the advantages and challenges of using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in areas where tuberculosis is endemic. We also review other prospects within the developmental pipeline. A rapid, accurate point-of-care diagnostic test that is affordable and can be readily implemented is urgently needed. Investment in the tuberculosis diagnostics pipeline should remain a major priority for funders and researchers.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 03/2013; · 19.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management, and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. In resource-limited countries, the need to tackle a broader range of overlapping comorbid diseases is growing. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS persist as global emergencies. The lethal interaction between tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in adults, children, and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa exemplifies the need for well integrated approaches to disease management and control. Furthermore, links between diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism, chronic lung diseases, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment, malnutrition, and tuberculosis are well recognised. Here, we focus on interactions, synergies, and challenges of integration of tuberculosis care with management strategies for non-communicable and communicable diseases without eroding the functionality of existing national programmes for tuberculosis. The need for sustained and increased funding for these initiatives is greater than ever and requires increased political and funder commitment.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 03/2013; · 19.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: According to the WHO, lower respiratory tract infections are one of the most prevalent causes of death in Africa. Estimates based on verbal autopsies are inaccurate compared with the gold standard for determining cause of death, the anatomical postmortem. Here, we review all respiratory postmortem data available from Africa and assess disease prevalence by HIV status in both adults and children. RECENT FINDINGS: Pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis was detected in over 50% of HIV-infected adults, four to five-fold more prevalent than in HIV-uninfected cases. Overall tuberculosis was less prevalent in children, but was more prevalent in HIV-uninfected compared with HIV-infected children. Bacterial pneumonia was more prevalent in children than adults and was relatively unaffected by HIV status. Pneumocystis jirovecci and human cytomegalovirus pneumonia were detected almost exclusively in HIV-infected mortalities, twice as prevalent in children as in adults. Coinfections were common and correlation with premortem clinical diagnoses was low. SUMMARY: Respiratory tract infections are important causes of mortality in Africa. Of the 21 reviewed studies, only four studies (all adults) were undertaken in the last decade. There is hence an urgent need for new postmortem studies to monitor cause of death in new and emerging patient groups, such as those on antiretroviral therapy and HIV exposed uninfected children.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 02/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To ascertain childhood tuberculosis (TB) trends, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection rates and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) prevalence rates in Zambia.Methods: A retrospective review of Zambian annual TB notification data and National TB Programme reports for a 7 year period (2004-2011). TB trends were stratified by age and HIV status.Results: The total number of children notified during this period with all forms of TB was 40 976. A total of 2670 of 40 976 (6%) were smear-positive cases. Notification rates of all forms of childhood TB show a decline in trends from 135 per 100 000 population in 2004, to 69 per 100 000 population in 2011.Conclusions: Childhood TB is an important but neglected problem in Zambia highlighted by the fact that no data exists on HIV co-infection and MDR-TB. Strengthening of the National TB Programme and diagnostics services/algorithms are required to accurately define the TB burden, HIV co-infection and MDR-TB rates in children in Zambia.
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 12/2012; · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children remains challenging because of difficulties in obtaining sputum samples and the paucibacillary nature of the disease. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is useful for rapid diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis with sputum and nasopharyngeal samples. We assessed this assay for the detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis with gastric lavage aspirate (GLA) samples in children admitted to hospital. METHODS: We did a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay with GLA samples for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis and MDR tuberculosis in new paediatric inpatient admissions at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. Children aged 15 years or younger were recruited between June, 2011, and May, 2012. GLA and sputum were analysed by standard smear-microscopy, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, MGIT drug-susceptibility testing, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was assessed with the Pearson χ(2) or Fishers exact test. FINDINGS: Of 930 children, 142 produced sputum and GLA was obtained from 788 non-sputum producers. Culture-positive tuberculosis was identified in 58 (6·2%) of 930 children: ten from sputum producers and 48 from GLA of non-sputum producers. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay were similar: sensitivity was 68·8% (95% CI 53·6-80·9) for GLA versus 90·0% (54·1-99·5; p=0·1649) for sputum samples; specificity was 99·3% (98·3-99·8) for GLA and 98·5% (94·1-99·7; p=0·2871) for sputum samples. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay detected an extra 28 tuberculosis cases compared with smear microscopy and was significantly more sensitive than smear microscopy for both sputum (90·0% [54·1-99·5] vs 30·0% [8·1-64·6], p=0·01) and GLA (68·8% [53·6-80·9] vs 25·0% [14·1-40·0], p<0·0001). The assay load did not differ significantly by sample type (p=0·791). 22 children were infected with HIV and tuberculosis and significant differences in assay performance could not be detected when stratifying by HIV status for either sample type. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay detected rifampicin resistance in three GLA samples: two confirmed as MDR tuberculosis and one false positive. INTERPRETATION: Analyses of GLA samples with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a sensitive and specific method for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children who cannot produce sputum. The single site nature of our study invites caution. FUNDING: European Commission, European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, and UBS Optimus Foundation.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11/2012; · 19.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To document leprosy trends in Zambia over the past two decades to ascertain the importance of leprosy as a health problem in Zambia. Methods Retrospective study covering the period 1991-2009 of routine national leprosy surveillance data, published national programme review reports and desk reviews of in-country TB reports. Results Data reports were available for all the years under study apart from years 2001, 2002 and 2006. The Leprosy case notification rates (CNR) declined from 2.73/10 000 population in 1991 to 0.43/10 000 population in 2009. The general leprosy burden showed a downward trend for both adults and children. Leprosy case burden dropped from approximately 18 000 cases in 1980 to only about 1000 cases in 1996, and by the year 2000, the prevalence rates had fallen to 0.67/10 000 population. There were more multibacillary cases of leprosy than pauci-bacillary cases. Several major gaps in data recording, entry and surveillance were identified. Data on disaggregation by gender, HIV status or geographical origin were not available. Conclusion Whilst Zambia has achieved WHO targets for leprosy control, leprosy prevalence data from Zambia may not reflect real situation because of poor data recording and surveillance. Greater investment into infrastructure and training are required for more accurate surveillance of leprosy in Zambia.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 07/2012; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. There were 1.45 million deaths from tuberculosis (TB) in 2011. A substantial proportion of active pulmonary TB cases in countries where tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and AIDS are highly endemic remain undiagnosed because of the reliance on sputum-smear microscopy. This study evaluated the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay at a tertiary care referral center in Zambia, a country where the burden of TB and HIV infection is high. Methods. A total of 881 adult inpatients admitted to University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka who were able to produce sputum were enrolled and analyzed in the study, irrespective of admission diagnosis. Sputum specimens were analyzed by fluorescence smear microscopy, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and MGIT drug-susceptibility testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay were evaluated using culture as the gold standard. Results. Culture-confirmed TB was found in 201 of 881 patients (22.8%). The specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.4%-96.8%), and the sensitivity was 86.1% (95% CI, 80.3%-90.4%). In sputum smear-negative, culture-positive cases, the assay was 74.7% sensitive (95% CI, 64.6%-82.8%), identifying 71 additional TB cases that were not detected by smear microscopy. A total of 18 of 111 patients with TB who were tested (16.2%) had multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detecting culture-confirmed, rifampicin-resistant TB was 81.3% (95% CI, 53.7%-95.0%) and 97.5% (95% CI, 90.4%-99.6%), respectively. Conclusions. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay performs better than smear microscopy in an inpatient setting in a country where TB and HIV infection are highly endemic. Assessment of its usefulness and cost-effectiveness for increased detection of TB cases missed by sputum smear and for concomitant screening for MDR TB among adult inpatients attending tertiary care referral centers in other countries with a high burden of TB and HIV infection is warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within communities. Currently recommended gold-standard diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are laboratory based, and multiple investigations may be necessary over a period of weeks or months before a diagnosis is made. Several new diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active tuberculosis disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. In the absence of effective prevention strategies, high rates of early case detection and subsequent cure are required for global tuberculosis control. Early case detection is dependent on test accuracy, accessibility, cost, and complexity, but also depends on the political will and funder investment to deliver optimal, sustainable care to those worst affected by the tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics. This review highlights unanswered questions, challenges, recent advances, unresolved operational and technical issues, needs, and opportunities related to tuberculosis diagnostics.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 205 Suppl 2:S147-58. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the activities, progress, achievements and challenges of the Zambia Ministry of Health tuberculosis (TB)/HIV collaborative activities over the past decade.
Analysis of Zambia Ministry of Health National TB and HIV programme documents and external independent programme review reports pertaining to 2000-2010.
The number of people testing for HIV increased from 37 557 persons in 2003 to 1 327 995 persons in 2010 nationally. Those receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increased from 143 in 2003 to 344 304 in 2010. The national HIV prevalence estimates declined from 14.3% in 2001 to 13.5% in 2009. The proportion of TB patients being tested for HIV increased from 22.6% in 2006 to 84% in 2010 and approximately 70% were HIV positive. The proportion of the HIV-infected TB patients who: (i) started on ART increased from 38% in 2006 to 50% in 2010; (ii) commenced co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) increased from 31% in 2006 to 70% in 2010; and (iii) were successfully treated increased to an average of 80% resulting in decline of deaths from 13% in 2006 to 9% in 2010.
The scale-up of TB/HIV collaborative programme activities in Zambia has steadily increased over the past decade resulting in increased testing for TB and HIV, and anti-retroviral (ARV) rollout with improved treatment outcomes among TB patients co-infected with HIV. Getting service delivery points to adhere to WHO guidelines for collaborative TB/HIV activities remains problematic, especially those meant to reduce the burden of TB in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).
Tropical Medicine & International Health 04/2012; 17(6):760-6. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis was declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. Following the declaration and the promotion in 1995 of directly observed treatment short course (DOTS), a cost-effective strategy to contain the tuberculosis epidemic, nearly 7 million lives have been saved compared with the pre-DOTS era, high cure rates have been achieved in most countries worldwide, and the global incidence of tuberculosis has been in a slow decline since the early 2000s. However, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, and more recently, totally drug-resistant tuberculosis pose a threat to global tuberculosis control. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a man-made problem. Laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing are inadequate in most tuberculosis-endemic countries, especially in Africa; thus diagnosis is missed, routine surveillance is not implemented, and the actual numbers of global drug-resistant tuberculosis cases have yet to be estimated. This exposes an ominous situation and reveals an urgent need for commitment by national programs to health system improvement because the response to MDR tuberculosis requires strong health services in general. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and XDR tuberculosis greatly complicate patient management within resource-poor national tuberculosis programs, reducing treatment efficacy and increasing the cost of treatment to the extent that it could bankrupt healthcare financing in tuberculosis-endemic areas. Why, despite nearly 20 years of WHO-promoted activity and >12 years of MDR tuberculosis-specific activity, has the country response to the drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic been so ineffectual? The current dilemmas, unanswered questions, operational issues, challenges, and priority needs for global drug resistance screening and surveillance, improved treatment regimens, and management of outcomes and prevention of DR tuberculosis are discussed.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 205 Suppl 2:S228-40. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frequently quoted statistics that tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS are the most important infectious causes of death in high-burden countries are based on clinical records, death certificates, and verbal autopsy studies. Causes of death ascertained through these methods are known to be grossly inaccurate. Most data from Africa on mortality and causes of death currently used by international agencies have come from verbal autopsy studies, which only provide inaccurate estimates of causes of death. Autopsy rates in most sub-Saharan African countries have declined over the years, and actual causes of deaths in the community and in hospitals in most sub-Saharan African countries remain unknown. The quality of cause-specific mortality statistics remains poor. The effect of various interventions to reduce mortality rates can only be evaluated accurately if cause-specific mortality data are available. Autopsy studies could have particular relevance to direct public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or preventive therapy, and could also allow for study of background levels of subclinical tuberculosis disease, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and other infectious and noncommunicable diseases not yet clinically manifest. Autopsies performed soon after death may represent a unique opportunity to understand the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis and the pathogenesis of early deaths after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. The few autopsies performed so far for research purposes have yielded invaluable information and insights into tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and other opportunistic infections. Accurate cause-specific mortality data are essential for prioritization of governmental and donor investments into health services to reduce morbidity and mortality from deadly infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need for reviving routine and research autopsies in sub-Saharan African countries.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 205 Suppl 2:S340-6. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: objective To document leprosy trends in Zambia over the past two decades to ascertain the importance of leprosy as a health problem in Zambia. methods Retrospective study covering the period 1991–2009 of routine national leprosy surveillance data, published national programme review reports and desk reviews of in-country TB reports. results Data reports were available for all the years under study apart from years 2001, 2002 and 2006. The Leprosy case notification rates (CNR) declined from 2.73 ⁄ 10 000 population in 1991 to 0.43 ⁄ 10 000 population in 2009. The general leprosy burden showed a downward trend for both adults and children. Leprosy case burden dropped from approximately 18 000 cases in 1980 to only about 1000 cases in 1996, and by the year 2000, the prevalence rates had fallen to 0.67 ⁄ 10 000 population. There were more multibacillary cases of leprosy than pauci-bacillary cases. Several major gaps in data recording, entry and surveillance were identified. Data on disaggregation by gender, HIV status or geographical origin were not available. conclusion Whilst Zambia has achieved WHO targets for leprosy control, leprosy prevalence data from Zambia may not reflect real situation because of poor data recording and surveillance. Greater investment into infrastructure and training are required for more accurate surveillance of leprosy in Zambia.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 01/2012; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: A high burden of tuberculosis (TB) occurs in sub-Saharan African countries and many cases of active TB and drug-resistant TB remain undiagnosed. Tertiary care hospitals provide an opportunity to study TB co-morbidity with non-communicable and other communicable diseases (NCDs/CDs). We evaluated the burden of undiagnosed pulmonary TB and multi-drug resistant TB in adult inpatients, regardless of their primary admission diagnosis, in a tertiary referral centre. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this prospective study, newly admitted adult inpatients able to produce sputum at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, were screened for pulmonary TB using fluorescent smear microscopy and automated liquid culture. The burden of pulmonary TB, unsuspected TB, TB co-morbidity with NCDs and CDs was determined. Sputum was analysed from 900 inpatients (70.6% HIV infected) 277 (30.8%) non-TB suspects, 286 (31.8%) TB suspects and 337 (37.4%) were already receiving TB treatment. 202/900 (22.4%) of patients had culture confirmed TB. TB co-morbidity was detected in 20/275 (7.3%) NCD patients, significantly associated with diabetes (P = 0.006, OR 6.571, 95%CI: 1.706–25.3). 27/202 (13.4%) TB cases were unsuspected. There were 18 confirmed cases of MDR-TB, 5 of which were unsuspected. Conclusions/Significance: A large burden of unsuspected pulmonary TB co-morbidity exists in inpatients with NCDs and other CDs. Pro-active sputum screening of all inpatients in tertiary referral centres in high TB endemic countries is recommended. The scale of the problem of undiagnosed MDR-TB in inpatients requires further study. Copyright: ß 2012 Bates et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: AZ, MH, JOG and MB acknowledge support from the European Union and the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study trends in Zambia's TB notification rates between 1990 and 2010 and to ascertain progress made towards TB control.
Retrospective review of TB notification returns and TB programme reports for the period from 1990 to 2010.
Two distinct TB trend periods were identified: a period of rising trends up to a peak between 1990 and 2004 and a period of moderately declining trends between 2004 and 2010. Treatment outcomes improved over the two decades. Data on trends in paediatric TB, TB in prisoners and TB in pregnant women remain scanty and unreliable owing to poor diagnostic capability. There were no data available on trends on drug-resistant TB because of the lack of laboratory services to perform drug sensitivity testing.
The period of increasing TB between 1990 and 2000 coincided with an increase in HIV/AIDS. The period of slightly decreasing TB between 2004 and 2010 can be attributed to improved TB care, sustained DOTS implementation and improvement in TB diagnostic services. Newer diagnostics technologies for the rapid diagnosis of active TB cases and for drug-resistant testing, recently endorsed by the WHO, need to be implemented into the national TB programmes to detect more cases and to provide epidemiological and surveillance data from which to obtain an evidence base for guided investments for TB control. Alignment of TB and HIV services is required to achieve improved management outcomes.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 07/2011; 16(11):1404-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global eradication of tuberculosis (TB) depends on identification and treatment of all active TB cases and of the two billion people who are estimated to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The past decade has seen a renaissance of scientific activities and funder investment into development of new TB drugs, diagnostics, biomarkers and vaccines. This viewpoint critically summarises the promising portfolio of more accurate TB diagnostics, new TB drugs and vaccines that have been endorsed by the STOP TB Partnership. Increasing numbers of Phase 2 and 3 drug, vaccine and diagnostic clinical trials in high-TB endemic areas reflect substantial progress towards attaining Global STOP-TB Partnership targets. Achievement of STOP-TB Partnership goals will crucially depend on political will and serious investment by funders and developing country governments into improving delivery of better health services and living conditions for their people. Long-term sustainability of any newer tools implemented at point of care is essential.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 04/2011; 16(7):819-27. · 2.94 Impact Factor