Mizuho Kajikawa

Kyushu University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (18)71.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Paired Ig-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα) recognizes a wide range of O-glycosylated mucin and related proteins to regulate broad immune responses. However, the molecular characteristics of these recognitions are largely unknown. Here we show that sialylated O-linked sugar T antigen (sTn) and its attached peptide region are both required for ligand recognition by PILRα. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of PILRα and its complex with an sTn and its attached peptide region. The structures show that PILRα exhibits large conformational change to recognize simultaneously both the sTn O-glycan and the compact peptide structure constrained by proline residues. Binding and functional assays support this binding mode. These findings provide significant insight into the binding motif and molecular mechanism (which is distinct from sugar-recognition receptors) by which O-glycosylated mucin proteins with sTn modifications are recognized in the immune system as well as during viral entry.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Murine epidermal γδ T cells, known as dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs), survey tissue stress through the invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and nonclonotypic receptors such as NKG2D. NKG2D signaling via the DAP10-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway directly stimulates cytotoxicity in natural killer (NK) cells and costimulates CD8(+) T cells to augment TCR signals. In activated murine NK cells, NKG2D signals also via the DAP12-Syk/ZAP70 pathway that triggers both cytotoxicity and cytokine production. It remains controversial whether NKG2D on DETCs is a primary activating receptor or functions only as a costimulatory receptor, and signaling pathways initiated by NKG2D ligation in DETCs have not been analyzed. We show that stimulation of short-term DETC lines with recombinant NKG2D ligands triggers degranulation (exocytosis of cytotoxic granules) via the PI3K-dependent signaling pathway, but does not induce cytokine production or Syk/ZAP70 activation. Coengagement of TCR or Syk/ZAP70 signaling was not crucial for DETC-mediated killing of NKG2D ligand-expressing target cells. Thus, NKG2D can function as a coactivating stress receptor that directly triggers cytotoxicity in DETCs, at least after priming, via the PI3K-dependent, Syk/ZAP70-independent signaling pathway.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 20 August 2013. doi:10.1038/jid.2013.353.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 08/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HLA-G, a natural immunosuppressant present in the human placenta during pregnancy, prevents fetal destruction by the maternal immune system. The immunosuppressive effect of HLA-G is mediated by the immune cell inhibitory receptors, LILRB1 and LILRB2. HLA-G forms disulfide-linked dimers by natural oxidation, and the dimer associates with LILRB1/B2 much more strongly than the monomer. Furthermore, the dimer formation remarkably enhanced the LILRB-mediated signaling. In this report, we studied the in vivo immunosuppressive effect of the HLA-G dimer, using the collagen-induced arthritis model mouse. Mice were treated with the HLA-G monomer or dimer intracutaneously at the left foot joint, once or for 5 days, and the clinical severity was evaluated daily in a double-blind study. The HLA-G monomer and dimer both produced excellent anti-inflammatory effects with a single, local administration. Notably, as compared to the monomer, the dimer exhibited significant immunosuppressive effects at lower concentrations, which persisted for about two months. In accordance with this result, a binding study revealed that the HLA-G dimer binds PIR-B, the mouse homolog of the LILRBs, with higher affinity and avidity than the monomer. The HLA-G dimer is expected to be quite useful as an anti-rheumatoid arthritis agent, in small amounts with minimal side effects.
    Human immunology 12/2012; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) found in mouse skin are NKG2D-positive γδ T cells involved in immune surveillance and wound repair. It is assumed that the interaction of an NKG2D receptor on DETCs and an MHC class I-like NKG2D ligand on keratinocytes activates DETCs, which then secrete cytokines promoting wound repair. However, direct evidence that DETC activation through NKG2D signaling promotes wound repair is not available. In the present study, we generated mAbs for an NKG2D ligand H60c previously suggested to be expressed specifically on skin keratinocytes. Local administration of H60c-specific mAb inhibited activation of DETCs and significantly delayed wound repair. Likewise, administration of NKG2D-specific mAb impaired wound repair to a similar extent. The delay in wound closure resulting from the blockade of the NKG2D pathway was comparable to that observed in γδ T cell-deficient mice. These results indicate that H60c/NKG2D interactions play a critical role in wound repair. Reassessment of binding affinities showed that H60c monomers bind to NKG2D with affinity (K(d) = 26 ± 3.2 nM) comparable to those of other high-affinity NKG2D ligands. H60c is transcribed not only in skin but also in tissues such as tongue and female reproductive tract known to contain epithelium-resident γδ T cells expressing invariant TCRs, suggesting a more general role for H60c in the maintenance of epithelial integrity.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(8):3972-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD160 was recently identified as a T cell coinhibitory molecule that interacts with the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) on antigen-presenting cells to deliver a potent inhibitory signal to CD4(+) T cells. HVEM also binds to the coinhibitory receptor BTLA (B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator) and the costimulatory receptor LIGHT (which is homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, or TNFSF14), thus regulating the CD160/BTLA/LIGHT/HVEM signaling pathway. To date, the detailed properties of the formation of these complexes, especially HVEM binding to the newly identified receptor CD160, and the relationship of CD160 with BTLA and LIGHT are still unclear. We performed N-terminal sequencing and a mass spectrometric analysis, which revealed that the extracellular domain of CD160 exists primarily in the monomeric form. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that CD160 binds directly to the cysteine-rich domain 1-3 of HVEM with a similar affinity to, but slower dissociation rate than, that of BTLA. Notably, CD160 competed with BTLA for binding to HVEM; in contrast, LIGHT did not affect HVEM binding to either CD160 or BTLA. The results of a mutagenesis study of HVEM also suggest that the CD160 binding region on HVEM was slightly different from, but overlapped with, the BTLA binding site. Interestingly, an anti-CD160 antibody exhibiting antiangiogenic properties blocked CD160/HVEM binding. These results provide insight into the molecular architecture of the CD160/BTLA/LIGHT/HVEM signaling complex that regulates immune function.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 09/2011; 413(4):762-72. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3-6 months). The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori shuttle vector, has eliminated the conventional tedious procedures required to identify and isolate recombinant viruses. Several technical improvements, including a cysteine protease or chitinase deletion bacmid and chaperone-assisted expression and coexpression, have led to significantly increased protein yields and reduced costs for large-scale production. Terminal N-acetyl glucosamine and galactose residues were found in the N-glycan structures produced by silkworms, which are different from those generated by insect cells. Genomic elucidation of silkworm has opened a new chapter in utilization of silkworm. Transgenic silkworm technology provides a stable production of recombinant protein. Baculovirus surface display expression is one of the low-cost approaches toward silkworm larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccines. The expression of pharmaceutically relevant proteins, including cell/viral surface proteins, membrane proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors, using silkworm larvae or cocoons has become very attractive. Silkworm biotechnology is an innovative and easy approach to achieve high protein expression levels and is a very promising platform technology in the field of life science. Like the "Silkroad," we expect that the "Bioroad" from Asia to Europe will be established by the silkworm expression system.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2009; 85(3):459-70. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The killer cell lectin-like receptor G1, KLRG1, is a cell surface receptor expressed on subsets of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. KLRG1 was recently found to recognize E-cadherin and thus inhibit immune responses by regulating the effector function and the developmental processes of NK and T cells. E-cadherin is expressed on epithelial cells and exhibits Ca(2+)-dependent homophilic interactions that contribute to cell-cell junctions. However, the mechanism underlying the molecular recognition of KLRG1 by E-cadherin remains unclear. Here, we report structural, binding, and functional analyses of this interaction using multiple methods. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that KLRG1 binds the E-cadherin N-terminal domains 1 and 2 with low affinity (K(d) approximately 7-12 microm), typical of cell-cell recognition receptors. NMR binding studies showed that only a limited N-terminal region of E-cadherin, comprising the homodimer interface, exhibited spectrum perturbation upon KLRG1 complex formation. It was confirmed by binding studies using a series of E-cadherin mutants. Furthermore, killing assays using KLRG1(+)NK cells and reporter cell assays demonstrated the functional significance of the N-terminal region of E-cadherin. These results suggest that KLRG1 recognizes the N-terminal homodimeric interface of domain 1 of E-cadherin and binds only the monomeric form of E-cadherin to inhibit the immune response. This raises the possibility that KLRG1 detects monomeric E-cadherin at exposed cell surfaces to control the activation threshold of NK and T cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(40):27327-35. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (G(i)alpha) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [35S]GTPgammaS-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2009; 385(3):375-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune cell surface receptors are directly involved in human diseases, and thus represent major drug targets. However, it is generally difficult to obtain sufficient amounts of these receptors for biochemical and structural studies because they often require posttranslational modifications, especially sugar modification. Recently, we have established a bacmid expression system for the baculovirus BmNPV, which directly infects silkworms, an attractive host for the large-scale production of recombinant sugar-modified proteins. Here we produced the human immune cell surface receptor, killer cell Ig-like receptor 2DL1 (KIR2DL1), by using the BmNPV bacmid expression system, in silkworms. By the direct injection of the bacmid DNA, the recombinant KIR2DL1 protein was efficiently expressed, secreted into body fluids, and purified by Ni(2+) affinity column chromatography. We further optimized the expression conditions, and the final yield was 0.2mg/larva. The sugar profiling revealed that the N-linked sugars of the purified protein comprised very few components, two paucimannose-type oligosaccharides, Manalpha1-6Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc and Manalpha1-6Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc. This revealed that the protein product was much more homogeneous than the complex-sugar type product obtained by mammalian cell expression. The surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the purified KIR2DL1 protein exhibited specific binding to the HLA-Cw4 ligand. Moreover, the CD spectrum showed the proper secondary structure. These results clearly suggested that the silkworm expression system is quite useful for the expression of cell surface receptors that require posttranslational modifications, as well as for their structural and binding studies, due to the relatively homogeneous N-linked sugar modifications.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2009; 387(3):575-80. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Mizuho Kajikawa, Masanori Kasahara
    Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society 04/2009; 81(3):189-99. · 0.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) enters cells by binding to the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (also called CD150) on the cell surface, and thus shows the lymphotropism and immunosuppressive effects. The head domain (residues Asp149 to Arg617) of the MV hemagglutinin (MV-H), the attachment protein, was produced using a transient expression system in HEK293T cells. The purified MV-H protein was heterogeneous because of a variety of complex-sugar modifications. The complex-sugar-type MV-H was crystallized successfully, and the crystals belonged to the space group P41212 with the unit cell dimension of a=b=134 A, c=100 A, but diffracted only to 3.0 A resolution. MV-H was also expressed in HEK293SGnTI(-) cells lacking the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I activity, which render N-linked glycans of the proteins restricted and homogeneous, producing the oligomannose, Man5GlcNAc2. The native and selenomethionyl derivative proteins of the oligomannose-type MV-H were crystallized, and the native crystals well diffracted to 2.6A resolution. Thus, homogeneous sugar modification may be useful for improved crystallization of heavily sugar-modified viral envelope proteins.
    Journal of Virological Methods 05/2008; 149(1):171-4. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paired Ig-like type 2 receptors (PILRs) are one of the paired receptor families, which consist of two functionally opposite members, inhibitory (PILRalpha) and activating (PILRbeta) receptors. PILRs are widely expressed in immune cells and recognize the sialylated O-glycosylated ligand CD99, which is expressed on activated T cells, to regulate immune responses. To date, their biophysical properties have not yet been examined. Here we report the affinity, kinetic, and thermodynamic analyses of PILR-CD99 interactions using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) together with site-directed mutagenesis. The SPR analysis clearly demonstrated that inhibitory PILRalpha can bind to CD99 with low affinity (K(d) approximately 2.2 microm), but activating PILRbeta binds with approximately 40 times lower affinity (K(d) approximately 85 microm). In addition to our previous mutagenesis study (Wang, J., Shiratori, I., Saito, T., Lanier, L. L., and Arase, H. (2008) J. Immunol. 180, 1686-1693), the SPR analysis showed that PILRalpha can bind to each Ala mutant of the two CD99 O-glycosylated sites (Thr-45 and Thr-50) with similar binding affinity to wild-type CD99. This indicated that both residues act as independent and equivalent PILRalpha binding sites, consistent with the highly flexible structure of CD99. On the other hand, it is further confirmed that PILRbeta can bind the T50A mutant, but not the T45A mutant, indicating a recognition difference between PILRalpha and PILRbeta. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the PILR-CD99 interactions show fast dissociation rates, typical of cell-cell recognition receptors. Thermodynamic analyses revealed that the PILRalpha-CD99 interaction is enthalpically driven with a large entropy loss (-TDeltaS = 8.9 kcal.mol(-1)), suggesting the reduction of flexibility upon complex formation. This is in contrast to the entropically driven binding of selectins to sugar-modified ligands involved in leukocyte rolling and infiltration, which may reflect their functional differences.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2008; 283(14):8893-901. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H60, originally described as a dominant minor histocompatibility Ag, is an MHC class I-like molecule that serves as a ligand for the NKG2D receptor. In the present study, we identified two novel mouse chromosome 10-encoded NKG2D ligands structurally resembling H60. These ligands, which we named H60b and H60c, encode MHC class I-like molecules with two extracellular domains. Whereas H60b has a transmembrane region, H60c is a GPI-anchored protein. Recombinant soluble H60b and H60c proteins bound to NKG2D with affinities typical of cell-cell recognition receptors (K(d) = 310 nM for H60b and K(d) = 8.7 muM for H60c). Furthermore, expression of H60b or H60c rendered Ba/F3 cells susceptible to lysis by NK cells, thereby establishing H60b and H60c as functional ligands for NKG2D. H60b and H60c transcripts were detected only at low levels in tissues of healthy adult mice. Whereas H60b transcripts were detectable in various tissues, H60c transcripts were detected mainly in the skin. Infection of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with murine cytomegalovirus induced expression of H60b, but not H60c or the previously known H60 gene, indicating that transcriptional activation of the three types of H60 genes is differentially regulated. The present study adds two new members to the current list of NKG2D ligands.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2008; 180(3):1678-85. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measles still remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Measles virus (MV) vaccines are highly successful, but the mechanism underlying their efficacy has been unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of the MV attachment protein, hemagglutinin, responsible for MV entry. The receptor-binding head domain exhibits a cubic-shaped beta-propeller structure and forms a homodimer. N-linked sugars appear to mask the broad regions and cause the two molecules forming the dimer to tilt oppositely toward the horizontal plane. Accordingly, residues of the putative receptor-binding site, highly conserved among MV strains, are strategically positioned in the unshielded area of the protein. These conserved residues also serve as epitopes for neutralizing antibodies, ensuring the serological monotype, a basis for effective MV vaccines. Our findings suggest that sugar moieties in the MV hemagglutinin critically modulate virus-receptor interaction as well as antiviral antibody responses, differently from sugars of the HIV gp120, which allow for immune evasion.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2008; 104(49):19535-40. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can directly and quickly detect the translational diffusion of individual fluorescence-labeled molecules in solutions. Although FCS analyses for protein-protein interactions have been performed, the very weak interactions generally observed in cell-cell recognition of the immune system have not been examined in detail. Here, we report the FCS analysis for low-affinity and fast-kinetic binding (K(d) greater than muM range) of the human inhibitory immune cell surface receptor, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B1 (LILRB1), to its ligands, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I molecules (MHCIs) by using the single-molecule FCS detection system which requires only a small amount of sample. Since the random labeling technique for LILRB1 disturbed the MHCI binding, we performed site-specific labeling of LILRB1 by introducing a cysteine residue at the C-terminus, which could be covalently attached with the fluorescence reagent, Alexa647. This technique can be applied to other type I membrane receptors. The low-affinity binding of LILRB1-Alexa647 to MHCIs (HLA-Cw4, and -G1) was detected by FCS, even though non-labeled MHCIs were only twice as big as the labeled LILRB1. Their dissociation constants (7.5 muM (HLA-Cw4) and 5.7 muM (HLA-G1)) could be determined and were consistent with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data. These results indicate that the single-molecule FCS detection system is capable of analyzing the binding characteristics of immune cell surface receptors even in difficult cases such as (1) small amount of protein samples, (2) small difference in molecular weight and (3) weak affinity. Therefore, it is a powerful tool for characterization and high throughput inhibitor screening of a wide variety of cell-cell recognition receptors involved in immunologically relevant events.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 04/2007; 320(1-2):172-6. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MILL (MHC class I-like located near the leukocyte receptor complex) is a family of MHC class I-like molecules encoded outside the MHC, which displays the highest sequence similarity to human MICA/B molecules among known class I molecules. In the present study, we show that the two members of the mouse MILL family, MILL1 and MILL2, are GPI-anchored glycoproteins associated with beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and that cell surface expression of MILL1 or MILL2 does not require functional TAP molecules. MILL1 and MILL2 molecules expressed in bacteria could be refolded in the presence of beta2m, without adding any peptides. Hence, neither MILL1 nor MILL2 is likely to be involved in the presentation of peptides. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MILL1 is expressed in a subpopulation of thymic medullary epithelial cells and a restricted region of inner root sheaths in hair follicles. The present study provides additional evidence that MILL is a class I family distinct from MICA/B.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 177(5):3108-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MILL (MHC class I-like located near the leukocyte receptor complex) is a family of MHC class I-like molecules encoded outside the MHC, which displays the highest sequence similarity to human MICA/B molecules among known class I molecules. In the present study, we show that the two members of the mouse MILL family, MILL1 and MILL2, are GPI-anchored glycoproteins associated with beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and that cell surface expression of MILL1 or MILL2 does not require functional TAP molecules. MILL1 and MILL2 molecules expressed in bacteria could be refolded in the presence of beta2m, without adding any peptides. Hence, neither MILL1 nor MILL2 is likely to be involved in the presentation of peptides. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MILL1 is expressed in a subpopulation of thymic medullary epithelial cells and a restricted region of inner root sheaths in hair follicles. The present study provides additional evidence that MILL is a class I family distinct from MICA/B.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 177(5):3108-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte Ig-like receptor B1 (LILRB1) and B2 (LILRB2) belong to "Group 1" receptors and recognize a broad range of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHCIs). In contrast, "Group 2" receptors show low similarity with LILRB1/B2, and their ligands remain to be identified. To date, the structural and functional characteristics of Group 2 LILRs are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of LILRA5, which is an activating Group 2 LILR expressed on monocytes and neutrophils. Unexpectedly, the structure showed large changes in structural conformation and charge distribution in the region corresponding to the MHCI binding site of LILRB1/B2, which are also distinct from killer cell Ig-like receptors and Fc alpha receptors. These changes probably confer the structural hindrance for the MHCI binding, and their key amino acid substitutions are well conserved in Group 2 LILRs. Consistently, the surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that LILRA5 exhibited no affinities to all tested MHCIs. These results raised the possibility that LILRA5 as well as Group 2 LILRs do not play a role in any MHCI recognition but could possibly bind to non-MHCI ligand(s) on the target cells to provide a novel immune regulation mechanism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2006; 281(28):19536-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

268 Citations
71.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Kyushu University
      • • Medical Institute of Bioregulation - MIB Hospital
      • • Faculty of Medical Sciences
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • School of Advanced Sciences
      Miura, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 2008–2012
    • Hokkaido University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan