Mark E Vierhout

Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc), Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (109)252.2 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To report the effects of radical hysterectomy and nerve-sparing techniques on lower urinary tract function in women. A literature search was performed in Pubmed and Medline using the keywords bladder after radical hysterectomy, nerve sparing radical hysterectomy, and urinary dysfunction following radical hysterectomy. Significant results and citations were reviewed manually by the authors. The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems innervating the lower urinary tract may be disrupted due to resection of uterosacral and rectovaginal ligaments, the dorsal and lateral paracervix, the caudal part of the vesico-uterine ligaments, and the vagina. This supports the neurogenic etiology of early and late bladder dysfunction after radical surgery. Bladder disorders are also related to the extent of radical surgery. The neuropathopysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms after radical hysterectomy is not fully understood. Recent data have highlighted the role of urethral sphincter pressure in the etiology of postoperative incontinence. Various surgical approaches have been developed to preserve autonomic pelvic innervation. Nerve-sparing techniques appear to improve bladder function without compromising overall survival. Studies comparing the effects of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy with standard surgery yielded encouraging results in respect of postoperative lower urinary tract function. Clinical trials with a long period of follow-up are required for better comprehension of the complex pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction after radical hysterectomy. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 02/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to correlate dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) measurements and pelvic floor symptoms in order to determine the value of dynamic MRI for evaluating vaginal vault prolapse both before and 6 months after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. This was a prospective, single-center cohort study in 43 patients who underwent a modified laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy/hysteropexy operation using bone-anchor fixation and synthetic mesh. The study included dynamic MRI, POP-Q staging, and validated questionnaires before and 6 months after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. To assess MRI data, the pubococcygeal reference line and specifically defined anatomical landmarks for the separate compartments were used. Differences between pre- and postoperative measurements were evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and correlations at the 0.05 level were considered to be significant (Pearson correlation, two tailed). At 6 months, a statistically significant improvement was seen in POP-Q staging for all compartments. Dynamic MRI measurements only revealed a significant improvement after surgery for the apical compartment. The correlation between (changes in) MRI measurements, POP-Q measurements, and validated questionnaires was poor. The value of dynamic MRI for evaluating and documenting changes in vaginal vault support and position after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is limited due to the poor correlation with both POP-Q staging and pelvic floor symptoms.
    International Urogynecology Journal 10/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Article: In Reply.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2013; 122(4):905. · 4.80 Impact Factor
  • Neurourology and Urodynamics 08/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens are known to have a major role in the function of the lower urinary tract although the role of exogenous estrogen replacement therapy in the management of women with lower urinary tract dysfunction remains controversial. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy. Consequently the role of estrogen in the management of postmenopausal women with Overactive Bladder (OAB) remains uncertain. In addition the evidence base regarding the use of exogenous estrogen therapy has changed significantly over the last decade and has led to a major changes in current clinical practice. The aim of this article is to review the evidence for the role of estrogen therapy in the management of OAB focusing on current knowledge with regard to both systemic and local estrogen therapy as well as investigating the emerging role of combination therapy with antimuscarinic agents. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 07/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Despite extensive research aimed at clarifying (failing) pelvic organ support, the complete aetiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is still not fully understood. During vaginal delivery, the pelvic floor can be irreversibly traumatised, resulting in pubovisceral muscle avulsions. The aetiology of these avulsions is discussed in this pictorial overview. Normal female pelvic floor anatomy is described and variations are exemplified using magnetic resonance (MR) images. The clinical relevance of detecting pubovisceral muscle avulsions is specified. METHODS: T2-weighted MR imaging has multiplanar capabilities with high diagnostic accuracy allowing for detailed visualisation of the pelvic floor. Together with the use of a three-dimensional (3D) post-processing program, the presence and severity of pubovisceral muscle avulsions can be quantified. RESULTS: Pelvic floor MR imaging is a non-invasive method that enables adequate identification of pubovisceral muscle avulsions which are known risk factors for the development of POP. They can be scored with good to excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability. CONCLUSIONS: Radiologists and urogynaecology subspecialists should be familiar with MR imaging findings of pubovisceral muscle avulsions as this birth-related trauma is observed in over 36 % of vaginally parous women. TEACHING POINTS: • Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a growing problem for both patients and for our healthcare system • Pubovisceral muscle avulsions are known risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) • T2-weighted MR imaging visualises pubovisceral muscle avulsions adequately • Pubovisceral muscle avulsions are scored with good to excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability.
    Insights into imaging. 06/2013;
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/2013; · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare failure and complication rates in patients who underwent a trocar-guided vaginal mesh repair with either a non-absorbable or a partially absorbable mesh. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from consecutive women undergoing either non-absorbable or partially absorbable mesh for symptomatic stage 2 prolapse or higher were evaluated at 12 months. Outcome measures included objective and subjective failure rates, patient's satisfaction, complications and perioperative outcomes. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-nine women (347 with non-absorbable mesh, 222 with partially absorbable mesh) were included. Failure rates were similar in the two groups; the re-operation rate in the untreated compartments was higher in the non-absorbable mesh group compared with the partially absorbable mesh group (5 % vs 1 %). Mesh exposure rate in the non-absorbable mesh group was 12 % and in the partially absorbable mesh group it was 5 %. Other complication and patient satisfaction rates were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Non-absorbable and partially absorbable mesh demonstrated similar outcome rates at 12 months. The risk of reoperation was lower for partially absorbable mesh. The mesh exposure rate was significantly lower for the partially absorbable mesh group compared with the non-absorbable mesh group.
    International Urogynecology Journal 05/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this work was to collect and summarize a detailed historical review of the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in which we specifically focused on the anterior compartment. METHODS: A literature search in English, Dutch, and German was carried out using the keywords pelvic organ prolapse, anterior colporrhaphy, cystocele, and interposition operations in several databases (e.g., PubMed and HathiTrust Digital Library). Other relevant journal and textbook articles were found by retrieving references cited in previous articles and textbooks. RESULTS: Probably the first explanation of the treatment of POP dates from 1500 B.C. The Egyptians gave a description to "falling of the womb" in the Kahun Papyrus. More than a millennium later, Euryphon, a contemporary of Hippocrates (400 B.C.) described some interesting therapeutic options, from succussion (turning a women upside down for several minutes) to irrigating the displaced uterus with wine. A wide range of techniques has been attempted to repair the prolapsing anterior vaginal wall. By 1866, Sim had already performed a series of operations very similar to a modern anterior repair. The first reviews about the abdominal approach to correcting a cystocele were in 1890. The first description of using mesh to cystoceles was the use of tantalum mesh in 1955. In 1970, the first report of collagen mesh in urogynecology was described. Nowadays, robot-assisted surgery and cell-based tissue engineering are the latest interventions. CONCLUSION: Many surgeons have tried to find the ideal surgical therapy for anterior compartment prolapse, but to date, this has not been achieved.
    International Urogynecology Journal 03/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability for diagnosing pubovisceral muscle avulsions and measurements of the levator hiatus on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Women with recurrent POP or in whom there was a discrepancy between clinical signs and symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction were potentially eligible to participate. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging datasets of the pelvic floor of 262 women were obtained and scored by two observers. A random sample of 100 patients was reviewed a second time by one of the observers. Intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval (ICC 95%CI) of all measurements were calculated. Furthermore, mean differences with accompanying limits of agreement were calculated to estimate agreement between two measurements and to detect possible systematic biases. RESULTS: Good interobserver reliability for pubovisceral muscle avulsions was found (ICC 0.76 - 0.79) and excellent agreement for measurements of the levator hiatus (ICC 0.85 - 0.89). The intraobserver reliability for pubovisceral muscle avulsions and other levator hiatus measurements also showed to be excellent (ICC 0.80 - 0.97). A significant systematic bias was observed in the mean difference of levator hiatus transverse diameter when measured by both observers, however, narrow limits of agreement were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pubovisceral muscle avulsions and levator hiatus measurements can be assessed with good to excellent reliability.
    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in thickness of the anterior vaginal wall removed after different surgical dissecting techniques of anterior colporrhaphy. STUDY DESIGN: In patients undergoing primary anterior colporrhaphy, trimmed vaginal tissue was taken following different surgical techniques of vaginal wall dissection. Tissues were preserved in formalin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and elastica-van Giesen stains. The examiner was an experienced pathologist blinded to the surgical technique. The specimens were examined for the epithelial thickness (ET), lamina propria thickness (LPT), muscular layer thickness (MT) and total thickness (TT). RESULTS: Tissue was analysed in 93 women who underwent anterior compartment pelvic organ prolapse surgery. There was no difference between the different surgical techniques in thickness measured in the three histological layers and for the total thickness. The use of hydrodissection was the only independent factor leading to thicker removed vaginal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Dissecting the vaginal wall as thin as possible does not result in a thinner vaginal layer than dissecting in the most optimal surgical plane. The use of hydrodissection provides a thicker trimmed tissue.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 01/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To correlate signs and symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with pubovisceral muscle avulsions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study of 189 women with recurrent POP or unexplained symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction, we reviewed T(2)-weighted pelvic floor MR images and categorized defects as minor or major avulsion, or as no defect present. Outcomes were correlated to quality of life questionnaire scores and data on obstetric and surgical history, together with pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) measurements. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis with manual backward elimination was applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Major pubovisceral avulsions were diagnosed in 83 (44%) women, minor avulsions in 49 (26%) women, while no defects were seen in 57 (30%) women. Women with a history of episiotomy or anterior vaginal wall reconstructive surgery had a higher OR for more severe pubovisceral muscle avulsions (adjusted OR 3.77 and 3.29, respectively), as well as women with symptoms of POP (OR 1.01, per unit increase) or higher stage POP of the central vaginal compartment based on POP-Q measurement "C" (OR 1.18). Women with symptoms of obstructive defecation were more likely to have no defect of the pubovisceral muscle on MR imaging (OR 0.97, per unit increase). CONCLUSIONS: The variables episiotomy, previous anterior vaginal wall reconstructive surgery, POP-Q measurement "C", and symptoms scored with the Urogenital Distress Inventory "genital prolapse" and Defecatory Distress Inventory "obstructive defecation" subscales are correlated with pubovisceral muscle avulsions on pelvic floor MR imaging.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 12/2012; · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Mark E Vierhout, Jurgen J Fütterer
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of extreme cervical elongation with a cervix of 12 cm after an unusual operation in which the uterine corpus was directly fixed to the promontory, and which became symptomatic after 8 years. The possible pathophysiology of cervical elongation is discussed. Diagnosing a case of severe cervical elongation can be important in the pre-operative evaluation. It can alter the operative plan to a uterus-sparing technique or it can alert the surgeon to a difficult entry in the abdominal cavity during vaginal hysterectomy.
    International Urogynecology Journal 09/2012; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: This study focused on the changes in urinary incontinence (UI) rates pre- and postoperatively and identified risk factors which predict the presence of symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without concomitant or previous anti-incontinence surgery. METHODS: All consecutive women who underwent POP surgery without concomitant or previous anti-incontinence surgery in the years 2004-2010 were included. Assessments were performed preoperatively and at 1-year follow-up, including pelvic organ prolapse quantification score and a standardized urogynecological questionnaire (Urogenital Distress Inventory, UDI). Primary outcome of this study was stress and/or urgency UI postoperatively. Furthermore, this study measured the improvement or worsening of UI following surgery using the UDI. Univariable- and multivariable logistic regression with forward selection procedure was used to identify the risk factors. RESULTS: Nine hundred seven patients were included. De novo SUI appeared in 22% and de novo UUI occurred in 21% of the women. At 1-year 42% were cured for UUI and 39% were recovered from SUI by POP surgery alone. The best predictor for the occurrence of postoperative SUI or UUI was the presence of preoperative SUI or UUI. BMI and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative SUI. A recurrence in the anterior compartment protected against SUI postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative SUI or UUI is the most important predictor of SUI and UUI postoperatively. BMI and COPD were identified as important risk factors for SUI. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 09/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. In laparoscopy, suboptimal ergonomics frequently lead to morbidity for surgeons. Physical complaints are more commonly reported on the dominant upper extremity. This may be the consequence of challenging laparoscopic tasks being easier to perform with the dominant side. The authors hypothesized that specific training of the nondominant upper extremity may equip this side better and lead to a more equal distribution of physical load. Materials and methods. Participants (medical doctors) were randomized to a 3-week training schedule or no training. The training program consisted of training the nondominant upper extremity. Participants were not allowed to train on a laparoscopic box or virtual reality trainer during the study period. Baseline and outcome measurements after 3 weeks were examined with the use of EMG measurements during a validated task on a laparoscopic box trainer. Muscle strain of the trapezius and deltoid muscles and effective alternation of brachioradial and abductor pollicis brevis muscles were used as outcome variables. Results. In all, 26 participants were included. EMG analysis revealed that participants in both intervention and control groups showed a decrease in muscle strain of trapezius and deltoid muscles. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Those in the intervention group showed significantly better alternation in the brachioradial muscle. Conclusion. Training the nondominant upper extremity leads to better alternated use of lower-arm muscles during a validated box trainer task. Repeating the task after 3 weeks led to less muscle tension in the trapezius and deltoid muscles.
    Surgical Innovation 08/2012; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this systematic literature review were to assess whether the detection of pubovisceral avulsions using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or perineal ultrasonography was clinically relevant in women with pelvic floor dysfunction and to evaluate the relation with anatomy, symptoms, and recurrence after surgery. We performed a systematic literature review using three bibliographical databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) as data sources. Clinical studies were included in which pubovisceral avulsions were studied in relation to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage, pelvic floor symptoms, and/or recurrence of POP after surgery. Ultimately, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. POP stage and recurrence of POP after surgery were strongly associated with pubovisceral avulsions. Contradictory results were found regarding the relation between pubovisceral avulsions and urinary symptoms and symptoms of anorectal dysfunction. Pubovisceral avulsions, as diagnosed by MR imaging or perineal ultrasonography, are associated with higher stages of POP and recurrence of POP after surgery.
    International Urogynecology Journal 05/2012; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) the value of urodynamics prior to treatment. We performed a multicenter non-inferiority randomized controlled trial. Women with SUI were randomly allocated to management based on a workup with or without urodynamics. The primary outcome was clinical reduction of complaints as measured with the Urogenital Distress Inventory urinary incontinence subscale (UDI-UI) at 12 months after the onset of treatment. A mean difference in improvement of less than 8 was considered non-inferior. The study was analyzed according to intention-to-treat. The trial was stopped prematurely because of slow recruitment. We randomly allocated 59 women to a strategy with (N = 31) or without (N = 28) urodynamics. The mean difference in improvement on the UDI-UI was 14 in favor of the group without urodynamics (48 SD ± 22 vs. 34 SD ± 22, 95% CI: -28 to -0.26), confirming non-inferiority. Addition of urodynamics did not result in a lower occurrence of de novo overactive bladder complaints compared to a workup without urodynamics (6/31 vs. 1/28; RR 5.4, 95% CI: 0.70-42). In the group allocated to urodynamics, initial surgical management was more often abandoned compared to the group not allocated to urodynamics (5/31 vs. 1/28; RR 4.5, 95% CI: 0.56-36). In this relatively small study, the omission of urodynamics was not inferior to the use of urodynamics in the preoperative workup of women with SUI. Women with SUI undergoing urodynamics had the risk of a choice for more prudent treatment, which seemed to result in a delay until effective treatment.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 04/2012; 31(7):1118-23. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is at least partly caused by underlying hereditary risk factors. The aim of our study was to provide a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of clinical studies on family history of POP as a risk factor for POP in individual women. The databases PubMed and Embase were searched. Clinical studies reporting on family history of POP in relation to POP in individual women were included. Sixteen studies were included, of which eight enabled us to calculate a pooled odds ratio (OR). The pooled OR of POP in case of a positive family history of POP was 2.58 (95 % confidence interval 2.12-3.15). Women with POP are substantially more likely to have family members with the same condition compared to women without POP. This strengthens the hypothesis that genetic predisposition plays an important role in the development of POP.
    International Urogynecology Journal 03/2012; 23(10):1327-36. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of mesh in vaginal prolapse surgery amongst members of the Dutch Urogynaecologic Society. A questionnaire evaluating the use of mesh vs. native tissue repair in vaginal prolapse surgery was sent out by email to all members. Some specific questions on standard measures of infection prevention were included. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received. The response rate was 65%. Seventy-one percent of respondents stated that they apply use synthetic meshes in their patients. The mean percentage of mesh use in overall vaginal pelvic organ prolapse surgery was 14%. Most responders use mesh in recurrent surgery only. Prolift is the most commonly used brand. All women received prophylactic antibiotics. Although only half of the respondents changed gloves. Meshes are commonly used in the Netherlands. The major indication is repair of a recurrent prolapse.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 03/2012; 162(1):113-5. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to compare the 1 year conventional and composite outcomes of trocar-guided vaginal mesh surgery and the identification of the predictors of failure. This was a prospective observational cohort study. Failure outcome definitions were as follows: I, prolapse stage II or greater in mesh treated compartments; II, overall prolapse stage II or greater; III, composite outcome of overall prolapse greater than the hymen and the presence of bulge symptoms or repeat surgery. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of failure. The results of the study were 1 year follow-up of 433 patients. Treated compartment failure (I) was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-19). Overall prolapse failure (II) was 41% (95% CI, 36-45). Composite failure (III) was 9% (95% CI, 7-13). Predictor of failure in all outcomes was the combined anterior/posterior mesh with the uterus in situ. Outcome of prolapse surgery depends on outcome definition. The mesh treated compartment failure outcome (I) and the composite failure outcome (III) appeared not to be statistically different. Consistent factor for failure in all outcomes was the combined anterior/posterior mesh insertion with the uterus in situ.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 02/2012; 206(5):440.e1-8. · 3.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

767 Citations
252.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2009–2013
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
    • Stichting Opleidingen Musculoskeletale Therapie
      Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • Reinier de Graaf Groep
      • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      Delft, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Canisius-Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2008–2010
    • Amphia Ziekenhui
      Breda, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 2005–2010
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004–2009
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Rijnstate Hospital
      Arnheim, Gelderland, Netherlands