A Ardans

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (35)46.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Three adult lactating Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood-milk barrier. Whole blood (in sodium heparin) and clotted blood serum samples were taken at 0 min, 10 min, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h postinoculation. Milk samples were taken at 0 min and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h postinoculation. All samples were tested for the presence of the toxin using the mouse bioassay and immunostick ELISA test. The immunostick ELISA identified the toxin in whole blood and the mouse bioassay identified the toxin in serum at all times examined in all 3 animals. Toxin was not identified by either detection method in milk samples collected from the 3 animals. From these results, it appears that Clostridium botulinum type C toxin does not cross from the blood to the milk in detectable concentrations.
    Journal of Dairy Science 07/2009; 92(6):2529-33. DOI:10.3168/jds.2008-1919 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A joint multiagency project was initiated in response to a Salmonella outbreak in San Diego County, California, in 2004. Samples of cheese were collected during four 1-day operations at the San Ysidro port of entry, along the United States-Mexico border. Surveyed participants were persons crossing the border as pedestrians or in vehicles who had a minimum of 2.27 kg of cheese, which may suggest a potential diversion to illegal marketing. In addition, data were collected about the cheese to identify risk factors for cheese contamination. Two hundred four cheese samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-San Bernardino Branch and analyzed for potential food pathogens. Ninety-four percent (190 of 203) of the samples tested positive for alkaline phosphatase. Salmonella was detected from 13% (27 of 204) of the samples comprising 11 serogroups and 28 serotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprinting analysis, performed following standardized methods, determined that an isolate obtained from this study had an indistinguishable pattern from a recent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen epidemic in the San Diego County that was linked to 14 illnesses. Listeria spp. were detected from 4% (8 of 204) of the samples, and of these, half were identified as L. monocytogenes. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not detected from any of the samples. Mycobacterium bovis was detected from one panela-style cheese sample. Nine additional samples yielded Mycobacterium spp.
    Journal of food protection 02/2007; 70(1):47-52. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images. Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds. Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of chi2 and logistic regression techniques. Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively. Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 06/2006; 67(5):858-68. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.67.5.858 · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Avian Diseases 06/2005; 49(2):195-198. DOI:10.1637/7229-062704R · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the first 11 months of the 2002-2003 exotic Newcastle disease (END) epidemic in chickens in southern California, a total of 27,688 cloacal and tracheal (oropharyngeal) swab pools and/or tissue pools from 86 different avian species other than chickens and turkeys were submitted for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolation and characterization. Fifty-seven specimens (0.23%), representing 12 species of birds and 13 unspecified species, from a total of 24,409 accessions or submissions were positive for NDV. The NDV isolate was characterized as ENDV by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of the 11,486 premises with other avian species, 1599 also had chickens. There were 1900 positive chicken samples from 164 premises, and 56 positive other avian species from 51 premises. Twelve premises had both positive chickens and positive other avian species. All positive other avian species were located on premises either on or within a 1 km radius of known infected premises. In this epidemic, premises with positive other avian species were significantly more likely to have chickens, and were significantly more likely to have positive chickens (OR = 3.7, P < 0.0001).
    Avian Diseases 06/2005; 49(2):195-8. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between August 20, 2001, and September 17, 2002, 1429 samples including drag swabs, egg belt or egg rollout swabs, fan-blade swabs, rodent organ and intestinal pools, beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus) pools, housefly (Musca domestica) pools, chicken organ and intestinal pools, and egg pools were obtained for Salmonella culture from two flocks from two different commercial layer ranches. The two ranches were purposefully selected for the study based on their previous status of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation using environmental drag swabs in cooperation with practicing veterinarians. Salmonella sp. was isolated from 337 out of 979 (34.42%) non-egg samples. No Salmonella was isolated from 450 egg pools collected from either ranch. S. enteritidis was isolated from samples obtained from ranch 1 from manure drag swabs, 4/284 (1.4%); rodent organs, 1/24 (4.2%); and housefly pool cultures 1/21 (4.8%). Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from ranch 2 from mouse organ and intestinal pool samples, 1/24 (4.2%). Salmonella group B was isolated from all sample types except the insects. There was a statistically significant difference in isolation rates among seven serogroups of Salmonella: groups B, C1, C2, D, E, K, and untypeable (Pearson chi-square 18.96, P = 0.002). Overall, statistically significant differences were observed with respect to Salmonella isolation among the types of samples taken (Pearson chi-square 118.54, P < 0.0001). Intensive monitoring for Salmonella Enteritidis can be used to optimize a Salmonella reduction program for an individual poultry biosecurity unit.
    Avian Diseases 06/2005; 49(2):189-94. DOI:10.1637/7228-062704R · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2002--2003 Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) outbreak in Southern California poultry provided an opportunity to evaluate environmental air sampling as an efficient and cost-effective means of sampling flocks for detection of a circulating virus. Exotic Newcastle Disease virus was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR from air samples collected using a wetted-wall cyclone-style air sampler placed within 2 m of birds in 2 commercial flocks suspected of being naturally exposed to END virus during the outbreak. Exotic Newcastle Disease virus was detected after 2 hours of air sampling the poultry-house environments of the 2 naturally infected flocks.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 04/2005; 17(2):198-200. DOI:10.1177/104063870501700219 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the 2002--2003 Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) outbreak in Southern California, a high-throughput real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) system was developed to respond to the large diagnostic and surveillance sample workload. A 96-well RNA extraction method, using magnetic bead technology, combined with a 96-well RRT-PCR assay, allowed 1 technician to process and test more than 400 samples per day. A 3-technician team could complete testing on approximately 1,900 samples per day. The diagnostic sensitivity of the high-throughput RRT-PCR assay was 0.9967 (95% CI 0.9937-0.9997) based on 926 virus isolation confirmed positive samples. Diagnostic specificity using an initial 434 virus isolation confirmed negative samples was 100%. A diagnostic specificity of 0.9999 (95% CI 0.9999, >0.9999) was subsequently calculated on the basis of 2 false-positive results among 65,343 surveillance samples collected after the final END-positive case was confirmed in May 2003. Assay performance over 500 replicates, including reproducibility of the combined extraction and RRT-PCR amplification steps yielded a standard deviation of 0.70 RRT-PCR cycle thresholds (Ct) and a standard deviation of 0.59 Ct for the RRT-PCR steps alone. The high-throughput RRT-PCR developed for END contributed significantly to the 2002--2003 END control effort, reducing the predicted timeline for eradication from 3 years to just 11 months, primarily because of the large number of samples that could be rapidly tested. The 96-well approach described for high-throughput END RRT-PCR could be adapted to other rapid, high-volume testing needs, as required for potential foreign animal disease responses or intensive surveillance efforts.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 03/2005; 17(2):124-32. DOI:10.1177/104063870501700205 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 01/2005; 45(12):1022. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between the summer of 1998 and the winter of 2000, Salmonella analysis was performed on 2128 single and 532 pooled manure drag swabs obtained from 133 California commercial egg laying farms. The isolation of Salmonella from all rows and from all flocks using single or pooled swabs was 80% and 92%, respectively. Hence, there was no statistical difference between single vs. pooled swabs in terms of identifying Salmonella on a row or flock basis. A total of 14 serogroups comprising 44 serotypes were isolated from 123 of 133 farms. When the top 10 serotypes were considered, there was no significant difference in the range of serotypes isolated by the two culturing methods. The overall S. enteritidis prevalence for California flocks was 10.5% (14/133). The overall row prevalence for S. enteritidis for all the farms was 1.1% (24/2128), and the overall pool prevalence was 2.4% (13/532). Sixty percent (12/20) of the S. enteritidis isolates from the positive farms were phage type 4, and 40% (8/20) represented five other phage types (1, 6B, 7, 8, and 28).
    Avian Diseases 10/2004; 48(3):590-4. DOI:10.1637/7165-021104R · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional, double-blind study reports the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis (SE) on California egg layer premises using single vs. pooled manure drag swabs and presents a description of egg production and management systems in the state and an initial analysis of risk factors for SE. The study included 91% of all known eligible egg premises in California, representing the majority of eggs produced in the state. The overall prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises was 10.5%, while 1.1% of all rows sampled were positive for SE. The percentage of positive rows for SE on any premises never exceeded 25% of the 16 swabs collected per premises. A description of egg production and management on California egg layer premises is presented. Statistically significant associations for SE were not evident and were limited because of sample size and the low prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises. Several biological and management factors, such as flock health, stage of production, manure management, ventilation, and watering systems, show trend associations with premises positive for SE and require further investigation. Manure drag swabs serve as a useful tool to validate the core components of an egg quality assurance program for SE based on process control principles.
    Avian Diseases 10/2004; 48(3):550-61. DOI:10.1637/7159-012804R1 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the difficulty in identifying botulinum toxin in cattle, it is hypothesized that cattle are sensitive to levels of toxin below the detection limits of current diagnostic techniques (the mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for type C botulinum toxin). Using an up-down method for toxicologic testing, the median toxic dose (MTD50) for cattle was determined. Four lactating Holstein cows were dosed at 0.125 or 0.25 ng/kg with Clostridium botulinum type C toxin and failed to develop clinical signs of botulism during the 7-day observation period. Three cows given 0.50 ng/kg of toxin developed clinical signs of botulism. From these results, the MTD50 was calculated at 0.388 ng/kg (3.88 mouse lethal doses/kg) using the trim-logit method. These results suggest that cattle are 12.88 times more sensitive to type C botulinum toxin than a mouse on a per kilogram weight basis. The mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick ELISA for type C botulinum toxin failed to identify the presence of the toxin in the serum, blood, and milk samples taken from all 7 animals.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 12/2003; 15(6):523-6. DOI:10.1177/104063870301500603 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. Prospective investigation. 65 horses with and 169 horses without neurologic abnormalities. CSF and serum from horses submitted for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem examination were used as the gold standard against which results of the WBT were compared. Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Regardless of whether horses did or did not have neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of WBT of serum were not significantly different from values for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation. The low specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test result alone because of the possibility of false-positive test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation was common in horses with and without S neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not be considered an indication of CNS infection with S neurona.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 11/2002; 221(7):1007-13. DOI:10.2460/javma.2002.221.1007 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two strains of 27-wk-old commercial laying chickens (strain A, brown-egg-laying type and strain B, white-egg-laying type) were inoculated either orally (PO) or intravenously (IV) with a field isolate of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. Chickens were sequentially necropsied at regular intervals throughout the 17-wk observation period. Gross and microscopic lesions were most evident between 1 and 14 days postinoculation (DPI). Gross lesions consisted of enlarged livers with white foci, enlarged and mottled white spleens, fibrinous exudate in the peritoneum, and atretic, misshapen ovarian follicles. Microscopic lesions included multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and inflammation, fibrinous exudation in vascular sinuses of the spleen, and fibrinosuppurative inflammation of the peritoneum and ovarian follicles. The proportion of reproductive organ infections (ovary and oviduct) in the IV group, 83% (20/24, P = 0.007; 50% and 33% for strains A and strain B birds, respectively), was higher than that of the PO group, 46% (11/24; 29% and 17% for strains A and B, respectively), for the first 16 days of observation postinoculation. The proportion of fecal shedding for the IV group of birds was significantly (P = 0.009) lower, 29% (7/24; 33% and 25% respectively for strain A and strain B birds, respectively), than the PO group, 67% (16/24; 75% and 58% for strain A and strain B birds, respectively). Three (2.6%) of 234 egg pools were culture-positive for group D Salmonella from strain A chickens (1 of 119 pools from the IV group and 2 of 115 pools from the PO group of birds). Chickens infected with the field strain of S. enteritidis phage type 4 harbored the organism in tissues only for a brief time, most clearing within 8 DPI and nearly all within 16 DPI. Overall the percentage of culture-positive birds did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between birds with and without lesions, but isolation of S. enteritidis tended to be more frequent when lesions were evident. This experiment also demonstrated that brown-egg-laying-type chickens were more susceptible than white-egg-laying-type chickens to S. enteritidis phage type 4 isolated from California based on gross and microscopic lesions and bacteriologic findings.
    Avian Diseases 04/2000; 44(2):239-48. DOI:10.2307/1592536 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate hoof size, shape, and balance as risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMI), including suspensory apparatus failure (SAF) and cannon bone condylar fracture (CDY) in Thoroughbred racehorses. 95 Thoroughbred racehorses that died between 1994 and 1996. 38 quantitative measures of hoof size, shape, and balance were obtained from orthogonal digital images of the hoof and were compared between case horses with forelimb CMI (70), SAF (43), and CDY (10) injuries and control horses whose death was unrelated to the musculoskeletal system (non-CMI, 25). Comparison of group means between cases and controls was done using ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Odds of CMI were 0.62 times lower for a 5mm increase in ground surface width difference and 0.49 times lower for a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of SAF were 6.75 times greater with a 10 degrees increase in toe-heel angle difference and 0.58 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of CDY were 0.26 times lower with a 3 degrees increase in toe angle, 0.15 times lower with a 5-mm increase in lateral ground surface width, and 0.35 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Decreasing the difference between toe and heel angles should decrease risk of SAF for Thoroughbred racehorses and should be considered in addition to increasing toe angle alone to help prevent catastrophic injury. Trimming the hoof to perfect mediolateral symmetry may not be a sound approach to avoiding injury.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/1999; 59(12):1545-52. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether a two-month or longer period without official high-speed workouts (lay-up) is associated with humeral or pelvic fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses. Reprospective study. Thoroughbred racehorses in California that were euthanatized because of a complete humeral or pelvic fracture. Age, sex, activity, number of lay-ups, number of days from a race or official timed workout to fracture, number of days from end of last lay-up to fracture, mean duration of lay-ups, and total number of days in race training were compared between horses with humeral fractures and horses with pelvic fractures. A case-crossover study was used to estimate relative risk for fracture of the humerus or pelvis occurring within hazard periods of 10 and 21 days following lay-up, compared with periods following more regular participation in official racing or timed workout events. Horses with pelvic fractures were more often female, older, and had 0 or > or = 2 lay-ups. Horses with humeral fractures were typically 3-year-old males that had 1 lay-up. Horses with pelvic fractures had more total days in race training, fewer days from last exercise event to fracture, and a greater number of days from end of last lay-up to fracture than horses with humeral fractures. Return from lay-up was strongly associated with risk for humeral fracture during hazard periods of 10 and 21 days (relative risk = 71 and 45, respectively). Risk of humeral fracture may be reduced if horses are cautiously reintroduced into race training after lay-up.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/1998; 212(10):1582-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate relationships of several racehorse characteristics and race conditions with risk of a catastrophic musculoskeletal injury (CMI) resulting in euthanasia in Thoroughbreds during racing in California in 1992. Retrospective longitudinal study. Thoroughbreds that incurred CMI during racing and all California race entrants in 1992. Necropsy records were reviewed, and race start information was obtained. Incidence risk of CMI/1,000 race entrants was estimated. Relationships between CMI during racing and race-meet, entrant age and sex, race type and length, and racing surface type and condition were evaluated by use of logistic regression. Incidence risk of CMI was 1.7/1,000 entrants. A higher risk of CMI was found at 2 fair race-meets, with incidence risks of 4.9 and 5.5/1,000 entrants. Risk of injury in male horses was 1.7 times greater than that in female horses, and influence of age on risk depended on race type. Risk of injury for horses 2 to 5 years old was two times greater for claiming horses than for maiden horses. Race length or racing surface type (dirt vs turf) or condition (fast, muddy, yielding) were not significantly associated with risk of CMI. Incidence of CMI was similar among 12 of 14 major and fair race-meets and among various race lengths and racing surface types and conditions, whereas incidence of CMI was influenced by entrant age and sex as well as race type. Investigators should consider controlling for age and sex, race-meet, and race type whenever possible in studies of risk of CMI.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 03/1998; 212(4):544-9. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effluents from 12 sewage treatment plants in southern California were examined for Salmonella using a Moore swab technique. Eight of the 12 plants were positive for Salmonella when sampled at the chlorination/dechlorination site (inside the plant). Effluents from 11 of 12 sewage treatment plants were positive for Salmonella when samples were analyzed downstream of the chlorination/dechlorination site, before effluents merge with the receiving stream (outside the plant). Two of the three control sites, an urban runoff, a raw potable water reservoir, and two other sites were also positive for Salmonella. A total of 683 Salmonella isolations were represented by 11 serogroups and 54 serotypes from 26 of 32 sampling sites. Effluents from three treatment plants and one control site (raw potable water resevior) yielded Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4, in addition to other serotypes.
    Avian Diseases 04/1997; 41(2):392-8. DOI:10.2307/1592195 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relation between several racing speed history characteristics and risk of fatal skeletal injury (FSI) in racing Thoroughbreds. 64 Thoroughbreds euthanatized during a 9-month period in 1991 at a California racemeet because of a catastrophic fracture incurred while racing (cases), identified retrospectively. For each race in which an FSI occurred, 1 control horse was randomly selected from the noncatastrophically injured participants. Racing and officially timed workout histories were obtained for each horse. Several history characteristics were calculated to summarize racing career patterns and high-speed exercise schedules prior to date of injury and included age at first race, proportion of career spent laid up, average duration of laid up periods, average lifetime racing frequency, time from last lay up to date of injury, and total and rate of distance accumulated 1 to 6 months prior to date of injury. History characteristics associated with FSI were screened by paired t-test and studied in detail, using conditional logistic regression. High total and high average daily rates of exercise distance accumulation within a 2-month period were associated with higher risks for FSI during racing, yet career patterns, such as age at first race or total proportion of career spent laid up, were not found to be associated with risk for FSI. A horse that had accumulated a total of 35 furlongs of race and timed-work distance in 2 months, compared with a horse with 25 furlongs accumulated, had an estimated 3.9-fold increase in risk for racing-related FSI (95% confidence interval = 2.1, 7.1). A horse that had accumulated race and timed-work furlongs at an average rate of 0.6 furlong/d within a 2-month period, compared with a horse with an average of 0.5 furlong/d, had an estimated 1.8-fold increase in risk for racing-related FSI (95% confidence interval = 1.4, 2.6). Thoroughbred racehorses that either accumulate large total high-speed distances or rapidly accumulate high-speed distances within a 2-month period may be at increased risk for FSI during racing.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/1996; 57(11):1549-55. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a standard technique for evaluation of racehorse shoes, to assess homotypic variation (interlimb variation) in shoe characteristics, and to determine whether shoe characteristics varied with age and sex. Cross-sectional study. Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 201) that died or were euthanatized at California racetracks between August 1992 and July 1994. Shoe characteristics were measured on horses examined after death. Percentage of agreement was used to compare shoe characteristics between limbs (homotypic variation). Using chi 2 analysis, shoe characteristics were compared between horses grouped by age and sex. Toe grabs were present on 90.5% of horses, and rim shoes were present on 15.9% of horses. Heel traction devices were less frequent on front (2.5%) than rear (6%) hooves. Pads were present on 24.9% of horses, with bonded rim pads most common. Special types of shoes were present cn 5% of horses. Percentage of agreement between left and right front hooves and between left and right rear hooves was high (20/25 variables; % agreement > or = 99). In contrast, percentage of agreement between left front and left rear hooves and between right front and right rear hooves was low (2/25 variables; % agreement > or = 99). Presence of a pad was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with age, and several shoe variable (size, presence of a special shoe, overall wear matched) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with sex. Except for variables related to special shoes, wear, and weight, 1 shoe for the respective fore- or hind limbs could be used as an indicator for the contralateral shoe worn by Thoroughbred racehorses without substantial loss of information. However, 1 shoe could not be used as an indicator for shoe characteristics of all 4 limbs. Some shoe characteristics are associated with age and sex, and these variables should be considered possible confounders in studies of shoe characteristics.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 08/1996; 57(8):1141-6. · 1.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
46.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2009
    • University of California, Davis
      • • California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System - CAHFS
      • • Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology (VM)
      • • School of Medicine
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Davis, California, United States