[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A full evaluation of health conditions is necessary for the effective implementation of public health interventions. However, terms to address the intermediate state between health and disease are lacking, leading the public to overlook this state and thus increasing the risks of developing disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional health survey of 1,473 randomly recruited Chinese Han adults of both sexes living in the central region of China. The criteria for diagnosis of subhealth was defined as the presence of >= 1 of the following abnormalities: body mass index >= 25 kg/m2 or waist circumference >= 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women; systolic pressure 120--139 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure 80--89 mmHg; serum triglyceride level >= 150 mg/dL and/or total cholesterol level >= 200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women; serum glucose level 110--125 mg/dL; estimated glomerular filtration rate 60--89 ml/min/1.73 m2; levels of liver enzymes in liver function tests between 41--59 U/L, or with fatty liver disease but < 33% of affected hepatocytes; levels of oxidative stress biomarkers beyond the reference range of 95%; or problems with both sleep quality and psychological state. RESULTS: The prevalences of subhealth and disease in the central region of China were 36.6% and 43.1%, respectively. The prevalence of disease increased from 26.3% in participants aged 20--39 years, to 47.6% and 78.9% for participants aged 40--59 years and those aged 60 years or older, respectively. Compared with participants aged 20--39, the prevalences of health and subhealth in participants aged 60 years or older decreased by 86.7% and 60.3%, respectively. The prevalence of subhealth was increased in association with increases in lifestyle risk scores, while the prevalences of both health and disease were reduced. CONCLUSION: The prevalences of subhealth and disease are high in central China. Subhealth is associated with high lifestyle risk scores. Both the health care sector and the public should pay more attention to subhealth. Lifestyle modifications and/or psychological interventions are needed to ameliorate these conditions.
BMC Public Health 05/2013; 13(1):446. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To screen target proteins of oxidative stress which mediate the effects of exercise on preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the methods for selecting carbonylated proteins were modified, and carbonylated proteins were profiled. The results showed that treadmill training reduced oxidative stress and the levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG). The changes in IHTG showed a significant positive correlation with oxidative stress as indicated by malondialdehyde level. Further results from proteomics illustrated that 17 functional proteins were susceptible to oxidative modification, and exercise protected 3 proteins from carbonylation. The latter 3 proteins may serve as both direct target proteins of oxidative stress and mediators contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise. In particular, a long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL) which was a key enzyme in lipid metabolism was not carbonylated and with higher activities in exercise group. These findings indicate that this modified technique is practical and powerful in selecting carbonylated proteins. Long-term treadmill training is effective in ameliorating oxidative stress and preventing the accumulation of IHTG. Among the 17 target proteins of oxidative modification, 3 proteins contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. Preventing ACADL from carbonylation may be involved in the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NAFLD improvement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To proceed proteomic analysis of erythrocyte of the red-eared turtle Trachemys scripta, a method for obtaining turtle erythrocyte ghosts (TEG) was first developed. After hypotonic lysis using a special buffer, forcing the erythrocyte through the syringe with a "N"-shaped needle, applying low speed homogenizing and differential centrifugation, highly purified TEG fractions were obtained. The isolated TEG proteins were treated with in-gel digestion separated by SDS-PAGE or in-solution digestion followed by HPLC predissociation, and then identified by nano-ESI-LC MS/MS techniques. A total of 169 TEG proteins was identified, validated, and categorized. Among these proteins, tubulins and cell-surface-located F-type ATP synthase revealed important information into the super-tolerance of Trachemys scripta in anoxia and low temperature exposure. Altogether, this study not only provided a method to isolate high quality TEG and a dataset of comprehensive characterization of TEG proteins, but also provides a tool for proteomic research of all nucleated red blood cells, and thus opened a new research field for exploring the mechanisms of super-tolerance of turtles in harsh environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a well known inducer of carbonyl stress in a variety of human cells, however, its effects on human
bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have not been documented. In this study, the effects of MDA concentration on the
growth rate and proliferation of hMSCs in vitro were assessed. Under high concentrations of MDA, the cell count was decreased and the population doubling time (PDT) was
lengthened. Flow cytometry (FCM) demonstrated that MDA triggered cells to undergo apoptosis, in parallel with the findings
in MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay which showed that it can also impair cellular
viability. Surprisingly, FCM also determined that the percentage of hMSCs in G2/M-and S-phases also increased in a dose-dependent manner with respect to MDA concentration. These results strongly suggest
that even though hMSCs were severely impaired by high concentrations of MDA, they were still able to send signals that resulted
in accelerated cellular proliferation process. This study provided important insights on how carbonyl stress affects cell
cycle and proliferation of hMSCs.
Frontiers of Biology in China 04/2012; 1(2):131-136.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a key factor linked renal function decline with age. However, there is still no large cohort study exploring the potential role of oxidative stress in mild insufficiency of kidney function (MIKF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) after adjusting for confounding factors. This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress, indicated by plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), is associated with the prevalence of MIKF and CKD after controlling the effects of confounding factors. Plasma levels of MDA and serum levels of fasting glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were analyzed from 2,169 Chinese Han adults. A questionnaire and physical examination were performed to identify and suspect risk factors of renal function decline with age. Kidney function, as indicated by estimated glomerular filtration rate, showed a significant decline with age in both male and female. Although the association between age and plasma MDA levels was nonlinear, MDA was negatively related to kidney function. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios showed that plasma MDA had a significantly graded relation to the prevalence of MIKF and CKD with or without adjustment for covariates. By comparison with the lowest quartile, individuals with the highest quartile of MDA level had a 99% and 223% increased risk of developing MIKF and CKD, respectively. Further results from multiinteraction analysis demonstrated that plasma MDA may be the mediator linking different covariates with renal function decline. The most striking finding of this study was that oxidative stress, as indicated by plasma MDA levels, is associated with the prevalence of MIKF and/or CKD. Although imposing an increasing burden on the kidney and/or promoting a cyclical process of oxidative stress in the body, high levels of MDA in plasma may link the decline of kidney function with age.
Rejuvenation Research 04/2012; 15(3):257-64. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematocrit is an important hemorheological parameter. Both hematocrit and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease. However, there is no study to explore the direct relationship of hematocrit with NAFLD.
Hematocrit levels were analyzed from 1,821 Chinese Han adults, and questionnaire and physical examination were administered to know and suspect the relationship with NAFLD.
NAFLD morbidity was positively correlated with hematocrit levels in both male and female. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio illustrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of hematocrit, the highest quartile subjects had a 185% and 386% increased risk for developing NAFLD in male and female, respectively. Further receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of hematocrit for detecting NAFLD was 42.75 in male and 37.55 in female. Unhealthy lifestyles had similar effects on NAFLD and hematocrit.
The prevalence of NAFLD is positively associated with hematocrit levels. Though the cause-effect relationship between NAFLD and hematocrit still needs further investigation to clarify, the elevated hematocrit in NAFLD patients may be of significance to link NAFLD and cardiovascular disease.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2012; 51(1):59-68. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the increased burden of kidney. However, there is still no large population study to explore the potential relationship between NAFLD and mild kidney function damage (MKFD) after adjusted for confounding factors. This study is to test the hypothesis that NAFLD is associated with MKFD under controlling the effects of confounding factors.
Levels of serum fasting glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were analyzed from 1412 Chinese Han adults. Questionnaire and physical examination were performed to explore the potential association of NAFLD with kidney function.
NAFLD was associated with impairment of kidney function. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio illustrated that, compared to subjects with normal liver, NAFLD subjects had a significantly higher risk of MKFD with or without adjusted for blood glucose and other covariates (P = 0.041). Further results from multi-interaction analysis demonstrated that the underlying mechanisms linked NAFLD with impaired kidney function may be that they share common risk factors and similar pathological processes.
The most striking finding of this study is that NAFLD is negatively associated with kidney function, in nondiabetic population. NAFLD and MKFD may share similar risk factors and/or pathological processes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the role of oxidative stress in hypertension and pre-hypertension, this study analysed plasma levels of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) in 1204 Chinese Han adults. Results showed a statistically significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) between blood pressure and plasma RCS levels with or without being adjusted for covariates. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) illustrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of plasma RCS levels, the highest quartile subjects had a 59% and a 130% increase in the risk for developing pre-hypertension and hypertension, respectively. The multi-interaction analysis manifested that the underlying mechanism of the increase of hypertensive risk or pre-hypertensive risk by overweight and unhealthy lifestyles might, at least in part, be through oxidative stress. In conclusion, these findings suggest that oxidative stress, as indicated by plasma RCS levels, are not the necessary consequence of pre-hypertension or hypertension, but reliable risk factors for developing pre-hypertension or hypertension in Chinese Han adults.
Free radical research 02/2011; 45(5):568-74. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, there is still no large cohort study to explore the direct risk role of oxidative stress for NAFLD. This study is to test the hypothesis that elevated oxidative stress is a direct risk factor for the pathogenesis of NAFLD under controlling the potential effects of covariates.
The levels of serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose and plasma reactive carbonyl species (RCS) were measured from 1204 Chinese Han adults, and the questionnaire and physical examination were administered to those with known and suspected risk factors for NAFLD.
Statistically significant high levels of blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride, body mass index, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and plasma RCS were observed in NAFLD subjects compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio illustrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of plasma RCS levels, the highest quartile subjects had a 132% increase in the risk of developing NAFLD. Further results from multi-interaction analysis demonstrated that the underlying mechanism of the risk of NAFLD by unhealthy physical conditions and lifestyles might be, at least in part, through the oxidative stress.
Our findings provide credible evidence from a large population that oxidative stress, as indicated by plasma RCS levels, may be a direct risk factor for developing NAFLD.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 01/2011; 26(6):1010-5. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though taurine has been reported very useful in preventing oxidative stress and various age-related diseases, the detailed biochemical mechanism of its biological functions is not well understood. Direct reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) with taurine was studied using spectrofluorometry, spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography online with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The results indicated that taurine reacted readily with MDA at supraphysiological conditions to yield mainly two products: a fluorescent 1,4-dihydropyridine and non-fluorescent enaminal derivatives. Taurine also significantly inhibited the formation of lipofuscin-like fluorescence induced by MDA-modified bovine serum albumin. These findings suggested that taurine effectively reduces carbonyl stress due to the amino group in its molecular structure, and we propose that it should be the mechanism related with the pathophysiological functions of taurine in the biological system.
Redox report: communications in free radical research 01/2010; 15(6):268-74. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have been widely used as indicators of oxidative stress. However, the associations of carbonyl stress with aging process and biochemical alteration of erythrocyte are still poorly understood. Fresh blood samples in vacutainer tubes containing sodium heparinate were obtained from 874 volunteers who were divided into young, adult and old groups based on their age. Plasma RCS and thiols concentrations between different age groups and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation in the adult group were detected within 24h of the blood sampling. Results showed that the plasma thiols concentration decreased gradually during aging process, and the p-values between all three groups are less than 0.05. The plasma RCS concentration in different age groups showed a nonlinear association with age. The levels in the young group were slightly higher than the adult group (not significant) and lower than the old group (p < 0.01). The protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane was positively correlated with plasma RCS concentration (p < 0.01), but not plasma thiols concentration. We conclude that higher levels of RCS, not lower levels of thiols, in plasma are a direct risk factor for the protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane. Owing to the decrease of thiols levels and increase of RCS levels during aging process, a shift from RCS-related redox allostasis to carbonyl stress would contribute to age-related biological dysfunction and even aging process.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2010; 46(4):305-11. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structural and biochemical changes to erythrocytes during storage, called 'storage lesion', are important factors that contribute to decreases in the efficacy and safety of blood transfusions. However, the biochemical mechanisms are only partly understood.
Fresh whole blood in citrate phosphate dextrose anticoagulant was preserved in storage bags at 1-4 degrees C for over 20 days. Aliquots of stored blood were withdrawn for analysis at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day of storage. Whole blood viscosity, plasma reactive carbonyl species, erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation, protein (tryptophan) fluorescence and the contents of thiols were quantified concurrently.
There were significant increases in blood viscosity and plasma reactive carbonyl species level during storage. There were significant time-dependent increases in membrane protein carbonylation, increases in protein (tryptophan) fluorescence and a decrease in the content of thiols.
Reactive carbonyl species, by attacking the amino and/or sulfhydryl groups of erythrocyte membrane proteins, induce a series of structural alterations in erythrocytes. These lead to an increase in blood viscosity and reduce the efficacy and safety of storage and transfusion.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2010; 44(2):145-54. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of carbonyl stress induced by malondialdehyde (MDA), a typical intermediate of lipid peroxidation, on intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) alterations in cultured hippocampal neurons of rat. The microphotographic study clearly demonstrated that the hippocampal neurons became gradually damaged following exposure to different concentrations of MDA. Further study indicated that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity was inhibited by MDA in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The supplementation of 100 microM MDA was found to cause a notable early phase increase of [Ca(2+)](i) in hippocampal neuron cultures followed by a more pronounced late-phase elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). Such effect of MDA was prevented by the addition of nimodipine, an inhibitor of L-type calcium channel or by an extracellular Ca(2+) chelator EGTA. The identification of the calcium signalling pathways were studied by applying U73122, an inhibitor of PL-C, and H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), showing the involvement of PL-C/IP3 pathway but not the PKA/cAMP pathway. These results suggested that MDA-related carbonyl stress caused damages of rat hippocampal neurons by triggering Ca(2+) influx and influencing Ca(2+) homeostasis in cultured neurons, and also MDA may act as a signalling molecule regulating Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores.
Cell Biology and Toxicology 09/2008; 25(5):435-45. · 2.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The artificial ceroid/lipofuscin pigments originated from different organ tissues, including liver, brain, heart, and kidney of rats, and biomaterials were studied with improved fluorometric techniques. With all tissue materials exposed under ultraviolet (UV) light, a series of similar fluorescent colors were observed under microfluorometer. Analogous fluorescence spectra were also demonstrated with a three-dimensional (3-D) front-surface fluorometric technique despite of the tissue differences. Measured with 3-D fluorometry, relatively simple lipofuscin-like fluorophores were observed from the reactions of malondialdehyde (MDA) with critical biological macromolecules, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA. Our results demonstrated that the biomaterials from different tissues have a similar fate under accelerated oxidative/carbonyl stresses but may be differentiated by a fluorescence intensity ratio.
Experimental Aging Research 01/2008; 34(3):282-95. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and glucosamine (GlcN) was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, spectrophotometry, and spectrofluorometry. The results indicated that GlcN reacted readily with MDA at supraphysiological conditions to form different products, such as a nonfluorescent enamine with an absorption peak at 281 nm (product 1) and a lipofuscin-like fluorescent (Ex. 392 nm/Em. 454 nm) 1,4-dihydropyridine (product 2). GlcN also greatly inhibited the formation of lipofuscin-like fluorescence induced by MDA reacted with bovine serum albumin. The reaction of GlcN with MDA suggested a novel anticarbonylation function of GlcN in pathophysiological situations related to aging-related diseases and provided insight into the reaction mechanism of GlcN in protecting proteins against carbonyl stress.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 07/2007; 20(6):947-53. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent characteristics of age pigment-related materials were re-examined with improved techniques. A series of fluorescent colors, from blue to yellow-red were observed in artificial ceroid/lipofuscin. A front-surface accessory attached to a spectrofluorometer was found very useful in studying the age pigment-like aggregates directly in its solid state. With a three-dimensional (3D)-fluorescence measurement, in addition to the front-surface application, entire fluorescence spectra of artificial ceroid/lipofuscin both in extractions and in non-extractable tissues were obtained. When the front-surface 3D-scan technique was applied to estimate collagen-related age pigments of rat-tails in situ, a dynamic process of age-related protein deterioration accompanied with age pigment development was recorded. The front-surface 3D-fluorescence technique introduced in this study may be used as a practical and effective tool in studying in situ pigment alterations during aging process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the mechanism of carbonyl stress-related toxification on neurotransmitter histamine and the potential de-carbonylation function of histamine.
The reaction mixture of malondialdehyde (MDA) and histamine (HA) at pH7.4, 37 degrees C was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry. The reaction products were assayed by LC/MS.
In physiological condition, the reaction of MDA and HA yielded two products: a nonfluorescent enaminal derivatives and a fluorescent 1,4-dihydropyridine adducts. The fluorescence maxima of the fluorescent products (Ex. 393 nm/Em. 464 nm) were similar to those of lipofuscin pigment. The fluorescence intensity of reaction mixture was in direct proportion to the MDA concentration.
HA can react with MDA to form stable products, a non-fluorescent enamine (product 1) and a fluorescent 1,4-dihydropyridine (product 2) which are ceroid/lipofuscin-related adducts. The reaction of HA with MDA may reveal toxic effect of unsaturated carbonyls in the brain and may reflect a novel de-carbonylation function of histamine under various pathological conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A purpose of this study is to determine whether melatonin, a novel antioxidant, can interact with malondialdehyde in an in vitro condition.
The reaction kinetics and thermodynamics of this reaction have been performed and a new product has been identified using liquid chromatography onlining with mass spectrometry.
A new product generated with an interaction of melatonin and malondialdehyde has been identified to be a three-ring structure with a molecular weight 286, which has the specific wavelength absorption with the maximum at 345 nm. The reaction was completed within a few minutes and the product was proportional to the concentrations of the reactants. Based on its molecular weight and the deduced structure of the new product, we speculate that this reaction occurs between one melatonin molecule and one malondialdehyde and to form a 3 ring conjugated adduct.
This is the first report to show that melatonin directly interacts with malondialdehyde to form a new product. The findings suggest that melatonin may detoxify unsaturated carbonyls and protect against cellular damage induced by oxidative stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: de-carbonylation ; melatonin ; oxidative stress ; serotonin ; malondialdehyde Abstract OBJECTIVES : A purpose of this study is to determine whether melatonin, a novel antioxidant, can interact with malondialdehyde in an in vitro condition. METHODS : Th e reaction kinetics and thermodynamics of this reaction have been performed and a new product has been identifi ed using liquid chromatography onlining with mass spectrometry. RESULTS : A new product generated with an interaction of melatonin and malondialdehyde has been identifi ed to be a three-ring structure with a molecu- lar weight 286, which has the specifi c wavelength absorption with the maximum at 345 nm. Th e reaction was completed within a few minutes and the product was proportional to the concentrations of the reactants. Based on its molecular weight and the deduced structure of the new product, we speculate that this reaction occurs between one melatonin molecule and one malondialdehyde and to form a 3 ring conjugated adduct. CONCLUSION : Th is is the fi rst report to show that melatonin directly inter- acts with malondialdehyde to form a new product. Th e fi ndings suggest that melatonin may detoxify unsaturated carbonyls and protect against cellular dam- age induced by oxidative stress.